The Battle of Lewes was one of two main battles of the conflict known as the Second Barons' War. It took place at Lewes in Sussex, on 14 May 1264, it marked the high point of the career of Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester, made him the "uncrowned King of England". Henry III left the safety of Lewes Castle and St. Pancras Priory to engage the Barons in battle and was successful, his son Prince Edward routing part of the baronial army with a cavalry charge; however Edward left Henry's men exposed. Henry was forced to launch an infantry attack up Offham Hill where he was defeated by the barons' men defending the hilltop; the royalists fled back to the castle and priory and the King was forced to sign the Mise of Lewes, ceding many of his powers to Montfort. Henry III was an unpopular monarch due to his autocratic style, displays of favouritism and his refusal to negotiate with his barons; the barons imposed a constitutional reform known as the Provisions of Oxford upon Henry that called for a thrice-yearly meeting led by Simon de Montfort to discuss matters of government.
Henry sought to escape the restrictions of the provisions and applied to Louis IX of France to arbitrate in the dispute. Louis annulled the provisions. Montfort was angered by this and rebelled against the King along with other barons in the Second Barons' War; the war was not openly fought, each side toured the country to raise support for their army. A series of massacres of Jews in Worcester, London and other cities were conducted by Montfort's allies. By May the King's force had reached Lewes where they intended to halt for a while to allow reinforcements to reach them; the King encamped at St. Pancras Priory with a force of infantry, but his son, Prince Edward, commanded the cavalry at Lewes Castle 500 yards to the north. De Montfort approached the King with the intention of negotiating a truce or failing that to draw him into open battle; the King rejected the negotiations and de Montfort moved his men from Fletching to Offham Hill, a mile to the north-west of Lewes, in a night march that surprised the royalist forces.
The royalist army was up to twice the size of de Montfort's. Henry held command of the centre, with Prince Edward, William de Valence, 1st Earl of Pembroke, John de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey, on the right; the barons held the higher ground, overlooking Lewes and had ordered their men to wear white crosses as a distinguishing emblem. De Montfort split his forces into four parts, giving his son, Henry de Montfort command of one quarter; the baronial forces commenced the battle with a surprise dawn attack on foragers sent out from the royalist forces. The King made his move. Edward led a cavalry charge against Seagrave's Londoners, placed on the left of the baronial line, that caused them to break and run to the village of Offham. Edward pursued his foe for some four miles. Henry was forced to launch an attack with his centre and right divisions straight up Offham Hill into the baronial line which awaited them at the defensive. Cornwall's division faltered immediately but Henry's men fought on until compelled to retreat by the arrival of de Montfort's men, held as the baronial reserve.
The King's men were forced down the hill and into Lewes where they engaged in a fighting retreat to the castle and priory. Edward returned with his weary cavalrymen and launched a counterattack but upon locating his father was persuaded that, with the town ablaze and many of the King's supporters having fled, it was time to accept de Montfort's renewed offer of negotiations; the Earl of Cornwall was captured by the barons when he was unable to reach the safety of the priory and, being discovered in a windmill, was taunted with cries of "Come down, come down, thou wicked miller." The King was forced to sign the so-called Mise of Lewes. Though the document has not survived, it is clear that Henry was forced to accept the Provisions of Oxford, while Prince Edward remained a hostage of the barons; this put Montfort in a position of ultimate power, which would last until Prince Edward's escape, Montfort's subsequent defeat at the Battle of Evesham in August 1265. Following the battle, debts to Jews were cancelled, the records destroyed.
In 1994, an archaeological survey of the cemetery of St Nicholas Hospital, in Lewes, revealed the remains of bodies that were thought to be combatants from the battle of Lewes. However, in 2014 it was revealed that some of the skeletons may be much older, with a skeleton known as "skeleton 180" being contemporary with the Norman invasion. There remains some uncertainty over the location of the battle with Offham Hill's eastern and lower slopes covered by modern housing; the top and southern slopes remain accessible by footpaths through agricultural land and the ruins of the priory and castle are open to visitors. The Song of Lewes Barber, Luke, ed.. "The Medieval hospital of St Nicholas, East Sussex: excavations 1994". Lewes, Sussex: Sussex Archaeological Collections Volume 148. ISSN 0143-8204. Brooks, Richard Lewes and Evesham 1264–65. Osprey Campaign Series No. 285. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978 1-4728-1150-9 Burne, A. H; the Battlefields of England London: Penguin ISBN 0-14-139077-8 Carpenter, D. A.
The reign of Henry III, London: Hambledon ISBN 1-852
Emre Guler is an Australian professional rugby league footballer who plays as a prop for the Canberra Raiders in the NRL. Guler was born in Australia to Turkish parents. Guler played his junior rugby league for the Mascot Jets. In 2017 Guler represented the NSW Under the Junior Kangaroos. In round 23 of the 2018 NRL season, Guler made his first grade debut for Canberra against the Sydney Roosters at Canberra Stadium. Guler made 11 appearances for Canberra in the 2019 NRL season as the club reached the grand final for the first time in 25 years. Guler played from the bench in the club's 2019 NRL Grand Final defeat against the Sydney Roosters at ANZ Stadium. On 7 October 2019, Guler was named on the bench for the U23 Junior Australian side. Canberra Raiders profile
The Bavinger House was completed in 1955 in Norman, United States. It was designed by architect Bruce Goff. Considered a significant example of organic architecture, the house was awarded the Twenty-five Year Award from the American Institute of Architects in 1987, it was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2001, was removed from the National Register in 2017 after being demolished the previous year. The house was constructed over the course of five years by Nancy and Eugene Bavinger, the residents of the house, who were artists, along with the help of a few of Eugene's art students and local businesses; the Bavingers moved into the house in February 1955, Life magazine featured the house in its September 19, 1955 issue. Despite its remote location, the house became an attraction. Life reported that the tours had yielded over $4,000, they raised over $50,000 before deciding they didn't want to be disturbed by the constant flow of tourists; the house was vacant for more than a decade and had fallen into disrepair before it was reported in 2008 that the house would be renovated and reopened for tours.
Fundraising efforts, ran into difficulties. The house was damaged and its central spire left broken at a 45-degree angle after a powerful windstorm in June 2011; the official website for the house stated that the house "will not be able to re-open", changed to "Closed Permanently", in August 2012 further edited to say "The House will never return under its current political situation". The official website was taken offline in August, 2011, its domain license was allowed to expire. In April 2016 The Norman Transcript reported that the house had been demolished and removed, leaving only a vacant lot, as confirmed by the president of the Bruce Goff-focused preservation organization Friends of Kebyar; the wall of the house was a 96-foot long logarithmically curved spiral, made from 200 tons of local "ironrock" sandstone dynamited from a piece of purchased farmland near Robin Hill School, a few miles away from the house and hauled back on Eugene's 48 Chevy flatbed truck. The structure was anchored by a recycled oil field drill stem, reused to make a central mast more than 55 feet high.
The house had no interior walls. The ground floor was planted areas. "The Bavinger House: Art Meets Architecture", Ron Stahl's Oklahoma, April 17, 2011. "The Bavinger House" tour at Me & Marissa blog, June 23, 2010. National Register of Historic Places nomination form LIFE 19 Sep 1955 LIFE Magazine article
On 27 July 1980, Said Al Nasr, a Syria-born Palestinian, used grenades to attack a group of 40 Jewish children waiting with their families for a bus to take them to summer camp. One boy was killed and 20 other people were wounded in the attack; the attacker was convicted. The attack took place outside the Agoudath Israel cultural centre in Antwerp; the group of children, aged 10 to 14, originating from Britain, the Netherlands and Belgium, were accompanied by their families as they waited to board a bus to take them to a summer camp in the Ardennes hills of southern Belgium. The explosion killed one boy, 15-year-old Parisian David Kohane, wounded 20, aged 8 to 27, eight of whom had to be hospitalized, including a 13-year-old Belgian girl with critical brain injuries and a pregnant woman. 2 young boys aged 8 and 9 were walking past at the time of the attack and were wounded and hospitalised. The attacker was arrested. In addition to the thrown grenades, he was carrying a pistol and "several magazines of ammunition" that had not used in the attack.
The attack was among a number of anti-Jewish attacks worldwide in the early 1980s. Al Nasr is a Syrian-Palestinian, was convicted in Belgium in 1980, for throwing two hand grenades into a group of Jewish children waiting for a bus in Antwerp on 27 July 1980, he was carrying a Moroccan passport at the time of his arrest. In 1990, the jailed Al Nasr was "traded" for part of the Houtekins-Kets family, a Belgian-French family kidnapped in Libya—a demand of the Abu Nidal group—during the Silco incident. ""We hebben zes jaar van ons leven gemist". Het Nieuwsblad. 24 March 2005. "Een vergissing van bijna zes jaar. De Standaard. 23 March 2005. "Een Eeuw in Beeld - 1980". Het Belang van Limburg. Archived from the original on 2006-10-24
The gens Fulvia Foulvia, was one of the most illustrious plebeian families at Rome. By the end of the fourth century BC, they had joined the nobiles through the patronage of the Fabii, who supported the successful candidacy of Lucius Fulvius Curvus for the consulship of 322 BC, they were long active in the politics of the Republic, gained a reputation for producing excellent military leaders. According to Cicero, this gens came to Rome from Tusculum, although some members must have remained in their native place, since Fulvii occur at Tusculum as late as the time of Cicero; the gens Fulvia was believed to have received its sacra from Hercules after he had accomplished his twelve labours. The earliest branch of the Fulvii used the praenomina Lucius and Quintus, which they supplemented with other names, including Gaius and Servius. Lucius disappears early, was not used by the Fulvii; the Fulvii Centumali mentioned in history bore Gnaeus and Marcus while the Flacci depended on Marcus and Quintus, supplemented by Gnaeus and Gaius.
Fulvii with other praenomina occur toward the end of the Republic. The cognomens which occur in this gens in the time of the Republic are Bambalio, Curvus, Gillo, Nobilior and Veratius or Neratius. Curvus, which means "bent" or "crooked," is the first cognomen of the Fulvii to occur in history, although it is not known whether the name was due to some physical peculiarity, such as a bent nose, or crooked leg, or whether the name was bestowed metaphorically or ironically. Paetinus was an agnomen of the Curvus family name, which it superseded. However, Horace makes clear. Indeed, the slight cast implied by the word Paetus was considered attractive, it was given as an epithet to Venus; as the cognomen of Curvus was superseded by that of Paetinus, so the latter was in turn superseded by Nobilior, meaning "very noble". This name seems to have been first assumed by the consul of 255 BC, his descendants dropped the name of Paetinus; the relationship of the Fulvii Centumali to the other branches of the family is unclear.
Bambalio refers to a tendency to stammer. To this list, some scholars append Nacca, or Natta, a fuller, based on a Lucius Fulvius Nacca or Natta the brother-in-law of Publius Claudius Pulcher. Cicero does not mention his gentile name. Servius calls him Pinarius Natta, in a passage of uncertain genuineness, but the only known wife of Clodius was Fulvia. Drumann, provides reason to suppose that Clodius was married twice, that his first wife was Pinaria; this list includes abbreviated praenomina. For an explanation of this practice, see filiation. Lucius Fulvius Curvus, grandfather of the consul of 322 BC. Lucius Fulvius L. f. Curvus, father of the consul of 322 BC. Lucius Fulvius L. f. L. n. Curvus, consul in BC 322, with Quintus Fabius Maximus Rullianus, he had been consul of Tusculum at the time that town revolted against Rome, but upon going over to the Romans, was invested with the same office. He and his colleague triumphed over the Tusculans, in some accounts, over the Samnites as well. Magister equitum in 316, he and the dictator, Lucius Aemilius Mamercinus, besieged Saticula, defeated the Samnites.
Marcus Fulvius L. f. L. n. Curvus Paetinus, consul suffectus in 305 BC, following the death of the consul Tiberius Minucius Augurinus in battle against the Samnites. According to some accounts, he took the town of Bovianum, celebrated a triumph over the Samnites. Marcus Fulvius Cn. f. Cn. n. Paetinus, consul in BC 299. Gaius Fulvius Curvus, one of the plebeian aediles in BC 296. Nobilior, consul in BC 255, with Marcus Aemilius Paullus, during the First Punic War. Following the defeat of Regulus in Africa at the beginning of the year, the consuls were dispatched with a fleet of at least three hundred ships to bring away the survivors. Near Hermaea, the Roman fleet gained a brilliant victory over the Carthaginians, who suffered heavy losses. On its return to Italy, the fleet met a fearful storm, was totally destroyed. Marcus Fulvius Ser. f. M. n. Nobilior, son of the consul of BC 255. Marcus Fulvius M. f. Ser. n. Nobilior, as praetor in 193 BC, obtained the province of Hispania Ulterior, where he defeated the Vaccaei and Celtiberi, receiving an ovation.
He was censor in 179. Quintus Fulvius Nobilior, one of the triumviri appointed in 184 BC to establish colonies at Potentia and Pisaurum. Cicero identifies him with the consul of 153 BC, the son of the consul of 189.
Metapenaeus stebbingi, the peregrine shrimp is a species of marine crustacean from the family Penaeidae. It is native to the Indian Ocean but in the second half of the 20th Century it was found to have invaded the Mediterranean Sea. Metapenaeus stebbingi grows to a maximum length of 14 cm in females; the shell is marked with rust-coloured speckles. The tail fan has reddish margins, with the antennae being a similar colour; the upper margin of the rostrum has 7–10 teeth while the first and third pairs of walking legs have a basal spine. The merus of the fifth walking leg of the male has an indentation on its inner margin. Metapenaeus stebbingi was thought to be endemic to the Red Sea but is now known from many parts of the western Indian Ocean from the Western Cape to western India, it was first identified in the Mediterranean off Egypt in 1924 and has since spread as far north as the south coast of Anatolia and as far west as Tunisia. Metapenaeus stebbingi occurs in water with sandy-mud substrates down to 90 m in depth.
The juveniles are found in shallow coastal waters and while the adults are further offshore where they bury themselves in the substrate during the day, emerging to forage at night. Studies in East Africa found that this species was at its greatest abundance in areas of sand flats and mud flats. In Turkey M. stebbingi was found to be absent from inshore water from September through the winter. Metapenaeus stebbingi is an important species for fisheries in its native range. Since invading the Mediterranean it has become important in fisheries in the Levant Sea. In southern Turkey it is used in aquaculture. Metapenaeus stebbingi by the Italian carcinologist Giuseppe Nobili in 1904, the specific name honours the English Zoologist Thomas Roscoe Rede Stebbing