The Battle of Lake Erie, sometimes called the Battle of Put-in-Bay, was fought on 10 September 1813, on Lake Erie off the coast of Ohio during the War of 1812. Nine vessels of the United States Navy captured six vessels of the British Royal Navy; this ensured American control of the lake for the rest of the war, which in turn allowed the Americans to recover Detroit and win the Battle of the Thames to break the Indian confederation of Tecumseh. It was one of the biggest naval battles of the War of 1812; when the war broke out, the British seized control of Lake Erie. They had a small force of warships there: the sloop-of-war Queen Charlotte and the brig General Hunter; the schooner Lady Prevost was under construction and was put into service a few weeks after the outbreak of war. These vessels were controlled by the Provincial Marine, a military transport service and not a naval service; the Americans lacked any counter to the British armed vessels. The only American warship on Lake Erie, the brig Adams, was not ready for service at the start of the war, when the American army of Brigadier General William Hull abandoned its invasion of Canada, Adams was pinned down in Detroit by the British batteries at Sandwich on the Canadian side of the Detroit River.
The British Major-General Isaac Brock used his control of the lake to defeat Hull's army at the Siege of Detroit, by cutting the American supply lines and transferring himself and some reinforcements to Amherstburg from where they launched a successful landing on the American side of the Detroit River. The British took Adams when Detroit was surrendered. Together with the brig Caledonia, commandeered from the Canadian North West Company, she was boarded and captured near Fort Erie on 9 October, by American sailors and soldiers led by Lieutenant Jesse Elliot. Detroit ran aground on an island in the middle of the Niagara River and was set on fire to prevent her being recaptured. Caledonia was commissioned into the United States Navy. Present at Black Rock were the schooners Somers and Ohio and the sloop-rigged Trippe, which had all been purchased by the United States Navy and were being converted into gunboats. While the British held Fort Erie and the nearby batteries which dominated the Niagara River, all these vessels were pinned down and unable to leave Black Rock.
Late in 1812, Paul Hamilton, the United States Secretary of the Navy had received long-time American lake mariner Daniel Dobbins, who had escaped capture at Detroit and brought information on the British forces on Lake Erie. Dobbins recommended the bay of Presque Isle in Erie, Pennsylvania as a naval base on the lake.. Dobbins was dispatched to build four gunboats there, although Lieutenant Elliot objected to the lack of facilities. Another problem was that a sand bar extended across the entrance to the harbor at Presque Isle, which would prove to make it difficult to get newly-constructed U. S. ships out to open water. In September, Dobbins began directing the cutting of trees. By November, Ebenezer Crosby, a master shipwright, was hired by Dobbins to start work on the four wooden ships. Commodore Isaac Chauncey had been appointed to the command of the United States naval forces on the Great Lakes in September 1812, he made one brief visit to Erie on 1 January 1813 where he approved Dobbins's actions and recommended collecting materials for a larger vessel, but returned to Lake Ontario where he afterwards concentrated his energies.
In January 1813, William Jones ordered the construction of two brig-rigged corvettes at Presque Isle, transferred shipwright Noah Brown there from Sackets Harbor on Lake Ontario to take charge of construction. Other than their rig and crude construction, the two brigs were close copies of the contemporary USS Hornet; the heaviest armament for the ships came from foundries on Chesapeake Bay, were moved to Presque Isle only with great difficulty. However, the Americans could get other materials and fittings from Pittsburgh, expanding as a manufacturing center, smaller guns were borrowed from the Army. Master Commandant Oliver Hazard Perry had earlier been appointed to command on Lake Erie, through lobbying by Jeremiah B. Howell, the Senior Senator from Rhode Island, supplanting Lieutenant Elliot, he arrived at Presque Isle to take command at the end of March. Having arranged for the defense of Presque Isle, he proceeded to Lake Ontario to obtain reinforcements of seamen from Commodore Isaac Chauncey.
After commanding the American schooners and gunboats at the Battle of Fort George, he went to Black Rock where the American vessels had been released when the British abandoned Fort Erie at the end of May. Perry had them towed by draft oxen up the Niagara, an operation which took six days, sailed with them along the shore to Presque Isle. Meanwhile, Commander Robert Heriot Barclay was appointed to command the British squadron on Lake Erie. Another British officer had endangered his career by refusing the appointment as success appeared unlikely. Barclay missed a rendezvous with Queen Charlotte at Point Abino and was forced to make the tedious journey to Amherstburg overland, arriving on 10 June, he brought with him only a handful of officers and seamen. When he took command of his squadron, the crews of his vessels numbered only
The Reichspräsident was the German head of state under the Weimar constitution, in force from 1919 to 1945. In English he was simply referred to as the President of Germany; the German title Reichspräsident means President of the Reich. The Weimar constitution created a semi-presidential system in which power was divided between the president, a cabinet and a parliament; the Reichspräsident was directly elected under universal adult suffrage for a seven-year term. It was intended that the president would rule in conjunction with the Reichstag and that his emergency powers would be exercised only in extraordinary circumstances, but the political instability of the Weimar period, a paralysing factionalism in the legislature, meant that the president came to occupy a position of considerable power, capable of legislating by decree and appointing and dismissing governments at will. In 1934, after the death of President Hindenburg, Adolf Hitler Chancellor, assumed the Presidency, but did not use the title of President – ostensibly out of respect for Hindenburg – and preferred to rule as Führer und Reichskanzler, highlighting the positions he held in party and government.
In his last will in April 1945, Hitler named Joseph Goebbels his successor as Chancellor but named Karl Dönitz as Reichspräsident, thus reviving the individual office for a short while until the German surrender. The Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany established the office of Federal President, which is, however, a chiefly ceremonial post devoid of political power. † denotes people. A Hans Luther, Chancellor of Germany, was acting head of state of Germany from 28 February 1925 to 12 March 1925. B Walter Simons, President of the Supreme Court of Germany, was acting head of state of Germany from 12 March 1925 to 12 May 1925. C Adolf Hitler was served as Führer of Germany from 2 August 1934 to 30 April 1945. Upon Generalfeldmarschall von Hindenburg's death, Adolf Hitler merged the offices of Chancellor and head of state in his person, he did not use the title of Reichspräsident. Before his suicide on 30 April 1945, Hitler nominated Großadmiral Karl Dönitz to be President. Dönitz was arrested on 23 May 1945 and the office was dissolved.
Under the Weimar constitution, the President was directly elected by universal adult suffrage for a term of seven years. The law provided that the presidency was open to all German citizens who had reached 35 years of age; the direct election of the president occurred under a form of the two round system. If no candidate received the support of an absolute majority of votes cast in a first round of voting, a second vote was held at a date. In this round the candidate who received the support of a plurality of voters was deemed elected. A group could nominate a substitute candidate in the second round, in place of the candidate it had supported in the first; the President could not be a member of the Reichstag at the same time. The constitution required that on taking office the president swore the following oath: I swear to devote my energy to the welfare of the German people, to increase its prosperity, to prevent damage, to hold up the Reich constitution and its laws, to consciously honour my duties and to exercise justice to every individual.
Only two regular presidential elections under the provisions of the Weimar Constitution occurred, in 1925 and 1932: The first office-holder, the Social Democrat Friedrich Ebert was elected by the National Assembly on 11 February 1919 on a provisional basis. Ebert intended to stand in presidential elections in 1922 when the outcry about assassination of Walther Rathenau seemed to generate a pro-republican atmosphere. However, National Liberal politician Gustav Stresemann persuaded the other centrist parties that the situation was still too turbulent to hold elections. Hence, the Reichstag extended Ebert's term to June 30, 1925 in late 1922, which required a constitutional change. Ebert died in office in February 1925; the first presidential election was held in 1925. After the first ballot had not resulted in a clear winner, a second ballot was held, in which Paul von Hindenburg, a war hero nominated by the right-wing parties after their original candidate had dropped out after the first ballot, managed to win a majority.
Hindenburg served a full term and was reelected in 1932, this time nominated by the pro-republican parties who thought only he could prevent the election of Adolf Hitler to the office. Hindenburg died in office in August 1934, a little over two years after his reelection, having since appointed Hitler as Chancellor. Hitler assumed the powers of head of state, but did not use the title of President until his own death, when he named Karl Dönitz his successor as President in his Final Political Will and Testament. Appointment of the Government: The Reichskanzler and his cabinet were appointed and dismissed by the president. No vote of confirmation was required in the Reichstag before the members of the cabinet could assume office, but any member of the cabinet was obliged to resign if the body passed a vote of no confidence in him; the president could appoint and dismiss the chancellor at will, but all other cabinet members could, save in the event of a no confidence motion, only be appointed or dismissed at the chancellor's request.
Dissolution of the Reichstag: The president had the right to dissolve the Reichstag at any tim
Flyboard Air is a type of jetpack/hoverboard powered by gas turbines. It was invented by founder of Zapata racing, it achieved a Guinness World Record for farthest flight by hoverboard in April 2016 of 2,252.4 m. Zapata Racing claims that it allows flight up to an altitude of 3,000 metres and has a top speed of 150 km/h, it has 10 minutes' endurance. The load capacity is 102 kg; the "jet-powered hoverboard" is fueled by kerosene. Zapata participated in the 2019 Bastille Day military parade riding his invention, his attempt to cross the English Channel on 25 July 2019 failed as he fell into the sea at the refuelling platform. A second crossing attempt on 4 August 2019 succeeded. Escorted by French Army helicopters and using a backpack fuel reservoir, he accomplished the journey – 35 kilometres – with one refueling stop at the midpoint. Zapata reached a speed of 177 km/h during the 20-minute flight; the trip started at Sangatte in the Pas-de-Calais department in France and concluded at St Margaret's at Cliffe in Kent, United Kingdom where he landed safely.
Zapata's company, Z-AIR, had received a €1.3 million grant from the French military. However, he has said that the flyboard was not yet ready for military use due to the noise it creates and the challenge of learning how to fly the device. In a France Inter radio interview, France's Minister of the Armed Forces Florence Parly said the flyboard might be suitable, "for example as a flying logistical platform or, indeed, as an assault platform". In 2017, Zapata had provided the U. S. Army with demonstrations of the Flyboard Air "jet-powered hoverboard" or "jet-powered personal aerial vehicle", referred to as the EZ-Fly. A July 2019 report provided no indication of any serious interest by the American military as of that time for this new technology. On 4 August 2019, Zapata told BFM TV that he was working on building a flying car, that he hoped to introduce before year-end, he said that he had flown a prototype chassis powered by four gas turbines but the final model would employ ten turbines in order to cruise at 310–400 kilometres per hour, achieve a range of about 110 kilometres.