Battle of Lake Trasimene

The Battle of Lake Trasimene was a major battle in the Second Punic War. The Carthaginians under Hannibal defeated the Romans under the consul Gaius Flaminius. Hannibal's victory over the Roman army at Lake Trasimene remains, in terms of the number of men involved, the largest ambush in military history. In the prelude to the battle, Hannibal achieved the earliest known example of a strategic turning movement; the Romans alarmed and dismayed by Tiber Sempronius Longus's defeat at Trebia made plans to counter the new threat from the north. Sempronius returned to Rome and the Roman Senate resolved to elect new consuls the following year in 217 BC; the new consuls were Gaius Flaminius. The latter was under threat of recall from the Senate for leaving Rome without carrying out the proper rituals after being elected consul; the Senate commissioned Servilius to replace Publius Cornelius Scipio and take command of his army, Flaminius was appointed to lead what remained of Sempronius’s army. Since both armies had been weakened by the defeat at Trebia, four new legions were raised.

The new forces, together with the remains of the former army, were divided between the two consuls. After the battles of Ticinus and Trebia, Flaminius' army turned south to prepare a defence near Rome itself. Hannibal followed, but marched faster and soon passed the Roman army. Flaminius was forced to increase the speed of his march to bring Hannibal to battle before reaching the city. Another force under Servilius was due to join Flaminius. Before that could happen, Hannibal lured Gaius Flaminius' force into a pitched battle by devastating the area that Flaminius had been sent to protect. Polybius wrote that Hannibal calculated that he could draw out Flaminius into battle and that "no sooner had he left the neighborhood of Faesulae, advancing a short way beyond the Roman camp, made a raid upon the neighbouring country Flaminius became excited, enraged at the idea that he was despised by the enemy: and as the devastation of the country went on, he saw from the smoke that rose in every direction that the work of destruction was proceeding, he could not patiently endure the sight."

At the same time, Hannibal tried to sever the allegiance of Rome's allies, by proving that the Republic was powerless to protect them. Flaminius remained passively encamped at Arretium. Unable to goad Flaminius into battle, Hannibal marched boldly around his opponent's left flank and cut Flaminius off from Rome, providing the earliest record of a deliberate turning movement in military history. Military historian Theodore Ayrault Dodge describes the significance of the maneuver and its intended effects on the campaign: We are told nothing about it by the ancient authors, whose knowledge of war confined them to the description of battles, but it is apparent enough to us By this handsome march Hannibal cut Flaminius off from Rome... as he was apt to move by the flank past the Roman camp to taunt the Roman general. Here is shown... the clear conception of the enemy’s strategic flank, with all its advantages Nor by his maneuver had Hannibal recklessly cut himself loose from his base, though he was living on the country and independent of it, as it were.

A more perfect case of cutting the enemy from his communications can scarcely be conceived.... If he fought, it must be materially worse conditions than if his line was open. Still, Flaminius stubbornly kept his army in camp. Hannibal decided to march on Apulia, hoping that Flaminius might follow him to a battlefield of his own choosing. Flaminius, eager to exact revenge for the devastation of the countryside and facing increasing political criticism from Rome marched against Hannibal. Flaminius, like Sempronius, was impetuous and lacking in self-control, his advisors suggested that he send only a cavalry detachment to harass the Carthaginians and prevent them from laying waste to any more of the country, while reserving his main force until the other consul, arrived with his army. It proved to be impossible to argue with the rash Flaminius. Livy wrote, "Though every other person in the council advised safe rather than showy measures, urging that he should wait for his colleague, in order that joining their armies, they might carry on the war with united courage and counsels...

Flaminius, in a fury... gave out the signal for marching for battle." As Hannibal passed Lake Trasimene, he came to a place suitable for an ambush, hearing that Flaminius had broken camp and was pursuing him, made preparations for the impending battle. To the north was a series of forested hills where the Malpasso Road passed along the north side of Lake Trasimene. Along the hill-bordered skirts of the lake, Hannibal camped where he was in full view of anyone entering the northern defile, spent the night arranging his troops for battle. Below the camp, he placed his heavy infantry upon a slight elevation. Here, they had ample ground from which they could charge down upon the head of the Roman column on the left flank, when it should reach the position, his cavalry and Gallic infantry were concealed in the hills in the depth of the wooded valley from which the Romans would first enter, so that they could sally out and close the entrance, blocking the Roman route of retreat. He posted his light troops at intervals along the heights overlooking the plain, with orders to keep well hidden in the woods until signalled to attack.

The night before the battle commenced

William Tilton

William Tilton was an American soldier who fought in the American Civil War. Tilton received his country's highest award for bravery during the Medal of Honor. Tilton's medal was won for his'gallant conduct in the field' during the Richmond campaign during 1864, he was honored with the award on February 20, 1884. Tilton was born in St. Albans and entered service in Hanover, he was buried in New Hampshire. The President of the United States of America, in the name of Congress, takes pleasure in presenting the Medal of Honor to Sergeant William Tilton, United States Army, for extraordinary heroism on 1864, while serving with Company C, 7th New Hampshire Infantry, in action at Richmond Campaign, for gallant conduct in the field. List of American Civil War Medal of Honor recipients: T–Z


The Fatalii is a cultivar of the chilli pepper Capsicum chinense developed in southern or central Africa from chilies introduced from the Americas. It is described as having a fruity, citrus flavor with a searing heat comparable to the habanero, to which it is related and from which it may have derived. From the Americas, like all chilli species, the specific variety known as Fatalii was'discovered' and is thought to have developed in Central Africa. Since commerce between the Americas and Africa has spanned some four centuries or more, this is uncontroversial; the plants grow 20 to 25 inches in height, but may reach 3 feet or taller under optimal growing conditions, plant distance should be about the same. The pendant pods get 2.5 to 3.5 inches about 0.75 to 1.5 inches wide. From a pale green, the most common variety matures to a bright yellow. Less common are red and white Fataliis; the red version of Fatalii has a somewhat different flavor and shorter, wider pods, maturing from medium green to dark red but the strain is unstable, throwing yellow and orange fruit.

The white Fatalii tastes like the standard yellow version, but lighter and more citrusy, has similar heat a fraction less. When eating a whole white chili and chewing for at least 10 seconds before swallowing the heat may be first felt aggressively in the back of the throat, up the nose eventually moves to the roof of the mouth and the tongue where the pain is intense, at which point there can be gustatory sweating and tears from the eyes; some tasters note the strong, fruity Fatalii flavour, quite distinct, as being identical to the yellow version. Others find it milder. Hot chili aficionados who have tasted all four colour varieties report the heat increasing from the white, which has pronounced citrus lime and lemon flavours, through yellow red to the hottest and sweetest being the chocolate or brown Fatalii; the distinctive chinense fruit flavour present in Habanero, becomes more prominent in the yellow than the white, increases and becomes more rounded in the red and the chocolate. The effect of the chili heat differs in the colour forms.

White and yellow have more effect on the back of the throat and are slower to decline than the red and brown, which have more of a searing mouth burn the tongue. The initial taste is of the fruit and sweetness, before the heat starts after about 30 seconds, peaking between two and five minutes when it declines; the heat decline of the red and chocolate falls more than the white and yellow. The Fatalii is known for its extreme heat and citrus flavor, it can be made into a hot sauce with other citrus flavors including lemon. The heat can be reduced with oil and nuts. Variations of Fatalii hot sauces include fruits including pineapple and mango, it can be used fresh diced to add heat and spice to marinades, barbeque sauces and chutney. The Fatalli can be combined with fruit to make jam. Being thin-walled it is an ideal pepper for drying, it is reported to add a fruity spice when brewing beer. List of Capsicum cultivars Capsicum chinense Capsicum Fatalii Hot Sauce recipe Pineapple-Mango-Fatalii Hot Sauce Recipe