Saint George's Cross
Saint Georges Cross, called Cross of Saint George, is a red cross on a white background. Sometimes associated with Saint George, the saint, often depicted as a crusader from the late Middle Ages, the cross has appeared on many flags, standards. Its first documented use was as the ensign of the Republic of Genoa, the cross is found, for various reasons, on the provincial flags of Huesca and Teruel and Barcelona. In Northern Ireland the cross appears on the flag of the loyalist paramilitary group the Ulster Volunteer Force, Saint George became widely venerated as a warrior saint during the Third Crusade. There was a legend that he had miraculously assisted Godfrey of Bouillon, there was no association of the red cross with St George before the end of the crusades. The red-on-white combination was chosen by Genoa and Aragon, among others, Saint George was depicted as a crusader knight during this time, but the red cross had no particular association with him. A crusader-era fresco in the crypt of Trani cathedral shows Saint George wearing a cross on a red surcoat.
It continued to be used as the Reichssturmfahne of the Holy Roman Empire, eventually giving rise to the flag of Savoy and the present-day flags of Switzerland and Denmark). The association with the Saint of the red-on-white cross probably arises in Genoa, a vexillum beati Georgii is mentioned in the Genovese annals for the year 1198, referring to a red flag with a depiction of St George and the dragon. An illumination of this flag is shown in the annals for the year 1227, the Genoese flag with the red cross was used alongside this Georges flag, from at least 1218, and was known as the insignia cruxata comunis Janue. The flag showing the saint himself was the principal war flag. The cross ceased to be a symbol associated with the taking of the cross. With the development of heraldry, there was great demand for variations of the cross symbol. Juliana Berners reports that there were Crossis innumerabull born dayli, the term St Georges cross was at first associated with any plain Greek cross touching the edges of the field.
Thomas Fuller in 1647 spoke of the plain or St Georges cross as the mother of all the others. Edward III of England chose Saint George as the saint of his Order of the Garter in 1348. There was a tradition claiming that Richard the Lionheart himself adopted both the flag and the patron saint from Genoa at some point during his crusade. This idea can be traced to the Victorian era, Perrin refers to it as a common belief, the English Monarch paid an annual tribute to the Doge of Genoa for this privilege
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries. Broadly defined, it was a way of structuring society around relationships derived from the holding of land in exchange for service or labour, since the publication of Elizabeth A. R. There is no commonly accepted definition of feudalism, at least among scholars. Since the publication of Elizabeth A. R, outside a European context, the concept of feudalism is often used only by analogy, most often in discussions of feudal Japan under the shoguns, and sometimes medieval and Gondarine Ethiopia. The term feudalism has been applied—often inappropriately or pejoratively—to non-Western societies where institutions, the term féodal was used in 17th-century French legal treatises and translated into English legal treatises as an adjective, such as feodal government. In the 18th century, Adam Smith, seeking to describe systems, effectively coined the forms feudal government. In the 19th century the adjective feudal evolved into a noun, the term feudalism is recent, first appearing in French in 1823, Italian in 1827, English in 1839, and in German in the second half of the 19th century.
The term feudal or feodal is derived from the medieval Latin word feodum, the etymology of feodum is complex with multiple theories, some suggesting a Germanic origin and others suggesting an Arabic origin. Initially in medieval Latin European documents, a grant in exchange for service was called a beneficium. Later, the term feudum, or feodum, began to replace beneficium in the documents, the first attested instance of this is from 984, although more primitive forms were seen up to one-hundred years earlier. The origin of the feudum and why it replaced beneficium has not been well established, the most widely held theory is put forth by Marc Bloch. Bloch said it is related to the Frankish term *fehu-ôd, in which means cattle and -ôd means goods. This was known as feos, a term that took on the meaning of paying for something in lieu of money. This meaning was applied to itself, in which land was used to pay for fealty. Thus the old word feos meaning movable property changed little by little to feus meaning the exact opposite and this Germanic origin theory was shared by William Stubbs in the 19th century.
Another theory was put forward by Archibald R. Lewis, Lewis said the origin of fief is not feudum, but rather foderum, the earliest attested use being in Astronomuss Vita Hludovici. In that text is a passage about Louis the Pious that says annona militaris quas vulgo foderum vocant, another theory by Alauddin Samarrai suggests an Arabic origin, from fuyū. Samarrais theory is that early forms of fief include feo, feuz and others, the first use of these terms is in Languedoc, one of the least Germanic areas of Europe and bordering Muslim Spain
Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor
Maximilian I was King of the Romans from 1486 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1493 until his death, though he was never crowned by the Pope, as the journey to Rome was always too risky. He was the son of Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor and he ruled jointly with his father for the last ten years of his fathers reign, from c.1483 to 1493. Charles father Philip died in 1506, so Charles succeeded Maximilian as Holy Roman Emperor in 1519, Maximilian was born at Wiener Neustadt on 22 March 1459. His father, Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, named him for an obscure saint whom Frederick believed had once warned him of imminent peril in a dream, in his infancy, he and his parents were besieged in Vienna by Albert of Austria. One source relates that, during the sieges bleakest days, the prince would wander about the castle garrison, begging the servants. The young prince was an excellent hunter, his hobby was the hunting for birds as a horse archer. The reigning duke of Burgundy, Charles the Bold, was the political opponent of Maximilians father Frederick III.
After the Siege of Neuss, he was successful, the wedding between Maximilian and Mary took place on the evening of 16 August 1477. Maximilians wife had inherited the large Burgundian domains in France and the Low Countries upon her fathers death in the Battle of Nancy on 5 January 1477. Already before his coronation as the King of the Romans in 1486, Maximilian decided to secure this distant and extensive Burgundian inheritance to his family, the House of Habsburg, at all costs. Maximilian undertook the defence of his wifes dominions from an attack by Louis XI and defeated the French forces at Guinegate, the wedding contract between Maximilian and Mary stipulated that only the children of bride and groom had a right to inherit from each, not the surviving parent. Mary tried to bypass this rule with a promise to transfer territories as a gift in case of her death, but her plans were confounded. After Marys death in an accident on 27 March 1482 near the Wijnendale Castle, Maximilians aim was now to secure the inheritance to one of his and Marys children.
Some of the Netherlander provinces were hostile to Maximilian, and they signed a treaty with Louis XI in 1482 that forced Maximilian to give up Franche-Comté and they openly rebelled twice in the period 1482–1492, attempting to regain the autonomy they had enjoined under Mary. Flemish rebels managed to capture Philip and even Maximilian himself, Maximilian continued to govern Marys remaining inheritance in the name of Philip the Handsome. After the regency ended and Charles VIII of France exchanged these two territories for Burgundy and Picardy in the Treaty of Senlis, thus a large part of the Netherlands stayed in the Habsburg patrimony. Maximilian was elected King of the Romans on 16 February 1486 in Frankfurt-am-Main at his fathers initiative and he became emperor of the Holy Roman Empire upon the death of his father in 1493. Much of Austria was under Hungarian rule when he took power, in 1490, Maximilian reconquered the territory and entered Vienna
Aarburg is a historic town and a municipality in the district of Zofingen in the canton of Aargau in Switzerland. The small town lies in the southwest Aargau, in a section of the Aare valley. It lies in the intersection of the most important traffic routes of Switzerland, the dominant landmark is the Aarburg Castle, one of Switzerlands largest castles and a heritage site of national significance. The visual character of Aarburg is shaped by the fortification and the church on a rock spur, the official language of Aarburg is German, but the main spoken language is the local variant of the Alemannic Swiss German dialect. In Roman times a road went by Aarburg, connecting the Olten region with the rest of inner Switzerland, during the construction of a factory in the 20th century, a hoard of coins produced during the reign of Emperor Tetricus I was discovered. The coin hoard was buried during the Bagauden Invasions in 284 CE. When, the fortress of Aarburg was constructed on the outcropping is unknown.
The first time it was documented was in 1123 when it is mentioned as Areburc, at the time it was the property of the Grafen von Frohburg family. From this castle the Bailiwick of Aarburg was governed, what is today the part of the county of Zofingen. In 1299 the Frohburgs sold the castle and the Bailiwick of Aarburg to the Habsburg family, the settlement at the foot of the castle was clearly identified as a town in the year 1330. Archeological evidence has shown that the town was founded around the year 1312. Wedged between the cities of Olten and Zofingen, with four kilometers between them, Aarburg could not develop commercially and remained a small town. The people of Aarburg lived mainly on the revenues that commerce along the Gotthard Pass provided. A small harbor on the river Aare was constructed in 1361, the resulting river boat traffic was of great economic importance until the 16th and 17th centuries. After a short siege the town was captured by Bern on 14 April 1415, in 1416, the castle became the residence of the bailiff of the Bailiwick of Aarburg.
On 4 May 1798 the town and fortress were captured by France without a struggle, the district of Aarburg was dissolved and the regional administrative functions of the French imposed Helvetic Republic were moved to Zofingen. The newly established Canton of Aargau took over the fortress in 1804, initially using it as a jail, since 1893 the castle has housed a canton-run school. A huge fire destroyed much of the premises and the church on 4 May 1840, the village was rebuilt, though without the main fortifications
Growth of the Old Swiss Confederacy
In the late Middle Ages, this region belonged to the Holy Roman Empire, and because of its strategic importance, the Hohenstaufen emperors had granted it reichsfrei status in the early 13th century. As reichsfrei regions, the cantons of Uri and Unterwalden were under the authority of the emperor without any intermediate liege lords. By 1460, the confederates controlled most of the south and west of the Rhine to the Alps. During their involvement in the Italian Wars, the Swiss brought the Ticino under their control, neither federation was part of the medieval Eidgenossenschaft but both maintained very close connections with it. Gotthard under their control, the latter because most of its territory belonged to reichsfrei monasteries. The cities of Bern and Zürich had become reichsfrei when the dynasty of their patrons, when Rudolph I of Habsburg was elected King of the Germans in 1273, he became the direct liege lord of these reichsfrei regions. He instituted a rule and raised the taxes to finance wars.
When he died in 1291, his son Albert I got involved in a struggle with Adolf of Nassau for the German throne. Anti-Habsburg insurgences sprung up in Swabia and Austria, but were quashed quickly by Albert in 1292, Zürich had participated in this uprising. Albert besieged the city, which had to him as its patron. This time of turmoil prompted the Waldstätten to cooperate more closely, the first alliance started in 1291 when Rudolph bought all the rights over the town of Lucerne and the abbey estates in Unterwalden from Murbach Abbey in Alsace. The Waldstätten saw their trade route over Lake Lucerne cut off, when Rudolph died on July 15,1291 the Communities prepared to defend themselves. On August 1,1291 an Everlasting League was made between the Forest Communities for mutual defense against a common enemy. The Federal Charter of 1291 is one of the oldest surviving document of an alliance between Uri and Unterwalden, the founding cantons of the Old Swiss Confederacy. It is possible that it was written a few decades than the date of 1291.
The traditional date given for the foundation of the Swiss Confederacy in Swiss historiography of the 16th century is 1307, even Unterwalden was finally properly granted this status by Alberts successor Henry VII in 1309. This did not prevent the dukes of Habsburg, who originally had had their homelands in the Aargau, the three cantons renewed their alliance in the pact of Brunnen, and Louis IV reconfirmed their Reichsfreiheit. Subsequently, the three followed a slow policy of expansion
Simmental is an alpine valley in the Bernese Oberland of Switzerland. It expands from Lenk to Boltigen, in a more or less south-north direction and it comprises the municipalities of Lenk, St. Stephan, Boltigen, Oberwil, Därstetten, Erlenbach and Wimmis. The Simme flows through the valley, some villages play a role in the winter tourism of the region of Bern, such as Lenk or Zweisimmen. From Zweisimmen the resorts of Gstaad and Château-dŒx can be reached, further up is the Jaunpass, which is crossed to go from Bulle to Fribourg, as well as the Hahnenmoos, which links Lenk with Adelboden
Infantry in the Middle Ages
Despite the rise of knightly cavalry in the 11th century, infantry played an important role throughout the Middle Ages on both the battlefield and in sieges. From the 14th century onwards, there was a rise in the prominence of infantry forces, sometimes referred to as an infantry revolution, in the medieval period, the mounted warrior held sway for an extended time. As the period progressed, the dominance of the elite began to slowly break down. The Black Death in the 14th century swept through Europe, devastating the population and this encouraged more economical use of available manpower, and the infantryman was much cheaper to outfit and maintain than the aristocratic knight. The Crusade era saw a rise in the importance of infantry, such expeditions were part of the growing number of sieges and campaigns throughout the 13th and 14th centuries that greatly increased the cost of warfare for medieval regimes. The relative inexpensiveness of the infantryman, combined with a shortage of manpower, the most common infantry throughout the early medieval period were peasants and commoners who were obliged to fight for the local lord, due to their place in the feudal system.
They were always unarmoured or lightly armoured and fought either with simple agricultural or hunting tools such as axes and long knives, or with a spear, in most circumstances they were expected to bring and maintain their own equipment. At few times they were outfitted by the lord or king they fought for and these men were essentially conscripts and as such their discipline and fighting ability varied greatly. Generally those fighting to protect their homeland were far more motivated than those fighting abroad, as the Medieval period progressed, this pattern began to change under the pressure of constant warfare. The growth of urban centres opened up new sources of infantry recruits, peasants were reduced to the role of archers and skirmishers, providing missile cover for the heavy infantry and cavalry. The Medieval period saw the expansion of mercenary forces, the Swiss pikeman, the German Landsknecht, and the Italian Condottiere are three of the best known examples of this new class of fighting man.
The expanded campaigns, castle-building and sieges of the era saw use of household troops, often bodyguards of the elite. These were cheaper to recruit and maintain than knights with all their trappings, siege warfare in particular required large bodies of troops in the field, for extended periods of time, including numerous specialists. All this added up to make the days of peasant levies unsustainable. As more kings and lords turned to infantry, their opponents had to keep pace, to obtain the best fighting men, elites had to make provision for their regular payment and supply. As one history of medieval warfare notes, The rising importance of foot troops, brought not only the opportunity but the need to expand armies substantially. Then as early as the late 13th century, we can observe Edward I campaigning at the head of armies incorporating tens of thousands of paid archers and this represented a major change in approaches to recruitment and above all pay. The importance of order was well understood in medieval warfare
Neuenegg is a municipality in the Bern-Mittelland administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland. Neuenegg is first mentioned in 1228 as Nuneca, in 1235 it was mentioned as Nuwenegge. During the Middle Ages, Neuenegg was part of the Herrschaft of Laupen, in 1324, the entire Herrschaft was acquired by Bern. Neuenegg was one of the six courts of the new Bernese bailiwick of Laupen, initially the court was held in the church yard, it moved to the village pub. In 1339, during the Battle of Laupen, the Bernese, Fribourg and Habsburg forces attacked the hill and after heavy fighting were driven away with heavy losses. The Swiss and Bernese victory on the Bramberg brought Bern into closer association with the Swiss Confederacy, the village parish church of St. John was first mentioned in 1227 when Emperor Frederick II granted it to the Teutonic Knights. The current aisle was built in the 13th or 14th century, the choir is from 1452, the first village school was built in the 17th century.
During the French invasion of 1798 a major battle was fought near Neuenegg, under the command of Johann Rudolf von Graffenried the Bernese triumphed over numerically superior French troops under Brigadier General Pigeon on 5 March 1798. However, after the Bernese defeat that day at the Battle of Grauholz. Neuenegg was located near the Bern-Fribourg trade road, in 1470 Fribourg built a bridge across the Sense river at Neuenegg and brought the road directly through the town. It remained on the road for several centuries. However, in the 19th century, the new, main cantonal road bypassed Neuenegg, in 1860 a railroad line was built which bypassed the village. It wasnt until 1903 that the Flamatt-Gümmenen rail line was built through the town, in the same year, Nestlé opened a milk processing factory in Neuenegg. In 1927 the Bernese company Wander AG acquired the factory to produce Ovaltine, in 1967 the factory was acquired by Sandoz AG and Novartis AG when they acquired Wander. In 2002 Associated British Foods acquired the company and the factory, Neuenegg has an area of 21.87 km2.
As of 2012, a total of 11.49 km2 or 52. 5% is used for agricultural purposes, while 8.35 km2 or 38. 2% is forested. Of the rest of the land,1.97 km2 or 9. 0% is settled,0.15 km2 or 0. 7% is either rivers or lakes. During the same year and buildings made up 5. 1%, out of the forested land,37. 1% of the total land area is heavily forested and 1. 1% is covered with orchards or small clusters of trees
Louis II of Vaud
Louis II, of the House of Savoy, was the Baron of Vaud from 1302 until his death. A military man, he fought widely in Italy and, during the first phase of the Hundred Years War, Louis married Isabelle, daughter of John I, lord of Arlay, of the House of Chalon. With her he had at least one son and one daughter, name unknown Catherine, Azzone Visconti in 1331, one daughter 2. Raoul II of Brienne, Count of Eu, in 1340, william I, Marquis of Namur, in 1352, three children. In 1308 Louis was one of those representing the Savoyards at the coronation of Edward II of England in Westminster Abbey, in 1310 he joined the expedition of Henry VII into Italy to be crowned Emperor, and was himself made a Senator of Rome. He continued to serve Henrys cause in Italy until 1313 and his grandiloquent title at this time was Louis of Savoy, a magnificent man, by the grace of God a most illustrious senator of the city of Rome. Between 1314 and 1322, Louis led several campaigns against the Dauphiné, in 1331 Louis was campaigning in Lombardy in an effort to carve out a new kingdom for John the Blind, King of Bohemia.
The king installed his son, the future Emperor Charles IV, as his vicar in Lombardy, the baron of Vaud had to decline the office on account of a conflict of interests, since his eldest daughter Catherine had just married Azzone Visconti, lord of Milan. The count of Geneva and the baron of Vaud were the first to do homage to the new count of Savoy, at this time in his career—he was in his mid-fifties—Louis was the grand old man of the dynasty in wisdom and experience. After 1337 Louis was frequently in France serving Philip VI with his troops during the war with the England, in 1339 Louiss only son was killed at the Battle of Laupen, and his son-in-law Azzo died, leaving his daughter Catherine as a widow and a potential heiress. Louiss requested and received from Count Aymon permission to name her his heir in the barony, in 1345 Louis was fighting with John, Duke of Normandy, in the Limousin and Auvergne against the English. In 1343 Louis was tasked with presenting Savoyard fears about the agreed sale of the Dauphiné to Philip, Duke of Orléans.
In 1347 Louis again tried to block the French acquisition of the Dauphiné, when the reigning dauphin, Humbert II, returned from his Smyrniote crusade a widower in the spring, Pope Clement VI, who formerly favoured the French, encouraged him to remarry and sire an heir. The papal change of mind was probably induced by the several embassies which Louis can be shown to have sent to the court at Avignon during the year. The lord of Piedmont held extensive lands in the Canavese, of which Louis was lieutenant-general, before leaving for France, Louis sent the marshal of Savoy, Antelme de Miolans, to the Piedmont with an army. After his return Louis took the cases of the Dauphiné and the Piedmont to the papal court, where he stayed through the winter of 1347–48. After sixty years of active and adventurous life, Louis died late in 1348 or early the year, certainly before 29 January 1349. He was succeeded by his daughter Catherine, twice widowed, ruled for two years jointly with her mother, the two were known as les Dames de Vaud, the ladies of Vaud
Heavy cavalry is a class of cavalry whose primary role was to engage in direct combat with enemy forces. Although some form of cavalry had been in use in Mesopotamia since 3000 BC, by 600 BC armoured cavalry began seeing use, though it was not until the ancient Greek era that true heavy cavalry emerged. Iranian tribes such as the Massagetae were believed to be the originator of the class of heavy cavalry known as cataphract, by the time of Alexanders invasion cataphract units with both men and beasts being fully encased in armour were already in use by the Persians. The Celts of western and central Europe are among the first peoples in the known to have made use of heavy cavalry. It is generally accepted that the Celts were the originators of chainmail, at the Battle of Carrhae, Gallic auxiliary cavalry met with the completely armoured Parthian cataphracts. Despite being outmatched the Gauls fought fiercely and well before being annihilated in a protracted melee, for close combat the main weapon was the spear, around 7 feet in length with a leaf-bladed head, and a heavy wooden shield with an iron spindle-type boss.
The most prestigious weapon was the sword, a blade ranging anywhere from 2 ft to 3 ft in length, Celtic swords were typically of good quality, with some being of such quality that archeologists have classed them as being equal to modern, high-quality steel replicas. The heavy cavalry of the Celtiberi, widely employed by the Carthaginians, known to the Romans as Lanciarii, they are represented in several Iberian carvings of the period. They may have carried the soliferrum, the all-iron javelin unique to Iberia, in addition to a spear and shield, together with the Gallic nobles, it was likely these horsemen who at Cannae charged broke superior numbers of Roman and Italian cavalry. The ancient Greeks called armoured cavalry Kataphraktos which translated means roughly covered, protected or armoured, the term was borrowed by the Romans and until the Middle Ages in Europe, continued to be used to designate armoured cavalry. The exception was in Northern Greece, where large areas of grassland made cavalry much more practical.
Eventually, encounters with Persian cavalry led the Greeks to create their own cavalry arm, while cavalry played an increasingly greater part in Greek warfare, its roles were generally restricted to scouting and pursuit. Its likely that Phillip of Macedon organized his famed Companions after the Theban model, in both role and equipment, the Companions was the first cavalry force that was known to represent archetypal heavy cavalry. The Companion cavalry, or Hetairoi, were the arm of the Macedonian army. In the aftermath of the Macedonian Empire, the Diadochi, successor states created by Alexander the Greats generals, continued the usage of heavy cavalry in their own forces. Up to the 5th century, Sarmatian cavalry units were stationed in Britain as part of the Roman army, the stirrup, which gives greater stability to a rider, has been described as one of the most significant inventions in the history of warfare, prior to gunpowder. As a tool allowing expanded use of horses in warfare, the stirrup is often called the third step in equipment, after the chariot.
The basic tactics of mounted warfare were significantly altered by the stirrup, a rider supported by stirrups was less likely to fall off while fighting, and could deliver a blow with a weapon that more fully employed the weight and momentum of horse and rider
Canton of Schwyz
Schwyz is a canton in central Switzerland between the Alps in the south, Lake Lucerne to the west and Lake Zürich in the north, centered on and named after the town of Schwyz. It is one of the cantons of Switzerland, Switzerlands Standard German name, die Schweiz, is derived from the name of the canton. For the history of the name, see Schwyz, the Swiss Federal Charter is on display in Schwyz. Northeast of the town of Schwyz is the Einsiedeln Abbey, the earliest traces of humans in Schwyz are from the Upper Paleolithic and Early Mesolithic or about 12,500 BC. An excavation of the karst caves in the valley of the Muota river revealed numerous sites, the alpine meadows at Bödmeren, Twärenen and Silberen were stone age hunter-gatherer camps. Ibex and red deer bones along with charcoal indicate that the animals were butchered and cooked in these camps, in 2009 the first stone age tool in the canton, a stone drill, was discovered. During the late Neolithic and early Bronze Age there were a number of pile dwellings, the two settlements at Hurden in Freienbach are part of the Prehistoric Pile dwellings around the Alps, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The Hurden sites are related to the western Cortaillod culture, sites on the island of Lützelau and the shore zone at Freienbach are eastern Pfyn culture and Corded Ware culture. During the Bronze Age several bridges were built between the promontory of Endingen in Rapperswil, St. Gallen and the settlements at Hurden, over 200,000 posts and seven bridges have been discovered, along with several settlements and ritual sites. On the Schwyz side of the lake, ten different settlements from 4300-2700 BC have been discovered, after 1200 BC there is very little evidence for further Bronze Age settlements in the canton. Only eight Iron Age sites have been discovered in the canton from the 8th to 1st centuries BC, during the Roman era a Roman Vicus was established at Kempraten in Rapperswil around the massive bridge at Seedamm which crossed into Schwyz. A Gallo-Roman temple was built on Ufenau island around AD200 on the site of the present chapel of Sts, a few Roman coin hoards were discovered at Küssnacht and Rickenbach bei Schwyz and Küssnacht may have been the site of a Roman estate.
In 561 Schwyz became part of the Ducatus alamannorum and remained independent under the Alemanni dukes until the second quarter of the 8th century. The Alemanni began to settle into the valleys around 680, but for centuries the Germanic speaking Alemanni, Romansh remained the main language in Einsiedeln until the 10th century. In the 8th and 9th centuries the land was under the Counts of the Zürichgau, the low-laying land along Lake Zürich was relatively easy to reach and was settled throughout the Middle Ages. During the Middle Ages, the Muotathal area was used by seasonal herders, Küssnacht was first mentioned in the 9th century, but it is likely that there were earlier settlements. The forests around Einsiedeln were lightly settled, a visit of the Irish monks and Columbanus in 611 is mentioned in the Gallusviten. However, their efforts were unsuccessful in Schwyz