Battle of Makin
The Battle of Makin was an engagement of the Pacific campaign of World War II, fought from 20 to 23 November 1943, on Makin Atoll in the Gilbert Islands. On 10 December 1941, three days after the attack on Pearl Harbor, 300 Japanese troops plus laborers of the Gilberts Invasion Special Landing Force had arrived off Makin Atoll and occupied it without resistance. Lying east of the Marshall islands, Makin was intended as an excellent seaplane base, to protect the eastern flank of the Japanese perimeter from an Allied attack by extending Japanese air patrols closer to islands held by the Allies: Howland Island, Baker Island and Phoenix and Ellice Islands; the end of the Aleutian Islands Campaign and progress in the Solomon Islands, combined with increasing supplies of men and materials, gave the United States Navy the resources to make an invasion of the central Pacific in late 1943. Admiral Chester Nimitz had argued for this invasion earlier in 1943, but the resources were not available to carry it out at the same time as Operation Cartwheel, the envelopment of Rabaul in the Bismarck Islands.
The plan was to approach the Japanese home islands by "island hopping": establishing naval and air bases in one group of islands to support the attack on the next. The Gilbert Islands were the first step in this chain. On 17 August 1942, 211 Marines of the 2nd Marine Raider Battalion under command of Colonel Evans Carlson and Captain James Roosevelt were landed on Makin from two submarines, USS Nautilus and USS Argonaut; the Japanese garrison only posted 83 to 160 men under the command of a warrant officer. The Raiders killed at least 83 Japanese soldiers, annihilating the garrison, destroyed installations for the loss of 21 killed and 9 captured; the Japanese moved their prisoners to Kwajalein Atoll, where they were beheaded. One objective of the raid was to confuse the Japanese about U. S. intentions in the Pacific, but it had the effect of alerting the Japanese to the strategic importance of the Gilbert Islands and led to their further reinforcement and fortification. After Carlson's raid, the Japanese reinforced the Gilberts, left guarded.
Makin was garrisoned with a single company of the 5th Special Base Force on August 1942, work on both the seaplane base and coastal defenses of the atoll was resumed in earnest. By July 1943 the seaplane base on Makin was completed and ready to accommodate Kawanishi H8K "Emily" flying boat bombers, Nakajima A6M2-N "Rufe" floatplane fighters and Aichi E13A "Jake" reconnaissance seaplanes, its defenses were completed, although they were not as extensive as on Tarawa Atoll—the main Japanese Navy air base in the Gilberts. The Chitose and 653rd Air Corps were deployed here. While the Japanese were building up their defenses in the Gilberts, American forces were making plans to retake the islands. In June 1943 the Joint Chiefs of Staff directed Admiral Chester W. Nimitz, Commander in Chief of the Pacific Fleet, to submit a plan to occupy the Marshall Islands. Both Nimitz and Admiral Ernest J. King, the Chief of Naval Operations, wanted to attack right into the heart of the Japanese outer defense perimeter, but any plan for assaulting the Marshalls directly from Pearl Harbor would have required more troops and transports than the Pacific Fleet had at the time.
Considering these drawbacks and the limited combat experience of the U. S. forces and Nimitz decided to take the Marshalls in a step-by-step operation via the Ellice and Gilbert Islands. The Gilberts lay within 200 miles of the Southern Marshalls and were well within range of United States Army Air Forces B-24 aircraft based in the Ellice Islands, which could provide bombing support and long-range reconnaissance for operations in the Gilberts. With those advantages in mind, on 20 July 1943 the joint Chiefs of Staff decided to capture the Tarawa and Abemama atolls in the Gilberts, plus nearby Nauru Island; the operation was codenamed "Operation Galvanic." On 4 September the U. S. 5th Fleet's amphibious troops were designated the V Amphibious Corps and placed under Marine Corps Major General Holland M. Smith; the V Amphibious Corps had the only two divisions, the 2nd Marine Division based in New Zealand, the U. S. Army's 27th Infantry Division based in Hawaii; the 27th Infantry Division had been a New York National Guard unit before being called into federal service in October 1940.
It was transferred to Hawaii and remained there for 1½ years before being chosen by Lt. Gen. Robert C. Richardson, Jr. U. S. Army Commanding General in the Central Pacific, for the Gilbert Islands invasion. Captain James Jones, Commanding Officer of Amphibious Reconnaissance Company, VAC performed a periscope reconnaissance of the Gilberts aboard the submarine USS Nautilus, establishing accurate accounts of the beachheads for the upcoming invasion; the 27th Infantry Division was tasked to supply the landing force, with one regimental combat team, reinforced by a battalion landing team, supported by the 105th Field Artillery Battalion and the 193rd Tank Battalion, under Major General Ralph C. Smith, a veteran of World War I, who had assumed command in November 1942, he was one of the most respected officers in the U. S. Army of the time. In April 1943, the 27th Infantry Division had begun preparing for amphibious operations. Planning for the 27th Infantry Division's role in "Galvanic" began in early August 1943, with Nauru Island in the western Gilberts as the original objective.
Unlike the other objectives, Nauru was an actual island, much larger in size and
7th Infantry Division (United States)
The 7th Infantry Division was an infantry division of the United States Army. Today, it exists as a unique 250-man administrative headquarters based at Joint Base Lewis-McChord overseeing several units, though none of the 7th Infantry Division's own historic forces are active; the division was first activated in December 1917 in World War I, based at Fort Ord, California for most of its history. Although elements of the division saw brief active service in World War I, it is best known for its participation in the Pacific Ocean theater of World War II where it took heavy casualties engaging the Imperial Japanese Army in the Aleutian Islands and Okinawa. Following the Japanese surrender in 1945, the division was stationed in Japan and Korea, with the outbreak of the Korean War in 1950 was one of the first units in action, it took part in the Inchon Landings and the advance north until Chinese forces counter-attacked and overwhelmed the scattered division. The 7th went on to fight in the Battle of Pork Chop Hill and the Battle of Old Baldy.
After the Korean War ended, the division returned to the United States. In the late 1980s, it saw action overseas in Operation Golden Pheasant in Honduras and Operation Just Cause in Panama. In the early 1990s, it provided domestic support to the civil authorities in Operation Green Sweep and during the 1992 Los Angeles Riots; the division's final role was as a training and evaluation unit for Army National Guard brigades, which it undertook until its inactivation in 2006. On 26 April 2012, the Department of Defense announced the reactivation of the 7th Infantry Division headquarters as an administrative unit; the 7th Infantry Division was activated on 6 December 1917 eight months after the American entry into World War I, as the 7th Division of the Regular Army at Camp Wheeler, Georgia. One month it prepared to deploy to Europe as a part of the American Expeditionary Force. Most of the division sailed to Europe aboard the SS Leviathan. While on the Western Front, the 7th Division did not see action at full divisional strength, though its infantry and reconnaissance elements did engage German forces.
On 11 October 1918, it first came under shell fire and at Saint-Mihiel, came under chemical attack. Elements of the 7th probed up toward Prény near the Moselle River, capturing positions and driving German forces out of the region, it was at this time. In early November, the 7th Division began preparing for an assault on the Hindenburg Line as part of the Second Army; the division launched a reconnaissance in force on the Voëvre plain, but the main assault was never conducted as hostilities ended on 11 November 1918 with the signing of the Armistice with Germany. During its 33 days on the front line, the 7th Division suffered 1,709 casualties, including 204 killed in action and 1,505 wounded in action, and was awarded a campaign streamer for Lorraine. The division served on occupation duties as it began preparations to return to the United States; the 7th Division arrived home in late 1919, served at Camp Funston, until July 1920, moved to Camp Meade, Maryland until 22 September 1921, when it was inactivated due to funding cuts.
The 7th Division was represented in the active Regular Army from 1921 to 1939 by its even-numbered infantry brigade and select supporting elements. Other units of the division were placed on the Regular Army Inactive list and staffed by Organized Reserve personnel; these reserve units trained with the 14th Infantry Brigade at Fort Riley, Fort Crook, Fort Snelling, Fort Leavenworth, conducted the Citizens' Military Training Camps in the division's area. The division was formed on a provisional status during maneuvers in the 1920s and 1930s, the division headquarters was activated for the August 1937 Fourth United States Army maneuvers at Camp Ripley, with the Minnesota Army National Guard's 92nd Infantry Brigade. On 1 July 1940, the 7th Division was formally reactivated at Camp Ord, under the command of Major General Joseph W. Stilwell. Most of the early troops in the division were conscripted as a part of the US Army's first peacetime military draft; the 7th Division was assigned to III Corps of the Fourth United States Army, transferred to Longview, Washington, in August 1941 to participate in tactical maneuvers.
Following this training, the division moved back to Fort Ord, where it was located when the Japanese attack of Pearl Harbor caused the United States to declare war. The formation proceeded immediately to San Jose, arriving 11 December 1941 to help protect the west coast and allay civilian fears of invasion; the 53rd Infantry Regiment was removed from the 7th Division and replaced with the 159th Infantry Regiment, newly deployed from the California Army National Guard. For the early parts of the war, the division participated in construction and training roles. Subordinate units practiced boat loading at the Monterey Wharf and amphibious assault techniques at the Salinas River in California. On 9 April 1942, the division was formally redesignated as the 7th Motorized Division and transferred to Camp San Luis Obispo on 24 April 1942. Three months divisional training commenced in the Mojave Desert in preparation for its planned deployment to the African theater, it was again designated the 7th Infantry Division on 1 January 1943, when the motorized equipment was removed from the unit and it became a light infantry division once more, as the Army eliminated the motorized division concept fearing it would be logistically difficult and that the troops were no longer needed in North Africa.
The 7th Infantry Division began rigorous amphibious assault training under US Marines fro
The Marshall Islands the Republic of the Marshall Islands, is an island country and a United States associated state near the equator in the Pacific Ocean west of the International Date Line. Geographically, the country is part of the larger island group of Micronesia; the country's population of 53,158 people is spread out over 29 coral atolls, comprising 1,156 individual islands and islets. The islands share maritime boundaries with the Federated States of Micronesia to the west, Wake Island to the north, Kiribati to the southeast, Nauru to the south. About 27,797 of the islanders live on Majuro. Data from the United Nations indicates an estimated population in 2016 of 53,066. In 2016, 73.3% of the population were defined as being "urban". The UN indicates a population density of 295 per km2 and its projected 2020 population is 53,263. Micronesian colonists reached the Marshall Islands using canoes circa 2nd millennium BC, with interisland navigation made possible using traditional stick charts.
They settled here. Islands in the archipelago were first explored by Europeans in the 1520s, starting with Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese at the service of Spain, Juan Sebastián Elcano and Miguel de Saavedra. Spanish explorer Alonso de Salazar reported sighting an atoll in August 1526. Other expeditions by Spanish and English ships followed; the islands derive their name from British explorer John Marshall, who visited in 1788. The islands were known by the inhabitants as "jolet jen Anij". Spain claimed the islands in 1592, the European powers recognized its sovereignty over the islands in 1874, they had been part of the Spanish East Indies formally since 1528. Spain sold some of the islands to the German Empire in 1885, they became part of German New Guinea that year, run by the trading companies doing business in the islands the Jaluit Company. In World War I the Empire of Japan occupied the Marshall Islands, which in 1920, the League of Nations combined with other former German territories to form the South Pacific Mandate.
During World War II, the United States took control of the islands in the Gilbert and Marshall Islands campaign in 1944. Nuclear testing began in 1946 and concluded in 1958; the US government formed the Congress of Micronesia in 1965, a plan for increased self-governance of Pacific islands. The Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands in 1979 provided independence to the Marshall Islands, whose constitution and president were formally recognized by the US. Full sovereignty or Self-government was achieved in a Compact of Free Association with the United States. Marshall Islands has been a member of the Pacific Community since 1983 and a United Nations member state since 1991. Politically, the Marshall Islands is a presidential republic in free association with the United States, with the US providing defense and access to U. S.-based agencies such as the Federal Communications Commission and the United States Postal Service. With few natural resources, the islands' wealth is based on a service economy, as well as some fishing and agriculture.
The country uses the United States dollar as its currency. In 2018, it announced plans for a new cryptocurrency to be used as legal tender; the majority of the citizens of the Republic of Marshall Islands, formed in 1982, are of Marshallese descent, though there are small numbers of immigrants from the United States, China and other Pacific islands. The two official languages are Marshallese, one of the Malayo-Polynesian languages, English; the entire population of the islands practices some religion, with three-quarters of the country either following the United Church of Christ – Congregational in the Marshall Islands or the Assemblies of God. Evidence suggests that around 3,000 years ago successive waves of human migrants from Southeast Asia spread across the Western Pacific populating its many small islands; the Marshall Islands were settled by Micronesians in the 2nd millennium BC. Little is known of the islands' early history. Early settlers traveled between the islands by canoe using traditional stick charts.
The Spanish explorer Alonso de Salazar landed there in 1526, the archipelago came to be known as "Los Pintados", "Las Hermanas" and "Los Jardines" within the Spanish Empire, first falling within the jurisdiction of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, to be administered directly by Madrid upon the independence of Latin America and the dissolution of New Spain starting in 1821. They were only formally possessed by Spain for much of their colonial history, were considered part of the "Carolines", or alternatively the "Nuevas Filipinas"; the islands were left to their own affairs except for short-lived religious missions during the 16th and 17th centuries. They were ignored by European powers except for cartographic demarcation treaties between the Iberian Empires in 1529, 1750 and 1777; the archipelago corresponding to the present-day country was independently named by Krusenstern, after British explorer John Marshall, who visited them together with Thomas Gilbert in 1788, en route from Botany Bay to Canton (two s
Battle of Guam (1944)
The Second Battle of Guam was the American recapture of the Japanese-held island of Guam, a U. S. territory in the Mariana Islands captured by the Japanese from the U. S. in the 1941 First Battle of Guam during the Pacific campaign of World War II. Guam, at 212 square miles, is the largest island of the Marianas, with a length of 32 miles and a width ranging from 12 miles to four miles at different points of the island, it had been a United States possession since its capture from Spain in 1898 until it was captured by the Japanese on 10 December 1941, following the attack on Pearl Harbor. During the Japanese occupation of Guam, it was not as fortified as the other Mariana Islands such as Saipan, Japanese possessions since the end of World War I, but by 1944, Guam had a large Japanese garrison. The Allied plan for the invasion of the Marianas, Operation Forager, called for heavy preliminary bombardment, first by carrier aircraft and USAAF bombers based in the Marshall Islands to the east once air superiority was gained, close bombardment by battleships and destroyers.
Saipan and Guam were chosen as the targets due to their size, their suitability as a base for supporting the next stage of operations toward the Philippines and the Ryukyu Islands. The seaport at Apra Harbor was suitable for the largest ships. B-24 Liberators from the Marianas could bomb Iwo Jima and the Bonin Islands, such as Chichi Jima; the invasion of Saipan was scheduled for 15 June 1944, with landings on Guam tentatively set for 18 June. The original timetable was optimistic, however. A large Japanese carrier attack and stubborn resistance by the unexpectedly large Japanese garrison on Saipan led to the invasion of Guam being postponed for a month. U. S. Naval and air bombardments lasted from 11–13 June 1944, involving 216 carrier aircraft and land-based B-24 bombers from the Marshall Islands. On the 12th and 13th of June, 12 Japanese cargo ships and several fishing vessels were sunk. On 27 June, U. S. Navy battleships and cruisers started shelling the island, joined by a U. S. carrier group on 4 July, two more on 6 July.
Southern Attack Force Vice Admiral Richard L. Conolly in amphibious command ship AppalachianExpeditionary Troops Commanding General: Lieutenant General Holland M. Smith Chief of Staff: Brigadier General Graves B. Erskine Personnel Officer: Lieutenant Colonel Albert F. Metze Intelligence Officer: Colonel St. Julien R. Marshall Operations Officer: Colonel John C. McQueen Logistics Officer: Colonel Raymond E. Knapp Plans Officer: Colonel Joseph T. SmithSouthern Troops and Landing Force III Marine Amphibious Corps Commanding General: Major General Roy S. Geiger Chief of Staff: Brigadier General Merwin H. Silverthorn Personnel Officer: Colonel William J. Scheyer Intelligence Officer: Lieutenant Colonel William F. Coleman Operations Officer: Colonel Walter A. Wachtler Logistics Officer: Lieutenant Colonel Frederick L. Wieseman III Marine Amphibious Corps Artillery Commanding General: Brigadier General Pedro del Valle Chief of Staff: Colonel John A. Bemis Personnel Officer: Major James A. Tatsch Intelligence Officer: Warrant Officer David G. Garnett Operations Officer: Lieutenant Colonel Frederick P. Henderson Logistics Officer: Major Frederick W. Miller1st 155mm Howitzer Battalion Commanding Officer: Colonel James J. Keating Executive Officer: Major George H. Ford Operations Officer: Major Marshall J. Hooper2nd 155mm Howitzer Battalion Commanding Officer: Lieutenant Colonel Marvin H. Floom Executive Officer: Major Gene N. Schraeder Operations Officer: Major Earl J. Fowse9th Defense Battalion Commanding Officer: Lieutenant Colonel Archie E. O'Neil14th Defense Battalion Commanding Officer: Lieutenant Colonel William F. ParksNorthern landing area: 3rd Marine Division Commanding General: Major General Allen H. Turnage Assistant Commander: Brigadier General Alfred H. Noble Chief of Staff: Colonel Ray A. Robinson Personnel Officer: LtCol Chevey S. White.
Stuart. Stuart Executive Officer: Colonel James D. Snedeker1st Battalion, 3rd Marines Commanding Officer: Major Henry Aplington, II Executive Officer: Major John A. Ptak 2nd Battalion, 3rd Marines Commanding Officer: LtCol Hector de Zayas. Boehm2nd Battalion, 9th Marines Commanding Officer: LtCol Robert E. Cushman, Jr. Executive Officer: Maj William T. Glass3rd Battalion, 9th Marines Commanding Officer: LtCol Walter Asmuth, Jr..
Enewetak Atoll is a large coral atoll of 40 islands in the Pacific Ocean and with its 664 people forms a legislative district of the Ralik Chain of the Marshall Islands. With a land area total less than 5.85 square kilometres, it is no higher than 5 meters and surrounds a deep central lagoon, 80 kilometres in circumference. It is 305 kilometres west from Bikini Atoll, it was held by the Japanese from 1914 until its capture by the United States in February of 1944, during World War II. Nuclear testing by the US totaling more than 30 megatons of TNT took place during the cold war; the Runit Dome is deteriorating and could be breached by a typhoon, though the sediments in the lagoon are more radioactive than those which are contained. The U. S. government referred to the atoll as "Eniwetok" until 1974, when it changed its official spelling to "Enewetak". Enewetak Atoll formed atop a seamount; the seamount was formed in the late Cretaceous. This seamount is now about 1,400 metres below sea level, it is made of basalt, its depth is due to a general subsidence of the entire region and not because of erosion.
Enewetak has a mean elevation above sea level of 3 metres. Humans have inhabited the atoll since about 1,000 B. C; the first European visitor to Enewetak, Spanish explorer Alvaro de Saavedra, arrived on 10 October 1529. He called the island "Los Jardines". In 1794 sailors aboard the British merchant sloop Walpole called the islands "Brown's Range", it was visited by about a dozen ships before the establishment of the German colony of the Marshall Islands in 1885. With the rest of the Marshalls, Enewetak was captured by the Imperial Japanese Navy in 1914 during World War I and mandated to the Empire of Japan by the League of Nations in 1920; the Japanese administered the island under the South Pacific Mandate, but left affairs in hands of traditional local leaders until the start of World War II. The atoll, together with other part of Marshall Islands located to the west of 164°E, was placed under the governance of Pohnpei district during the Japanese administration period, is different from rest of Marshall Islands.
In November 1942, the Japanese built an airfield on Engebi Island. As they used it only for refueling planes between Truk and islands to the east, no aviation personnel were stationed there and the island had only token defenses; when the Gilberts fell to the United States, the Imperial Japanese Army assigned defense of the atoll to the 1st Amphibious Brigade, formed from the 3rd Independent Garrison, stationed in Manchukuo. The 1st Amphibious Brigade arrived on January 4, 1944; some 2,586 of its 3,940 men were left to defend Eniwetok Atoll, supplemented by aviation personnel, civilian employees, laborers. However, they were unable to finish the fortifications. During the ensuing Battle of Eniwetok, the Americans captured Enewetak in a five-day amphibious operation. Fighting took place on Engebi Islet, site of the most important Japanese installation, although some combat occurred on the main islet of Enewetak itself and on Parry Island, where there was a Japanese seaplane base. Following its capture, the anchorage at Enewetak became a major forward base for the U.
S. Navy; the daily average of ships present during the first half of July 1944 was 488. In 1950, John C. Woods, who executed the Nazi war criminals convicted at the Nuremberg Trials, was accidentally electrocuted here. After the end of World War II, Enewetak came under the control of the United States as part of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands until the independence of the Marshall Islands in 1986. During its tenure, the United States evacuated the local residents many times involuntarily; the atoll was used for nuclear testing as part of the Pacific Proving Grounds. Before testing commenced, the U. S. exhumed the bodies of United States servicemen killed in the Battle of Enewetak and returned them to the United States to be re-buried by their families. Forty-three nuclear tests were fired at Enewetak from 1948 to 1958; the first hydrogen bomb test, code-named Ivy Mike, occurred in late 1952 as part of Operation Ivy. This test included B-17 Flying Fortress drones to fly through the radioactive cloud to test onboard samples.
B-17 mother ships controlled the drones while flying within visual distance of them. In all 16 to 20 B-17s took part in this operation, of which half were controlling aircraft and half were drones. To examine the explosion clouds of the nuclear bombs in 1957/58 several rockets were launched. One USAF airman was lost at sea during the tests. A radiological survey of Enewetak was conducted from 1972 to 1973. In 1977, the United States military began decontamination of other islands. During the three-year, US$100 million cleanup process, the military mixed more than 80,000 cubic metres of contaminated soil and debris from the islands with Portland cement and buried it in an atomic blast crater on the northern end of the atoll's Runit Island; the material was placed in the 9.1-metre deep, 110-metre wide crater created by the May 5, 1958, "Cactus" nuclear weapons test
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Battle of Peleliu
The Battle of Peleliu, codenamed Operation Stalemate II by the United States military, was fought between the U. S. and Japan during the Mariana and Palau Campaign of World War II, from September to November 1944, on the island of Peleliu. U. S. Marines of the 1st Marine Division, soldiers of the U. S. Army's 81st Infantry Division, fought to capture an airstrip on the small coral island; this battle was part of a larger offensive campaign known as Operation Forager, which ran from June to November 1944, in the Pacific Theater. Major General William Rupertus, Commander of the 1st Marine Division, predicted the island would be secured within four days. However, after repeated Imperial Army defeats in previous island campaigns, Japan had developed new island-defense tactics and well-crafted fortifications that allowed stiff resistance, extending the battle through more than two months. In the United States, this was a controversial battle because of the island's questionable strategic value and the high casualty rate, which exceeded that of all other amphibious operations during the Pacific War.
The National Museum of the Marine Corps called it "the bitterest battle of the war for the Marines". By 1944, American victories in the Southwest and Central Pacific had brought the war closer to Japan, with American bombers able to strike at the Japanese main islands from air bases secured during the Mariana Islands campaign. There was disagreement among the U. S. Joint Chiefs over two proposed strategies to defeat the Japanese Empire; the strategy proposed by General Douglas MacArthur called for the recapture of the Philippines, followed by the capture of Okinawa an attack on the Japanese mainland. Admiral Chester Nimitz favored a more direct strategy of bypassing the Philippines, but seizing Okinawa and Taiwan as staging areas to an attack on the Japanese mainland, followed by the future invasion of Japan's southernmost islands. Both strategies for different reasons; the 1st Marine Division had been chosen to make the assault. President Franklin D. Roosevelt traveled to Pearl Harbor to meet both commanders and hear their arguments.
MacArthur's strategy was chosen. However, before MacArthur could retake the Philippines, the Palau Islands Peleliu and Angaur, were to be neutralized and an airfield built to protect MacArthur's right flank. By 1944, Peleliu Island was occupied by about 11,000 Japanese of the 14th Infantry Division with Korean and Okinawan laborers. Colonel Kunio Nakagawa, commander of the division's 2nd Regiment, led the preparations for the island's defense. After their losses in the Solomons, Gilberts and Marianas, the Imperial Army assembled a research team to develop new island-defense tactics, they chose to abandon the old strategy of stopping the enemy at the beach. The new tactics would only disrupt the landings at the water's edge and depend on an in-depth defense farther inland. Colonel Nakagawa used the rough terrain to his advantage, by constructing a system of fortified bunkers and underground positions all interlocked into a "honeycomb" system; the old "banzai charge" attack was discontinued as being both wasteful of men and ineffective.
These changes would force the Americans into a war of attrition requiring more resources. Nakagawa's defenses were based at Peleliu's highest point, Umurbrogol Mountain, a collection of hills and steep ridges located at the center of Peleliu overlooking a large portion of the island, including the crucial airfield; the Umurbrogol contained some 500 limestone caves, interconnected by tunnels. Many of these were former mine shafts. Engineers added sliding armored steel doors with multiple openings to serve both artillery and machine guns. Cave entrances were built slanted as a defense against flamethrower attacks; the caves and bunkers were connected to a vast system throughout central Peleliu, which allowed the Japanese to evacuate or reoccupy positions as needed, to take advantage of shrinking interior lines. The Japanese were well armed with 81 mm and 150 mm mortars and 20 mm anti-aircraft cannons, backed by a light tank unit and an anti-aircraft detachment; the Japanese used the beach terrain to their advantage.
The northern end of the landing beaches faced a 30-foot coral promontory that overlooked the beaches from a small peninsula, a spot known to the Marines who assaulted it as "The Point". Holes were blasted into the ridge to accommodate a 47 mm gun, six 20 mm cannons; the positions were sealed shut, leaving just a small firing slit to assault the beaches. Similar positions were crafted along the 2-mile stretch of landing beaches; the beaches were filled with thousands of obstacles for the landing craft, principally mines and a large number of heavy artillery shells buried with the fuses exposed to explode when they were run over. A battalion was placed along the beach to defend against the landing, but they were meant to delay the inevitable American advance inland. Unlike the Japanese, who drastically altered their tactics for the upcoming battle, the American invasion plan was unchanged from that of previous amphibious landings after suffering 3,000 casualties and two months of delaying tactics against the entrenched Japanese defenders at the Battle of Biak.
On Peleliu, American planners chose to land on the southwest beaches because of their proximity to the airfield on South Peleliu. The 1st Marine Regiment, commanded by Colonel Lewis B. Puller, was to land on the northern end of the beaches; the 5th Marine Regiment, under Colonel Harold D. Harris, would land in the center, the 7th Marine Regiment, under Col. Herman H. Hannek