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Battle of Lake Khasan

The Battle of Lake Khasan known as the Changkufeng Incident in China and Japan, was an attempted military incursion by Manchukuo, a Japanese puppet state, into the territory claimed and controlled by the Soviet Union. This incursion was founded in the belief of the Japanese side, that the Soviet Union misinterpreted the demarcation of the boundary based on the Treaty of Peking between Imperial Russia and Qing China and that the demarcation markers were tampered with. Japanese forces occupied the disputed area but withdrew after heavy fighting and a diplomatic settlement. For most of the first half of the twentieth century, there was considerable tension among the Russian and Japanese governments, along their common borders in what became North East China; the Chinese Eastern Railway was a railway in northeastern China. It connected the Russian Far East; the southern branch of the CER, known in the West as the South Manchuria Railway, became the locus and partial casus belli for the Russo-Japanese War and subsequent incidents, leading to the Second Sino-Japanese War and Soviet-Japanese border conflicts.

Larger incidents included the Sino-Soviet conflict of 1929 and the Mukden Incident between Japan and China in 1931. The Battle of Lake Khasan was fought between two powers. Starting in the lead up to the battle a wave of purges in the far eastern front had caused many officers in the army to be new inexperience officers who feared to take the initiative, in July alone four and a half times as many people were purged from the front as in the previous twelve months; this in combination with a lack of infrastructure, the overburdening of the front's commander, marshal Blücher, a shortage of equipment and poor organization led to the front being in poor shape. The confrontation was triggered when the Soviet Far East Army and Soviet State Security Border Guard reinforced its Khasan border with Manchuria; this was prompted in part by the defection one month before, of Soviet General G. S. Lyushkov, in charge of all NKVD forces in the Soviet Far East at Hunchun, in the Tumen River Area, he provided the Japanese with intelligence on the poor state of Soviet Far Eastern forces and the purge of army officers.

On 6 July 1938, the Japanese Kwantung Army decoded a message sent by the Soviet commander in the Posyet region to Soviet headquarters in Khabarovsk. The message recommended that Soviet soldiers be allowed to secure unoccupied high ground west of Lake Khasan, most notably the disputed Changkufeng Heights, because it would be advantageous for the Soviets to occupy terrain which overlooked the Korean port-city of Rajin, as well as strategic railways linking Korea to Manchuria. In the next two weeks, small groups of Soviet border troops moved into the area and began fortifying the mountain with emplacements, observation trenches and communication facilities. At first, the Japanese Korean Army, assigned to defend the area, disregarded the Soviet advance. However, the Kwantung Army, whose administrative jurisdiction overlapped Changkufeng, pushed the Korean Army to take more action, because it was suspicious of Soviet intentions. Following this, the Korean Army took the matter to Tokyo, recommending that a formal protest be sent to the Soviet Union.

The conflict started on 15 July, when the Japanese attaché in Moscow demanded the removal of Soviet border troops from the Bezymyannaya and Zaozyornaya Hills to the west of Lake Khasan in the south of Primorye not far from Vladivostok, claiming this territory by the Soviet–Korea border. The Japanese 19th Division along with some Manchukuo units took on the Soviet 39th Rifle Corps under Grigori Shtern. One of the Japanese Army Commanders at the battle was Colonel Kotoku Sato, the commander of the 75th Infantry Regiment. Lieutenant General Suetaka Kamezo gave Sato an order: "You are to mete out a firm and thorough counterattack without fail, once you gather that the enemy is advancing in the slightest"; the hidden meaning of this was. On 31 July, Sato's regiment launched a night sortie on the fortified hill. In the Changkufeng sector, 1,114 Japanese engaged a Soviet garrison of 300, eliminating them and knocking out 10 tanks, with casualties of 34 killed and 99 wounded. In the Shachofeng sector, 379 Japanese surprised and routed another 300 Soviet troops, while knocking out 7 tanks, for 11 killed and 34 wounded.

Thousands more Japanese soldiers from the 19th Division arrived, dug in, requested reinforcements. High Command rejected the request, as they knew General Suetaka would use these forces to assault vulnerable Soviet positions, escalating the incident. Japanese troops defended the disputed area. In 1933, the Japanese had designed and built a "Rinji Soko Ressha"; the train was deployed at "2nd Armoured Train Unit" in Manchuria and participated in the Second Sino-Japanese War and the Changkufeng conflict against the Soviets, transporting thousands of Japanese troops to and from the battlefield, displaying to the west the capability of an Asian nation to implement western ideas and doctrine concerning rapid infantry deployment and transport. On 31 July, People's Commissar for Defence Kliment Voroshilov ordered combat readiness for 1st Coastal Army and the Pacific Fleet; the Soviets gathered 354 ta

New Invention, Shropshire

New Invention is a hamlet in Shropshire, England on the A488 between Clun and Knighton. It comprises little more than four houses around a cross-roads and a neighbouring farm called The Weir, known in history as the Wear or Ware. Of the four houses, one was a blacksmith's shop, one a pub called the Stag's Head, one a Methodist chapel built in 1874, it served as one of many local locations for the film Gone to Earth, directed by Michael Powell and Emeric Pressburger. The River Redlake passes through; the population as of the 2011 census is listed under Clun. There is a story that the hamlet's unusual name came from a local farrier who decided on the idea of fitting horseshoes backwards to confuse the enemy in times of war. A variation of this story is that the farrier reversed the shoes on the horse belonging to Charles I to help him evade capture. A more credible explanation is that the village was the first in the district where spinning was carried out using water power, but this theory can certainly be discredited by the fact that the earliest known reference to New Invention is in a document held at Shropshire Archives dated 1677, while machinery for carding and spinning wool was not invented until well into the 18th century.

Fulling mills, which cleaned and thickened wool, were powered by water in medieval times and there are records of at least two in Clun, so this possibility can not be discounted. Better explanations may be found by considering the separate elements of the name.'New Inn' within a place name is a modern prefix to an older name. If that applies here the meaning of'Vention' has to be explained; the first clue is that local people refer to the hamlet as'The Vention', a nomenclature that could be older than the present name. The second clue is that many place names in the Redlake Valley, in which New Invention lies, are of Old English origin, and'Vention' could have its origins in'Fenton' or'Fentone', a not uncommon place name meaning'settlement in a marshy place'. New Invention is low-lying between hills and a river runs through it. In the Middle Ages Welsh was the predominant language.'F' in Welsh is pronounced'V'. If correct, its name means a'new inn at a settlement in a marshy place'. Further support for the mutation of the'F' to'V' can be found from Venn Ottery in Devon, where the V from the earlier'Fenne' is a function of dialect, just as possible in Shropshire as is its being a function of language.

However, the brief description on Shropshire Archive’s website is as follows: 1. Jonathan Page of Parllogue, p. Clunne, gent. 2. Daniel Bee of Cardington, Clerke. Of Capital messuage and tenement in Parllogue in p. CLUNNE, in tenure of. Menuttin, p. CLUNNE, in tenure of Thomas Warburton of Menuttin, gent.. From this we learn that it was a built house that bore the name ‘New Invention’ so not a place, although it could have been describing both; this could suggest that the house was an inn, or it could mean that it was newly built ‘in Vention'. But a better explanation still can be derived by examining the etymology of Newington in London. Here the'new in' element comes from niwan, the dative form of Old English niwe, meaning'new'; this gives us the straightforward meaning of'new settlement in a marshy place', disappointingly prosaic, but the best of all the possibilities given the similarity in pronunciation, bar the'Ven' element, between Newington and New Invention. Media related to New Invention at Wikimedia Commons

Thomas Lovell Beddoes

Thomas Lovell Beddoes was an English poet and physician. Born in Clifton, England, he was the son of Dr. Thomas Beddoes, a friend of Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Anna, sister of Maria Edgeworth, he was educated at Oxford. He published in 1821 The Improvisatore, his next venture, a blank-verse drama called The Bride's Tragedy, was published and well reviewed, won for him the friendship of Barry Cornwall. Beddoes' work shows a constant preoccupation with death. In 1824, he went to Göttingen to study medicine, motivated by his hope of discovering physical evidence of a human spirit which survives the death of the body, he was expelled, went to Würzburg to complete his training. He wandered about practising his profession, expounding democratic theories which got him into trouble, he was deported from Bavaria in 1833, had to leave Zürich, where he had settled, in 1840. He published nothing, he led an itinerant life after leaving Switzerland, returning to England only in 1846, before going back to Germany.

He became disturbed, committed suicide by poison at Basel, in 1849, at the age of 45. For some time before his death he had been engaged on a drama, Death's Jest Book, published in 1850 with a memoir by his friend, T. F. Kelsall, his Collected Poems were published in 1851. Critics have faulted Beddoes as a dramatist. According to Arthur Symons, "of dramatic power he had nothing, he could neither conceive a coherent plot, nor develop a credible situation." His plots are convoluted, such was his obsession with the questions posed by death that his characters lack individuation. But his poetry is "full of thought and richness of diction", in the words of John William Cousin, who praised Beddoes' short pieces such as "If thou wilt ease thine heart" and "If there were dreams to sell" as "masterpieces of intense feeling exquisitely expressed". Lytton Strachey referred to Beddoes as "the last Elizabethan", said that he was distinguished not for his "illuminating views on men and things, or for a philosophy", but for the quality of his expression.

Philip B. Anderson said the lyrics of Death's Jest Book, exemplified by "Sibylla's Dirge" and "The Swallow Leaves Her Nest", are "Beddoes' best work; these lyrics display a delicacy of form, a voluptuous horror, an imagistic compactness and suggestiveness, a grotesque comic power that are unique." Sources This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Cousin, John William. A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature. London: J. M. Dent & Sons – via Wikisource. Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Beddoes, Thomas Lovell". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Gosse, Edmund. "Beddoes, Thomas Lovell". In Stephen, Leslie. Dictionary of National Biography. 4. London: Smith, Elder & Co. Dabundo, L. Encyclopedia of romanticism: Culture in Britain, 1780s-1830s.. ISBN 1135232350. Donner, H. W. ed. The Works of Thomas Lovell Beddoes. Donner, H. W. ed. Plays and Poems of Thomas Lovell Beddoes. Ute Berns and Michael Bradshaw, The Ashgate Research Companion to Thomas Lovell Beddoes.

Phantom-Wooer: The Thomas Lovell Beddoes Website – continues work of the Thomas Lovell Beddoes Society, 2006 to 2010 "Text" at Phantom-Wooer – catalogues some online editions and provides many itself Doomsday: Journal of the Thomas Lovell Beddoes Society Thomas Lovell Beddoes at The Literary Encyclopedia Works by Thomas Lovell Beddoes at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Thomas Lovell Beddoes at Internet Archive Works by Thomas Lovell Beddoes at LibriVox Thomas Lovell Beddoes at Library of Congress Authorities, with 19 catalogue records