Duke of Masovia
Duke of Masovia was a title born by the sons and descendants of the Polish Duke Bolesław III Wrymouth. This was known as the fragmentation of Poland, subsequent developments lead to further splintering of the duchies. The following is a list of all rulers of the Duchy of Masovia, although not all incumbents listed here had titular rights to the title of Duke of Masovia, they are all listed as such for simplicitys sake. Also take note that some of the dates are merely approximate, this table does not include lands ruled by dukes of other parts of partitioned Poland or Wenceslaus II and Wenceslaus III. The Duchy went through various changes in the coming years, sometimes losing. Duchy of Masovia In 1233, the Duchy of Kujavia emerged from Masovia, Duchy of Kujavia In 1313, Masovia is divided in the Duchies of Płock and Rawa. The same happens with Płock in 1495, konrad III reunites Czersk and Warsaw, to recreate the Duchy of Masovia, annexed by Poland in1526. Media related to Dukes of Masovia at Wikimedia Commons
Mongol invasions of Japan
The Mongol invasions of Japan, which took place in 1274 and 1281, were major military efforts undertaken by Kublai Khan to conquer the Japanese archipelago after the submission of Goryeo to vassaldom. Ultimately a failure, the attempts are of macro-historical importance because they set a limit on Mongol expansion. The Mongol invasions are considered a precursor to modern warfare. One of the most notable innovations during the war was the use of explosive. After a series of Mongol invasions of Korea between 1231 and 1281, Goryeo signed a treaty in favor of the Mongols and became a vassal state, Kublai was declared Khagan of the Mongol Empire in 1260 and established his capital at Khanbaliq in 1264. The Mongols made attempts to subjugate the peoples of Sakhalin—the Ainu, Orok. In 1266, Kublai Khan dispatched emissaries to Japan with a saying, Cherished by the Mandate of Heaven. The sovereigns of small countries, sharing borders with other, have for a long time been concerned to communicate with each other.
Especially since my ancestor governed at heavens command, innumerable countries from afar disputed our power, Goryeo rendered thanks for my ceasefire and for restoring their land and people when I ascended the throne. Our relation is feudatory like a father and son and we think you already know this. Japan was allied with Goryeo and sometimes with China since the founding of your country, however and we are afraid that the Kingdom is yet to know this. Hence we dispatched a mission with our letter particularly expressing our wishes, enter into friendly relations with each other from now on. We think all countries belong to one family, how are we in the right, unless we comprehend this. Nobody would wish to resort to arms, Kublai essentially demanded that Japan become a vassal and send tribute under a threat of conflict. A second set of emissaries were sent in 1268, returning empty-handed like the first, after discussing the letters with his inner circle, there was much debate, but the Shikken had his mind made up, he had the emissaries sent back with no answer.
The Mongols continued to send demands, some through Korean emissaries and some through Mongol ambassadors on March 7,1269, September 17,1269, September 1271, each time, the bearers were not permitted to land in Kyushu. The Imperial Court suggested compromise, but really had little effect in the matter, after acknowledging its importance, the Imperial Court led great prayer services, and much government business was put off to deal with this crisis. The Khan was willing to go to war as early as 1268 after having been rebuffed twice, Kublai Khan founded the Yuan dynasty in 1271
Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country in Central Europe, situated between the Baltic Sea in the north and two mountain ranges in the south. Bordered by Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south and Belarus to the east, the total area of Poland is 312,679 square kilometres, making it the 69th largest country in the world and the 9th largest in Europe. With a population of over 38.5 million people, Poland is the 34th most populous country in the world, the 8th most populous country in Europe, Poland is a unitary state divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, and its capital and largest city is Warsaw. Other metropolises include Kraków, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk and Szczecin, the establishment of a Polish state can be traced back to 966, when Mieszko I, ruler of a territory roughly coextensive with that of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity. The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025, and in 1569 it cemented a political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin.
This union formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th and 17th century Europe, Poland regained its independence in 1918 at the end of World War I, reconstituting much of its historical territory as the Second Polish Republic. In September 1939, World War II started with the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany, followed thereafter by invasion by the Soviet Union. More than six million Polish citizens died in the war, after the war, Polands borders were shifted westwards under the terms of the Potsdam Conference. With the backing of the Soviet Union, a communist puppet government was formed, and after a referendum in 1946. During the Revolutions of 1989 Polands Communist government was overthrown and Poland adopted a new constitution establishing itself as a democracy, informally called the Third Polish Republic. Since the early 1990s, when the transition to a primarily market-based economy began, Poland has achieved a high ranking on the Human Development Index.
Poland is a country, which was categorised by the World Bank as having a high-income economy. Furthermore, it is visited by approximately 16 million tourists every year, Poland is the eighth largest economy in the European Union and was the 6th fastest growing economy on the continent between 2010 and 2015. According to the Global Peace Index for 2014, Poland is ranked 19th in the list of the safest countries in the world to live in. The origin of the name Poland derives from a West Slavic tribe of Polans that inhabited the Warta River basin of the historic Greater Poland region in the 8th century, the origin of the name Polanie itself derives from the western Slavic word pole. In some foreign languages such as Hungarian, Lithuanian and Turkish the exonym for Poland is Lechites, historians have postulated that throughout Late Antiquity, many distinct ethnic groups populated the regions of what is now Poland. The most famous archaeological find from the prehistory and protohistory of Poland is the Biskupin fortified settlement, dating from the Lusatian culture of the early Iron Age, the Slavic groups who would form Poland migrated to these areas in the second half of the 5th century AD.
With the Baptism of Poland the Polish rulers accepted Christianity and the authority of the Roman Church
A knight is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch or other political leader for service to the monarch or country, especially in a military capacity. Historically, in Europe, knighthood was conferred upon mounted warriors, during the High Middle Ages, knighthood was considered a class of lower nobility. By the Late Middle Ages, the rank had become associated with the ideals of chivalry, often, a knight was a vassal who served as a fighter for a lord, with payment in the form of land holdings. The lords trusted the knights, who were skilled in battle on horseback, since the early modern period, the title of knight is purely honorific, usually bestowed by a monarch, as in the British honours system, often for non-military service to the country. The modern female equivalent in the United Kingdom is Dame, Geoffroi de Charnys Book of Chivalry expounded upon the importance of Christian faith in every area of a knights life. This novel explored the ideals of knighthood and their incongruity with the reality of Cervantes world, in the late medieval period, new methods of warfare began to render classical knights in armour obsolete, but the titles remained in many nations.
Some orders of knighthood, such as the Knights Templar, have become the subject of legend, each of these orders has its own criteria for eligibility, but knighthood is generally granted by a head of state or monarch to selected persons to recognise some meritorious achievement. This linkage is reflected in the etymology of chivalry, the special prestige accorded to mounted warriors finds a parallel in the furusiyya in the Muslim world, and the Greek hippeus and Roman eques of classical antiquity. The word knight, from Old English cniht, is a cognate of the German word Knecht and this meaning, of unknown origin, is common among West Germanic languages. Middle High German had the phrase guoter kneht, which meant knight, the Anglo-Saxon cniht had no connection to horsemanship, the word referred to any servant. A rādcniht, riding-servant, was a servant delivering messages or patrolling coastlines on horseback, a narrowing of the generic meaning servant to military follower of a king or other superior is visible by 1100.
The specific military sense of a knight as a warrior in the heavy cavalry emerges only in the Hundred Years War. The verb to knight appears around 1300, from the same time, an Equestrian was a member of the second highest social class in the Roman Republic and early Roman Empire. This class is often translated as knight, the medieval knight, both Greek ἳππος and Latin equus are derived from the Proto-Indo-European word root ekwo-, horse. In the Roman Empire, the classical Latin word for horse, was replaced in common parlance by the vulgar Latin caballus, sometimes thought to derive from Gaulish caballos. From caballus arose terms in the various Romance languages cognate with the English cavalier, Italian cavaliere, Spanish caballero, French chevalier, Portuguese cavaleiro, the Germanic languages have terms cognate with the English rider, German Ritter, and Dutch and Scandinavian ridder. These words are derived from Germanic rīdan, to ride, in turn derived from the Proto-Indo-European root reidh-, in ancient Rome there was a knightly class Ordo Equestris from which European knighthood may have been derived.
Some portions of the armies of Germanic peoples who occupied Europe from the 3rd century AD onward had been mounted, in the Early Medieval period any well-equipped horseman could be described as a knight, or miles in Latin
Orda Ichen was a Mongol Khan and military strategist who ruled eastern part of the Golden Horde during the 13th century. Orda Ichen is credited for founding the White Horde, he was the eldest son of Jochi and this mainly consisted of the territories between Lake Balkhash and the Volga river, it was in these lands that Orda eventually founded the White Horde. West of the Volga river were the lands of his younger brother Batu, who became the first ruler of the Blue Horde, güyük Khan ordered Temuge Otchigin, who tried to illegally usurp the throne for himself, to be investigated by Orda and Möngke in c. This event triggered hostilities between the Mergit and Khiyad tribes, Temüjin was born from the marriage between Hoelun and Yesugei. When Temüjin became 16 years old he married Börte Ujin from the Onggirat tribe, Temüjin formed an alliance with his blood brother Jamuha and his foster-father Toghril, the Mergids were defeated by the alliance which Temüjin had formed and his wife Börte was reclaimed.
As Genghis Khan’s first-born son, Jochi was favored as rightful heir to the Mongol Empire and it was Chagatai who brought up the dispute of Jochi’s illegitimacy, but Genghis Khan remained determined that Jochi was his legitimate first-born son. Jochi’s descendants were the oldest branch of the Genghis Khan family, Orda Ichen was the first-born son of Jochi, his younger brothers were Batu, Shayban, Toga-Timur and Baul-Teval. All these were brothers of each other and Orda Khan was the oldest and his younger brother, Batu Khan, claimed his authority over the Jochid Hordes in accordance with Ordas wish. Subutai & Batu Khan led two armies against Hungary, while Orda Khan with Chagatais sons Baidar & Kadan attacked Poland as a diversion to prevent the Poles and Czechs from assisting Hungary in combat. Orda’s forces assaulted the border of Lithuania, sacked the cities of Sandomierz and Kraków in April 1241, but were unable to conquer Wrocław. While Orda was preparing siege on Wrocław, Baidar and Kadan received glowing reports that king Wenceslaus I of Bohemia was two days away with an army of 50,000 soldiers, a smoke screen was used to conceal the Mangudai’s withdrawal, thereby misleading Henry’s military forces.
After the European knights pursued the fleeing Mangudai, the Mongols were able to separate the knights from the infantry, henry II the Pious was intercepted while trying to escape the battlefield, his head was paraded on a spear while marching through the town of Legnica. King Wenceslaus I of Bohemia arrived at the field too late. When he heard that one Mongol group raided as far as the Saxonian town Meissen promptly marched there and seek reinforcements from Thuringia, rapid Mongol troops returned to the East and tried attack Bohemia via Kłodzko Land but they were stopped at the border. Afterwards Orda with Mangudai joined forces of Kadan and Baidar at Otmuchów, Orda Khan died in 1251 before he could consolidate his ülüs. After his death his grandson Köchü extended the line of successors for the White Horde, very little is known about Orda’s wife and children, however his dynastic lines lived on for many generations. His early successors were friendly towards Ilkhanate and Yuan emperors, Urus the eighth Khan of the White Horde was a direct descendant of Orda khan, Urus Khan became the leader of both the Blue and White Horde.
Tokhtamysh was one of Ordas descendants, he dethroned the Batukhanids, List of Mongol Khans List of Khans of the Golden Horde
Mongol invasions and conquests
Mongol invasions and conquests took place throughout the 13th century, resulting in the vast Mongol Empire, which by 1300 covered much of Asia and Eastern Europe. Historians regard the destruction under the Mongol Empire as results of some of the deadliest conflicts in human history. In addition, Mongol expeditions brought the plague along with them, spreading it across much of Asia and Europe. The Mongol Empire developed in the course of the 13th century through a series of conquests and invasions throughout Asia, thus most Mongol conquering and plundering took place during the warmer seasons, when there was sufficient grass for the herds. Tartar and Mongol raids against Russian states continued well beyond the start of the Mongol Empires fragmentation around 1260, the Mongols territorial gains in China continued into the 14th century under the Yuan dynasty, while those in Persia persisted into the 15th century under the Timurid Empire. In India, a Mongol state survived into the 19th century in the form of the Mughal Empire, genghis Khan forged the initial Mongol Empire in Central Asia, starting with the unification of the Mongol and Turkic confederations such as Merkits and Mongols.
The Uighur Buddhist Qocho Kingdom surrendered and joined the empire and he continued expansion of the empire via conquest of the Qara Khitai and the Khwarazmian dynasty. Large areas of Islamic Central Asia and northeastern Iran were seriously depopulated, each soldier was required to execute a certain number of persons, with the number varying according to circumstances. For example, after the conquest of Urgench, each Mongol warrior – in an group that might have consisted of two tumens – was required to execute 24 people. Hungary became a refuge after the Mongol invasions for fleeing Cumans, one thousand northern Chinese engineer squads accompanied the Mongol Khan Hulagu during his conquest of the Middle East. The Yuan dynasty created a Han Army out of defected Jin troops, the Mongol force which invaded southern China was far greater than the force they sent to invade the Middle East in 1256. The Mongols greatest triumph was when Kublai Khan established the Yuan dynasty in China in 1271, the top-level government agency Bureau of Buddhist and Tibetan Affairs was established to govern Tibet, which was conquered by the Mongols and put under Yuan rule.
The Mongols invaded Sakhalin between 1264 and 1308, Korea became a semi-autonomous vassal state and compulsory ally of the Yuan dynasty for about 80 years. The Yuan dynasty was overthrown during the Red Turban Rebellion in 1368 by the Han Chinese who gained independence. Kublai Khans Yuan dynasty invaded Burma between 1277 and 1287, resulting in the capitulation and disintegration of the Pagan Kingdom, the invasion in 1301 was repulsed by the Burmese Myinsaing Kingdom. The Mongol invasions of Vietnam and Java resulted in defeat for the Mongols, the Mongols invaded and destroyed Volga Bulgaria and Kievan Rus, before invading Poland and Bulgaria, and others. Over the course of three years, the Mongols destroyed and annihilated all of the cities of Russia with the exceptions of Novgorod. When we were journeying through that land we came across countless skulls, the Mongol invasions induced population displacement on a scale never seen before in central Asia as well as eastern Europe
Duke of Silesia
The Duke of Silesia was the sons and descendants of the Polish Duke Bolesław III Wrymouth. This was known as the fragmentation of Poland, subsequent developments lead to further splintering of the duchies. Between 1327 and 1329 most dukes accepted the overlordship of Bohemian king John of Bohemia, in the coming centuries all branches of the Silesian Piasts died out, and with the death of George William, Duke of Liegnitz the dynasty ceased to exist. After Konrads death Głogów was again united with the Duchy of Wrocław/Lower Silesia, in 1173 Bolesław returned and he agreed to let Mieszko and Bolesław rule in their own Duchies, separated from the Duchy of Silesia. This led to the creation of the Duchy of Racibórz for Mieszko I, the territories controlled by Mieszko I and Jarosław roughly corresponded to what is known as Upper Silesia, while the territories remaining with Bolesław I roughly corresponded to Lower Silesia. Some sources refer to it as the Duchy of Silesia, some as Duchy of Lower Silesia, others yet as the Duchy of Wrocław.
Wrocław was the capital of the Duchy of Silesia, yet this early Duchy of Silesia should not be confused with the smaller Duchy of Wrocław that was created with further fragmentation in 1248. The Duchy went through various changes in the coming years, sometimes losing. In 1248 Lower Silesia was divided when Bolesław II had to cede the Duchy of Wrocław to his younger brother Henry III, Duchy of Lower Silesia In 1248, the Duchy of Lower Silesia was partitioned in the duchies of Wrocław and Legnica. Duchy of Wrocław Duchy of Legnica In 1251, in Lower Silesia, Duchy of Głogów In 1274, the Duchy of Świdnica-Jawor emerged from Legnica. In the same year, the Duchy of Zágán emerged from Glogów, Duchy of Świdnica-Jawor Duchy of Żagań In 1311, the Duchy of Brzeg emerged from Legnica. Duchy of Brzeg In 1313, the Duchy of Oleśnica emerged from Glógow, Duchy of Oleśnica In 1322, the Duchy of Ziebice emerged from Swidnica-Jawor. Duchy of Ziębice Upper Silesia was divided into the Duchies of Cieszyn, in 1340 the Duchy of Racibórz was united with Opava, a Bohemian fief.
Duchy of Opole-Racibórz In 1281, the Duchy of Cieszyn is created, Duchy of Cieszyn In 1282, the Duchies of Opole and Racibórz were created from the partition of the Duchy of Opole-Racibórz. With this partition, it was created the Duchy of Bytom, Duchy of Opole Duchy of Racibórz Duchy of Bytom In 1315, the Duchy of Oświęcim emerged from the Duchy of Cieszyn. Duchy of Oświęcim In 1445, the Duchy of Zator emerged from the Duchy of Oświęcim, 1747–1795 Philipp Gotthard von Schaffgotsch 1795–1817 Joseph Christian Franz zu Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Bartenstein Prussian part secularised in 1810. 1823–1832 Emanuel von Schimonsky 1835–1840 Leopold von Sedlnitzky 1843–1844 Joseph Knauer 1845–1850 Melchior von Diepenbrock Theocracy abolished in 1850, list of Polish rulers Piast dynasty Dukes of Masovia Dukes of Greater Poland Dukes of Little Poland Dukes of Cuiavia Dukes of Sieradz-Łęczyca Neue deutsche Biographie, Berlin 2001, Bd. 20, p. 403-407 Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon, Leipzig 1905–1909, Bd
Kadan was the son of the second Great Khan of the Mongols Ögedei and a concubine. He was the grandson of Genghis Khan and the brother of Güyük Khan, during the Mongol invasion of Europe, along with Baidar and Orda Khan, led the Mongol diversionary force that attacked Poland, while the main Mongol force struck the Kingdom of Hungary. In early 1241, Kadans forces sacked the Polish towns of Lublin, Kadan attacked Masovia, while Baidar burned the evacuated Polish capital, Kraków and Bytom, and Orda Khan ravaged the southwestern border of Lithuania and the Polish Baltic coast. The three leaders were to attack the Silesian capital Breslau, after defeating some forces of Konrad I of Masovia, Kadans forces joined with Baidars and Ordas at Liegnitz. The Christian army was crushed in the ensuing Battle of Liegnitz of April 9,1241, Mongol casualties were heavier than expected in the battle and Kadan was reluctant to directly attack Wenceslaus Bohemian forces. Kadan and Baidar skirmished against the Bohemians and were able to prevent the Bohemian king from helping King Béla IV of Hungary, after raiding Moravia, the Mongol diversionary force went to Hungary.
During the winter of 1241-1242, Kadan sacked Buda on the way to Győr, while besieging Italian mercenaries defending Székesfehérvár, Kadan was forced to withdraw his troops after an early thaw flooded the land around the town. The Mongol prince was sent south with one tumen to search for Béla in Croatia. Kadan first sought the Hungarian king at Zagreb, which he sacked, Kadan had his Hungarian prisoners executed as supplies began to run out. To the kings surprise, Kadan headed south past Trogir toward Dubrovnik, while he was nearing Scutari, Kadan heard of the death of his father, Ögedei Khan. Kadans raids through Bulgaria on his retreat from Central Europe induced the young Kaliman I of Bulgaria to pay tribute, in 1251 Kadan accepted the election of Möngke Khan as Khagan. According to René Grousset, he helped the latter to capture Eljigidei. Kadan was loyal to Kublai Khan and supported his army against Ariq Böke in the Toluid Civil War and he commanded Mongol army at the first engagement with Ariq Böke and killed his general Alandar.
In many medieval sources, Kadan was mistranslated by chroniclers as Kaidu and he is confused with another brother, Köden, who was influential in Tibet
The Mongols are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and Chinas Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. They live as minorities in other regions of China, as well as in Russia, Mongolian people belonging to the Buryat and Kalmyk subgroups live predominantly in the Russian federal subjects of Buryatia and Kalmykia. The Mongols are bound together by a heritage and ethnic identity. Their indigenous dialects are known as the Mongolian language. The ancestors of the modern-day Mongols are referred to as Proto-Mongols, broadly defined, the term includes the Mongols proper, Oirats, the Kalmyk people and the Southern Mongols. The latter comprises the Abaga Mongols, Aohans, Gorlos Mongols, Jaruud, Khuuchid, the designation Mongol briefly appeared in 8th century records of Tang China to describe a tribe of Shiwei. It resurfaced in the late 11th century during the Khitan-ruled Liao dynasty, after the fall of the Liao in 1125, the Khamag Mongols became a leading tribe on the Mongolian Plateau.
However, their wars with the Jurchen-ruled Jin dynasty and the Tatar confederation had weakened them, in the thirteenth century, the word Mongol grew into an umbrella term for a large group of Mongolic-speaking tribes united under the rule of Genghis Khan. In various times Mongolic peoples have been equated with the Scythians, the Magog, based on Chinese historical texts the ancestry of the Mongolic peoples can be traced back to the Donghu, a nomadic confederation occupying eastern Mongolia and Manchuria. The identity of the Xiongnu is still debated today, although some scholars maintain that they were proto-Mongols, they were more likely a multi-ethnic group of Mongolic and Turkic tribes. It has been suggested that the language of the Huns was related to the Hünnü, the Donghu are mentioned by Sima Qian as already existing in Inner Mongolia north of Yan in 699–632 BCE along with the Shanrong. Mentions in the Yi Zhou Shu and the Classic of Mountains, the Xianbei chieftain was appointed joint guardian of the ritual torch along with Xiong Yi.
These early Xianbei came from the nearby Zhukaigou culture in the Ordos Desert, where maternal DNA corresponds to the Mongol Daur people, the Zhukaigou Xianbei had trade relations with the Shang. In the late 2nd century, the Han dynasty scholar Fu Qian wrote in his commentary Jixie that Shanrong, againm in Inner Mongolia another closely connected core Mongolic Xianbei region was the Upper Xiajiadian culture where the Donghu confederation was centered. After the Donghu were defeated by Xiongnu king Modu Chanyu, the Xianbei, tadun Khan of the Wuhuan was the ancestor of the proto-Mongolic Kumo Xi. The Wuhuan are of the direct Donghu royal line and the New Book of Tang says that in 209 BCE, the Xianbei, were of the lateral Donghu line and had a somewhat separate identity, although they shared the same language with the Wuhuan. In 49 CE the Xianbei ruler Bianhe raided and defeated the Xiongnu, killing 2000, the Xianbei reached their peak under Tanshihuai Khan who expanded the vast, but short lived, Xianbei state.
Three prominent groups split from the Xianbei state as recorded by the Chinese histories, the Rouran, the Khitan people, besides these three Xianbei groups, there were others such as the Murong and Tuoba
Mieszko II the Fat
This article is about a Piast duke. See King Mieszko II Lambert, Mieszko II the Fat was a Duke of Opole-Racibórz from 1230 until his death, and Duke of Kalisz-Wieluń during 1234–1239. He was the eldest son of Duke Casimir I of Opole by his wife Viola, following her late husbands politics, the Dowager Duchess Viola led a policy of close cooperation with the Church. In 1238, Henry I the Bearded died and was succeeded by his son Henry II the Pious, shortly after, Mieszko II began to claim the government of their lands. It is unknown exactly when Mieszko II took over the rule over Opole-Racibórz, one of the first politic decisions of Mieszko II was his marriage with Judith, daughter of Duke Konrad I of Masovia, who gave to the Duke of Opole-Racibórz greater autonomy in his rule. Mieszko IIs mother Viola and brother Władysław are expected to remain in Kalisz, the calm government of Mieszko II was brutally interrupted by the Mongol invasion at the beginning of 1241. In contrast to Bolesław V the Chaste, Duke of Sandomierz, Mieszko II didnt have any intention to give up his principality at the mercy of the enemy, on 9 April 1241 the Mongol and Christian forces clashed in the Battle of Legnica.
There Mieszko II played a part, he was tricked by the Mongols into retreating in the decisive moment of the battle. This is one of the reasons of the total defeat of the Christian troops. Already in May 1241, Mieszko II began the reconstruction of the territories by the Mongolian army. Władysławs authority was threatened by the Dukes of Greater Poland. In 1243, Mieszko II military supported his father-in-law Konrad I of Masovia in his struggle for the throne of Kraków. The Masovia-Opole forces were defeat, in part because the mutual distrust between both rulers, despite the fact that Mieszko II brought further retaliatory expeditions against Bolesław V the Chaste, the cooperation has brought tangible benefits only three years when he took the fortress of Lelów. Mieszko IIs suddenly death, prevent the permanent union of land to the Duchy of Opole-Racibórz. In the internal politics, Mieszko II, tried to continue his fathers politics in the spread of settlements under the German law, the Duke paid particular care to the Teutonic Order, who acquired in Upper Silesia high-value properties.
By the other hand, Miesko II didnt give any support to the monastery of Czarnowąsy near Opole, Mieszko II, who — as reflected in his nickname — had not enjoyed good health, died at only twenty-six years of age, on 22 October 1246 without issue. In his will, he left all of his lands to his brother Władysław, except the district of Cieszyn, complete Genealogy of the House of Piast. Genealogical database by Herbert Stoyan MIESZKO II OTYŁY Cawley, Charles, SILESIA, Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy
Battle of Bun'ei
The Battle of Bunei, or Bunei Campaign, known as the First Battle of Hakata Bay, was the first attempt by the Yuan Dynasty founded by the Mongols to invade Japan. The Japanese defenders were aided by major storms which sunk a sizable portion of the Mongolian fleets, this invasion attempts was decisively repulsed shortly after their initial landings. The Yuan troops withdrew and took refuge on their ships after only one day of fighting, a typhoon that night, said to be divinely conjured wind, threatened their ships, persuading them to return to Korea. Many of the ships sank that night due to the storm. After landing in the bay, the Yuan force quickly overran the town of Hakata, at first, the samurai were hopelessly outmatched, accustomed to smaller scale clan rivalries, they could not match the organization and massed firepower of the invaders. The Mongols fought with precision, loosing heavy volleys of arrows into the ranks of the Japanese, the Mongols employed an early form of rocket artillery, and their infantry used phalanx-like tactics, holding off the samurai with their shields and spears.
Though unable to defeat the Yuan forces, the Japanese fought hard. In the course of the fighting, the Hakozaki Shrine was burned to the ground. Despite their initial victories, the Yuan did not pursue the samurai further inland to the defenses at Dazaifu, nihon Ōdai Ichiran explains that the invaders were defeated because they lacked arrows. More likely this was a result of their unfamiliarity with the terrain, the expectation of Japanese reinforcements, the Yuan force, which may have intended to carry out a reconnaissance in force rather than an immediate invasion, returned to their ships. That night, the Yuan lost roughly one-third of their force in a typhoon and they retreated back to Korea, presumably at the prodding of their sailors and captains, rather than regrouping and continuing their attack. On October 5, about 1,000 soldiers of the Mongol Army landed on Komoda Beach, sukekuni So, Shugodai of Tsushima Island was killed in action. On October 14, Taira no Kagetaka, Shugodai of Iki led about 100 soldiers and they were defeated by Mongolian army and he suicided in Hidzume Castle.
About 1,000 Japanese soldiers were killed there, on October 16 to 17, Mongolian army attacked the base of Sashi Clan. Hundreds of Japanese soldiers and Husashi Sashi, Tomaru Sashi and Isamu Sashi were killed, Mongolian Army landed on Sawara District and encamped in Akasaka. On seeing this situation, Kikuchi Takefusa surprised the Mongolian army, the Mongols escaped to Sohara, and they lost about 100 soldiers. Thousands of Mongolian soldiers were awaiting in Torikai-Gata, suenaga Takesaki, one of Japanese commanders, assaulted the Mongolian army and fought them. Soon, reinforcements by Michiyasu Shiraisi arrived there and defeated the Mongolians, the Mongolian casualties of this battle are estimated at around 13,500