Bavaria is a free state and one of 16 federal states of Germany. Located in the German southeast with an area of 70,548 square kilometres and its territory comprises roughly a fifth of the total land area of Germany, with 12.9 million inhabitants, it is Germanys second most populous state. Munich, Bavarias capital and largest city, is the third largest city in Germany, the Duchy of Bavaria dates back to the year 555. In the 17th century CE, the Duke of Bavaria became a Prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire, the Kingdom of Bavaria existed from 1806 to 1918, when Bavaria became a republic. In 1946, the Free State of Bavaria re-organised itself on democratic lines after the Second World War, Bavaria has a unique culture, largely because of the states Catholic majority and conservative traditions. Bavarians have traditionally been proud of their culture, which includes such as Oktoberfest. The state has the second largest economy among the German states by GDP figures, modern Bavaria includes parts of the historical regions of Franconia, Upper Palatinate and Swabia.
The Bavarians emerged in a north of the Alps, previously inhabited by Celts. The Bavarians spoke Old High German but, unlike other Germanic groups, they seem to have coalesced out of other groups left behind by Roman withdrawal late in the 5th century. These peoples may have included the Celtic Boii, some remaining Romans, Allemanni, Thuringians, Scirians, the name Bavarian means Men of Baia which may indicate Bohemia, the homeland of the Celtic Boii and of the Marcomanni. They first appear in written sources circa 520, a 17th century Jewish chronicler David Solomon Ganz, citing Cyriacus Spangenberg, claimed that the diocese was named after an ancient Bohemian king, Boiia, in the 14th century BCE. From about 554 to 788, the house of Agilolfing ruled the Duchy of Bavaria and their daughter, became Queen of the Lombards in northern Italy and Garibald was forced to flee to her when he fell out with his Frankish overlords. Garibalds successor, Tassilo I, tried unsuccessfully to hold the frontier against the expansion of Slavs.
Tassilos son Garibald II seems to have achieved a balance of power between 610 and 616, after Garibald II little is known of the Bavarians until Duke Theodo I, whose reign may have begun as early as 680. From 696 onwards he invited churchmen from the west to organize churches and his son, led a decisive Bavarian campaign to intervene in a succession dispute in the Lombard Kingdom in 714, and married his sister Guntrud to the Lombard King Liutprand. At Theodos death the duchy was divided among his sons, at Hugberts death the duchy passed to a distant relative named Odilo, from neighbouring Alemannia. He was defeated near Augsburg in 743 but continued to rule until his death in 748, saint Boniface completed the peoples conversion to Christianity in the early 8th century. Bavaria was in ways affected by the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century
Battle of Teugen-Hausen
The Battle of Teugen-Hausen or the Battle of Thann was an engagement that occurred during the War of the Fifth Coalition, part of the Napoleonic Wars. The French won a victory over their opponents when the Austrians withdrew that evening. The site of the battle is a height approximately halfway between the villages of Teugn and Hausen in Lower Bavaria, part of modern-day Germany. Also on 19 April, clashes occurred at Arnhofen near Abensberg, Dünzling, together with the Battle of Teugen-Hausen, the fighting marked the first day of a four-day campaign which culminated in the French victory at the Battle of Eckmühl. Austrias invasion of the Kingdom of Bavaria caught Emperor Napoleon I of Frances Franco-German army by surprise, though the advance of Archduke Charles Austrian army was slow, mistakes by Napoleons subordinate Marshal Louis-Alexandre Berthier placed Davouts corps in great peril. As Davout withdrew southwest from Regensburg on the bank of the Danube. The first Austrian column missed the French altogether, while Davouts cavalry held off the second column, the third column crashed head-on into one of Davouts infantry divisions in a meeting engagement.
Generals of both armies led their troops with courage and skill as the troops fought over two ridges, French reinforcements finally pushed the Austrians off the southern ridge late in the afternoon and Charles ordered a retreat that night. This opened a path for Davout to join the main body of the French army on 20 April. On 8 February 1809, the Austrian Empire determined to make war on Napoleon, Archduke Charles wished to put off the war in order to fully mobilize and find allies. Archduke Charles, appointed Generalissimo after the debacle of the War of the Third Coalition in 1805, had tried for three years to improve the Austrian army, historian David G. Chandler wrote, Charles was the very best man available to Austria to lead her army. He expanded the number of soldiers to 340,000. He upgraded the artillery corps, adopted the organization, and revised the infantry drillbook. Serious deficiencies remained, however, in Austrian staffwork, in the landwehr organization, at the start, only 15,000 of the best landwehr formations were added to the field army while the rest were relegated to garrison duty or the reserves.
The Habsburgs did not wish to arm the population for fear of an insurrection, in Hungary, the nobles and people were cool toward the war and contributed as little as possible. Charles massed the remaining regular army in Bohemia and along the Danube for the main effort, Charles 206, 906-strong Hauptarmee was organized into six army corps and two reserve corps. The I Armeekorps was led by General der Kavallerie Count Heinrich von Bellegarde, the II Armeekorps commanded by Feldzeugmeister Johann Kollowrat counted 28,168 soldiers. The III Armeekorps consisted of 29,360 troops under Feldmarschall-Leutnant Prince Friedrich Franz Xaver of Hohenzollern-Hechingen, the IV Armeekorps of Feldmarschall-Leutnant Prince Franz Seraph of Orsini-Rosenberg controlled 27,800 soldiers
Battle of Raab
The Battle of Raab was fought on June 14,1809 during the Napoleonic Wars, between Franco-Italian forces and Habsburg forces. The battle was fought near Győr, Kingdom of Hungary, Napoleon referred to the battle as a granddaughter of Marengo and Friedland, as it fell on the anniversary of those two battles. During the 1809 campaign in Italy, Viceroy Eugène de Beauharnais led the Franco-Italian army while General der Kavallerie Archduke John of Austria commanded the Austrian army, at the outbreak of war, John moved rapidly to defeat his opponent at the Battle of Sacile on 16 April. This victory drove Eugène back to the Adige River, the front remained static for a few weeks despite attacks by Eugène in the Battle of Caldiero. Meanwhile, an Austrian force bottled up the corps of General of Division Auguste Marmont in Dalmatia, after the Austrian defeat at the Battle of Eckmühl, John received orders to retreat in order to cover the strategic left flank of the army in southern Germany. John fought Eugène in a rearguard action at the Battle of Piave River on 8 May.
Up to this moment and his soldiers had fought well, John probably committed a serious blunder by splitting up his command. With the main army he fell back to the northeast, by the second week of May and Feldmarschallleutnant Albert Gyulai stood at Tarvisio with 8,340 troops. Feldmarschallleutnant Johann Maria Philipp Frimonts 13, 060-man Mobile Force lay at nearby Villach, Feldmarschallleutnant Ignaz Gyulai with 14,880 men of the IX Armeekorps defended the Ljubljana area to the southeast of Villach. Far to the west-northwest, Feldmarschallleutnant Johann Gabriel Chasteler de Courcelles and 17,460 soldiers of the VIII Armeekorps held the region around Innsbruck, Feldmarschallleutnant Franjo Jelačić and the 10, 200-strong Northern Division was stationed at Salzburg to the northwest. Finally, General-major Andreas von Stoichewichs 8,100 men continued to pin Marmont in Dalmatia to the south of Ljubljana, by this time a large proportion of Johns forces was made up of hastily raised landwehr infantry.
On 13 May, Marshal François Joseph Lefebvre and a Bavarian army wrecked part of Chastelers corps at the Battle of Wörgl near Innsbruck, on 17 May, John received orders to cut the communications of Emperor Napoleons Grand Army by moving north. However, the archduke delayed too long in carrying out this assignment, though badly isolated, Jelačić remained near Salzburg until 19 May. When he finally got moving it was too late, a French corps under General of Division Paul Grenier cut the Northern Division to pieces at the Battle of Sankt Michael on 25 May. John pulled back to Graz, but when he heard of Jelačićs disaster, during May, small Grenz infantry forces heroically defended the mountain passes during the Battle of Tarvis. At Malborghetto Valbruna,400 soldiers held a blockhouse against 15,000 Frenchmen between 15 and 17 May and only 50 men survived, the French admitted only 80 casualties. At the Predil Pass blockhouse,250 Austrians and 8 cannon held off 8,500 French soldiers for three days, on 18 May, when the position was finally overrun, the Grenzers were killed to a man.
The French admitted suffering 450 casualties, at Tarvisio itself, Eugène inflicted a serious defeat on Albert Gyulais outnumbered division
France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
At the end of the War of the Third Coalition shortly afterwards, Bavaria found itself on the victorious side. The French officially handed over the Tyrolean county including the secularized Bishopric of Trent to Bavaria on 11 February 1806. In its policies, the Bavarian government under Count Montgelas angered the Tyrolean population by raising taxes there, but at the same time barring exports, e. g. of cattle, from Tyrol into Bavaria. Furthermore, the state mingled into the affairs of the church in Tyrol, banning traditional rural holidays, additionally, on May 1,1808, the County of Tyrol was disestablished and administratively split up into the three districts of Inn and Etsch. Conscription was thus introduced in Tyrol and Tyroleans called into Bavarian military service, which led to open revolt. The trigger for the outbreak of the uprising was the flight to Innsbruck of young men that were due to be called into the Bavarian army by the authorities at Axams on March 12 and 13,1809. The partisans stayed in contact with the Austrian court in Vienna by their conduit Baron Joseph Hormayr, the Austrian Empire, citing a breach of the conditions agreed in the Peace of Pressburg guaranteeing Tyrolean constitutional autonomy, declared war on the Bavarian-French allies on April 9,1809.
Meanwhile, an army led by the innkeeper Andreas Hofer upon the war message had gathered around Sterzing. In the First and Second Battle of Bergisel near Innsbruck on April 12 and May 25, the peasant troops clashed with the Bavarians, the Tyroleans celebrated the news that Napoleon had suffered his first defeat at the Battle of Aspern-Essling on May 22. Thus, the rebels, who had their strongholds in Southern Tyrol, were fighting alone. Hofer now took over the administration of the territories at Innsbruck. However, in the Treaty of Schönbrunn of October 14, the treaty ending the War of the Fifth Coalition. Napoleon ordered the re-conquest of the province the same day and those last loyal troops were defeated at the Fourth Battle of Bergisel on November 1, that effectively crushed the rebellion despite minor rebel victories in November. Many of the rebels were executed by the French and Bavarian forces in the following weeks, the leader Andreas Hofer fled into the mountains and hid at several places in South Tyrol.
He was betrayed by a Tyrolean peasant to the French near St Martin in Passeier on 28 January 1810. Hofer was arrested and brought to Mantua, where Eugène de Beauharnais, the French viceroy of Italy, first wanted to pardon him, the death penalty was issued on February 19 and executed the next day. Hofers mortal remains were buried at the Innsbruck Hofkirche in 1823, upon Napoleons fall in 1814 and the Congress of Vienna, all parts of Tyrol were re-united under Austrian rule. With the rise of nationalism in the 19th century, the fate of the rebellion
Battle of Sacile
Sacile proved to be the most notable victory of Johns career. The action took place east of the Livenza River near Sacile in modern-day Italy during the War of the Fifth Coalition, in April 1809, Archduke John quickly invaded Venetia in northeastern Italy. On 15 April at Pordenone, the Austrian advance guard routed the French rear guard, undeterred by this setback and believing he enjoyed a numerical superiority over his opponents, Eugène attacked the Austrians east of Sacile the following day. Though the two sides were equal in numbers of soldiers, the Austrians possessed a two-to-one advantage in cavalry. Eugène withdrew his army 130 kilometres to a position at Verona on the Adige river. At Verona, the Franco-Italian army was secure from Archduke Johns army advancing from the east, by the end of April, news of French victories in the Danube valley caused John to fall back to the east, with Eugène in pursuit. In the early part of 1809, the Austrian Empire of Emperor Francis II determined to go to war against Emperor Napoleon Is First French Empire, Austria massed her main army in the Danube valley under Generalissimo Archduke Charles.
Though Italy was considered a minor theater and the Hofkriegsrat assigned two corps to the Army of Inner Austria and placed General der Kavallerie Archduke John in command. Regarded as incompetent by historian David G. Chandler, Archduke John had seen his first army utterly smashed by French General of Division Jean Moreau at the Battle of Hohenlinden on 3 December 1800. In Moreaus subsequent pursuit, Johns army became so demoralized that it was able to defend itself and suffered huge losses in prisoners. During the War of the Third Coalition, he had done better and he successfully linked up with the Army of Italy, led by his brother, Archduke Charles. Unfortunately for Austria, Napoleons crushing victory at the Battle of Austerlitz ended the war before Charles, the VIII Armeekorps assembled at Villach in Carinthia, while the IX Armeekorps massed to the south at Ljubljana in Carniola. General-major Andreas Stoichevich with 10,000 troops faced General of Division Auguste Marmonts XI Corps in Dalmatia, a body of 26,000 Landwehr stood ready to man garrisons and defend the Austrian heartland.
John planned to have the VIII Armeekorps move southwest from Villach, the two forces would unite near Cividale del Friuli. Another source gave a somewhat different Austrian organization at the outbreak of war, chastelers VIII Armeekorps possessed 20,100 men and 62 guns in two divisions. Feldmarschall-Leutnant Albert Gyulay led the 1st Division while Feldmarschall-Leutnant Johann Maria Philipp Frimont commanded the 2nd Division, Ignaz Gyulai s IX Armeekorps counted 22,290 soldiers and 86 guns in three divisions. Feldmarschall-Leutnant Guido Lippa was responsible for 30,000 Landwehr and reserves, before the Austrians launched the war, the Tyrol flared in a spontaneous revolt. The German-speaking Tyrolese under leaders like Andreas Hofer began driving out the Bavarian garrisons, desiring to aid the rebellion, Charles ordered John to send Chasteler and 10,000 Austrian troops to help the Tyrolese
Battle of Halberstadt
The Battle of Halberstadt took place on 29 and 30 July 1809 at Halberstadt in the Kingdom of Westphalia, during the War of the Fifth Coalition. A Westphalian infantry force attempted to halt the Black Brunswickers under Frederick William, the Brunswickers surprised the Westphalians by a rapid advance and defeated them inside the town. In exile in Austrian controlled Bohemia, Duke Frederick raised a force or freikorps to fight the French. The volunteers were equipped by the Austrian Empire, the colour of their uniforms was black. The Duke of Brunswick and his corps began their remarkable fighting march towards the north German coast at Zwickau on 24 July, entering the town of Halle in Westphalia on 26 July, the duke appropriated its civic funds. This prompted Jérôme to order three generals, Jean-Jacques Reubell, Pierre Guillaume Gratien and Claude Ignace François Michaud, to gather their forces, the 5th Infantry, led by Colonel P-S Mayronnet, reached Halberstadt at 11 am on 29 July, still 150 kilometres from Reubel.
At 1 pm, local gendarmes warned Mayronnet that the Brunswickers were in Quedlinburg, sending out his voltigeurs to form a skirmish line, Mayronnet sent the rest of his infantry to defend the gates of the medieval town walls, supported by the troops of the towns garrison. At 7 pm, the duke led one column against the Harsleber Gate while a second attacked the Kuhlinger Gate and a third, despite a spirited defence, all three gates were breached and obstructions, including carts full of manure, were cleared away. The Brunswickers rushed into the town shouting their battle cry of Seig oder todt, when the cavalry reached the main square they found Mayronnets powerful regimental reserve, but believing that they were surrounded by superior forces, they surrendered. Westphalian losses were about 600 dead and wounded, with 2,080 taken prisoner, the Brunswick Corps lost about 400 killed and wounded. The Duke of Brunswick resumed his march on the day,30 July. He headed first to his capital, the city of Brunswick.
Closely pursued by their enemies, they reached the coast at Elsfleth on 6 August. The Brunswick Corps went on to fight with the British Army in the Peninsular War and the Waterloo Campaign
Kingdom of Bavaria
The Kingdom of Bavaria was a German state that succeeded the former Electorate of Bavaria in 1805 and continued to exist until 1918. The Bavarian Elector Maximilian IV Joseph of the House of Wittelsbach became the first King of Bavaria in 1805 as Maximilian I Joseph, the crown would go on being held by the Wittelsbachs until the kingdom came to an end in 1918. Since the end of the kingdom and the empire in 1918, on 30 December 1777, the Bavarian line of the Wittelsbachs became extinct, and the succession on the Electorate of Bavaria passed to Charles Theodore, the Elector Palatine. After a separation of four and a half centuries, the Palatinate, to which the duchies of Jülich, between the French and the Austrians, Bavaria was now in a bad situation. Before the death of Charles Theodore the Austrians had again occupied the country, Maximilian IV Joseph, the new elector, succeeded to a difficult inheritance. By the Treaty of Lunéville Bavaria lost the Palatinate and the duchies of Zweibrücken, the 1805 Peace of Pressburg allowed Maximilian to raise Bavaria to the status of a kingdom.
Accordingly, Maximilian proclaimed himself king on 1 January 1806, the King still served as an Elector until Bavaria seceded from the Holy Roman Empire on 1 August 1806. The Duchy of Berg was ceded to Napoleon only in 1806, the new kingdom faced challenges from the outset of its creation, relying on the support of Napoleonic France. The kingdom faced war with Austria in 1808 and from 1810 to 1814, lost territory to Württemberg, Italy, in 1808, all relics of serfdom were abolished, which had left the old empire. In the same year, Maximilian promulgated Bavarias first written constitution, over the next five years, it was amended numerous times in accordance with Paris wishes. During the French invasion of Russia in 1812 about 30,000 Bavarian soldiers were killed in action, on 14 October, Bavaria made a formal declaration of war against Napoleonic France. The treaty was passionately backed by the Crown Prince Ludwig and by Marshal von Wrede, finally in 1816, the Rhenish Palatinate was taken from France in exchange for most of Salzburg which was ceded to Austria.
It was the second largest and second most powerful state south of the Main, in Germany as a whole, it ranked third behind Prussia and Austria. On 1 February 1817, Montgelas had been dismissed, and Bavaria had entered on a new era of constitutional reform, on 26 May 1818, Bavarias second constitution was proclaimed. The Landtag would have two houses, a house comprising the aristocracy and noblemen, including the high-class hereditary landowners, government officials. The second house, a house, would include representatives of small landowners, the towns. The rights of Protestants were safeguarded in the constitution with articles supporting the equality of all religions, the initial constitution almost proved disastrous for the monarchy, with controversies such as the army having to swear allegiance to the new constitution. Within the Kingdom of Bavaria, the Palatinate enjoyed a legal and administrative position
Georges Mouton, comte de Lobau was a French soldier and political figure who rose to the rank of Marshal of France. Born in Phalsbourg, Lorraine, he enlisted in the French Revolutionary Army in 1792, serving in the early campaigns of the French Revolutionary Wars, he by 1800 he was promoted to the rank of colonel. Promoted to général de brigade in 1805, after the establishment of the French Empire, in 1810, he was created count of Lobau in recognition of his role in the battle of Aspern. During the Russian Campaign, he acted as a senior aide-de-camp to Emperor Napoleon I of France and he served with distinction during the 1813 campaign, seeing action at the Battles of Lützen and Bautzen. After Dominique Vandamme was made prisoner during the battle of Kulm, during the Hundred Days, Lobau rallied to Napoleon and was made commander of the VI Infantry Corps which he led in the battles of Ligny and Waterloo. At the Battle of Waterloo he distinguished himself in the defense of Plancenoit against the Prussians, after the Second Restoration, Lobau was forced to go into exile until he was allowed to return to France in 1818.
He was elected to the House of Representatives from 1828 to 1830 as a liberal, as a reward for his services to King Louis-Philippe he was made a Marshal in 1831, the same year he was made a Peer of France. In 1832 and 1834, Lobau was assigned to suppress insurrections, george Mouton, comte de Lobau died in Paris. About general Georges Mouton, from the website arcdetriomphe. info
The Austrian Empire was an empire in Central Europe created out of the realms of the Habsburgs by proclamation in 1804. It was an empire and one of Europes great powers. Geographically it was the second largest country in Europe after the Russian Empire and it was the third most populous after Russia and France, as well as the largest and strongest country in the German Confederation. Proclaimed in response to the First French Empire, it overlapped with the Holy Roman Empire until the dissolution in 1806. The Ausgleich of 1867 elevated Hungarys status and it became a separate entity from the Empire entirely, joining with it in the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary. Changes shaping the nature of the Holy Roman Empire took place during conferences in Rastatt, on 24 March 1803, the Imperial Recess was declared, which reduced the number of ecclesiastical states from 81 to only 3 and the free imperial cities from 51 to 6. This measure was aimed at replacing the old constitution of the Holy Roman Empire, taking this significant change into consideration, the German Emperor Francis II created the title Emperor of Austria, for himself and his successors.
In 1804 the Holy Roman Emperor Francis II, who was ruler of the lands of the Habsburg Monarchy, founded the Empire of Austria. In doing so he created a formal overarching structure for the Habsburg Monarchy, to safeguard his dynastys imperial status he adopted the additional hereditary title of Emperor of Austria. Hungarys affairs remained administered by its own institutions as they had been beforehand, thus under the new arrangements no Imperial institutions were involved in its internal government. The fall and dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire was accelerated by French intervention in the Empire in September 1805, on 20 October 1805, an Austrian army led by general Karl Mack von Leiberich was defeated by French armies near the town of Ulm. The French victory resulted in the capture of 20,000 Austrian soldiers, Napoleons army won another victory at Austerlitz on 2 December 1805. Francis was forced into negotiations with the French from 4 to 6 December 1805, the French victories encouraged rulers of certain imperial territories to assert their formal independence from the Empire.
On 10 December 1805, the prince-elector Duke of Bavaria proclaimed himself King, finally, on 12 December, the Margrave of Baden was given the title of Grand Duke. In addition, each of these new countries signed a treaty with France, the Treaty of Pressburg between France and Austria, signed in Pressburg on 26 December, enlarged the territory of Napoleons German allies at the expense of defeated Austria. Certain Austrian holdings in Germany were passed to French allies—the King of Bavaria, the King of Württemberg, Austrian claims on those German states were renounced without exception. On 12 July 1806, the Confederation of the Rhine was established, comprising 16 sovereigns and this confederation, under French influence, put an end to the Holy Roman Empire. On 6 August 1806, even Francis recognized the new state of things and proclaimed the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire, as he did not want Napoleon to succeed him
Jean Lannes, 1st Duc de Montebello, 1st Prince de Siewierz, was a Marshal of the Empire. He was one of Napoleons most daring and talented generals, Napoleon once commented on Lannes, I found him a pygmy and left him a giant. A personal friend of the emperor, he was allowed to him with the familiar tu. Lannes was born in the town of Lectoure, in the Gers department in the south of France. He was the son of a Gascon farmer, Jeannet Lannes, and wife Cécile Fouraignan and he served through the campaigns in the Pyrenees in 1793 and 1794, and rose by distinguished conduct to the rank of chef de brigade. However, in 1795, on the reform of the army introduced by the Thermidorians and he was distinguished in every battle. At the Battle of Bassano he captured two enemy flags with his own hands and was wounded in the Battle of the Bridge of Arcole while aiding Bonaparte to escape the Austrian advance. He was chosen by Bonaparte to accompany him to Egypt as commander in one of Klébers brigades, in which capacity he distinguished himself.
He was wounded at the Battle of Abukir and he went back to France with Bonaparte, and assisted him in his 1799 coup. After Bonapartes take over and appointment as Consul of France, Lannes was promoted to the ranks of general of division, in 1801 Napoleon sent him as ambassador to Portugal. Opinions differ as to his merits in this capacity, Napoleon never made use of him again. Lannes purchased the seventeenth-century Château de Maisons, near Paris, in 1804 and had one of its state apartments redecorated for a visit from Napoleon. On the establishment of the empire he was created a Marshal of France, at Austerlitz he had the left of the Grande Armée. In the 1806-07 campaign he was at his best, commanding his corps with the greatest credit in the march through the Thuringian Forest, the action of Saalfeld and his leadership of the advanced guard at Friedland was even more prominent. In 1807, Napoleon recreated the duchy of Siewierz, and granted it to Jean Lannes, after Prussia was forced to cede all her acquisitions from the 2nd and 3rd partitions of Poland.
In January 1809 he was sent to attempt the capture of Saragossa and he said, this damned Bonaparte is going to get us all killed after his last campaign in Spain. In 1808, Napoleon created him Duc de Montebello, and in 1809, for the last time and he took part in the engagements around Eckmühl and the advance on Vienna. With his corps he led the French army across the Danube, on 22 May he received a mortal wound