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Battle of Madras

The Battle of Madras or Fall of Madras took place in September 1746 during the War of the Austrian Succession when a French force attacked and captured the city of Madras from its British garrison. French forces occupied Madras until the end of hostilities when it was exchanged for the British conquest of Louisbourg in North America as part of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle. One of the British defenders, Robert Clive made his name by escaping from the French captors and carrying news of the city's fall to his superiors at Fort St David. Since the 1720s the colonial rivalry between Britain and France in India had been growing in intensity. Following the French decision to join the War of the Austrian Succession on the opposing side to Britain, the British despatched a Royal Navy squadron under Commodore Curtis Barnett to raid and harass French settlements in India. During 1745 this force attacked a number of French ships, disrupting commerce, ruining several leading French merchants. In response the French despatched a similarly-sized fleet under the Bertrand-François Mahé de La Bourdonnais.

After fighting an inconclusive battle the two fleets withdrew to repair, with the British retreating to Ceylon and the French using their base at Pondicherry. Wary of fighting another major naval battle – the British commander, Edward Peyton, chose to stay away from the Coramandel coast and withdrew to the safety of Bengal, leaving the British settlements on the Coramandel badly exposed to the French; the French Governor of Pondicherry Dupleix authorised an attack on Madras. To gain local Indian approval for this he promised the Nawab of the Carnatic that he would hand over Madras to him once he had captured it from the British. On 7 September 1746 the inhabitants of Madras woke to find a French fleet sitting offshore – and an expedition of soldiers being landed on the shore; the French ships opened fire on the town – but with little effect, struggling to find the correct range and by nightfall a large portion of the garrison had been lulled into a false sense of security. The following morning the French resumed their bombardment from both land and shore, this time with much more accuracy.

The fortifications of Madras had been poorly constructed and were unable to resist such an attack. As the number of British casualties grew, the morale of the discipline of the troops collapsed. After a direct strike on the liquor stores, a number of soldiers abandoned their posts and drank themselves into a stupor. Civilians from the town took their places manning the defences – but it was clear resistance was collapsing. On 9 September the Governor of Nicholas Morse sued for peace; the terms offered to him by La Bourdonnais were generous – the French were to take over the fort and warehouses, but the rest of the town would remain under British control. The British troops who had surrendered would be petitioned; this caused a dispute with his superior Joseph François Dupleix who favoured total French annexation of Madras. La Bourdonnais insisted on honouring the peace terms – and for a month the peace agreement he had signed held. However, when a violent storm blew up in October, La Bourdonnais and his fleet were forced to withdraw and sail for the safety of Pondicherry – a third of his ships were lost in the storm and Dupleix was now in full command of Madras.

Dupleix revoked the lenient terms and locked up a number of the garrison and civilians. He set about looting and preparing to destroy Fort St George. A handful of these prisoners led by Robert Clive, a young clerk, dressed up as natives and managed to slip out of their prison. Once outside they were challenged by real Indians, who spoke to them in languages they didn't understand. Clive and his companions hurried on. After a three-day journey, made by night, they reached Fort St David hundred miles away carrying news of the disastrous French attack on Madras; the story of Clive's escape was the first to bring him wider attention. The French occupied the town for the duration of the war. Despite Dupleix's promise earlier to hand the territory over to the Nawab of the Carnatic, Dupleix refused to do so. A force of 10,000 sent by the Nawab to enforce the agreement was routed by a small French force led by Captain Louis Paradis; the French subsequently tried to take Fort St David but found the resistance much tougher, were forced to withdraw.

The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle that ended the war made provision for Madras to be returned to the British in exchange for Louisbourg in Acadia, captured by British forces in 1745. The French besieged Madras again in 1759, this time without success. History of Chennai Harvey, Robert. Clive: The life and Death of a British Emperor. Hodder and Stoughton. Keay, John; the Honourable Company: A History of the English East India Company. Harper Collins. Naravane, M. S.. Battles of the Honorourable East India Company. A. P. H. Publishing Corporation. ISBN 9788131300343

Johann Martin Bernatz

Johann Martin Bernatz, was a German landscape artist. Born in Speyer and trained in Vienna, Austria, he spent much of his life in Munich. He accompanied an expedition to Egypt and the Holy Land in 1836, a British embassy to Ethiopia in 1842. Bernatz was born at Speyer on 22 March 1802, he began his artistic education, comparatively late in life, at the Academy at Vienna. In 1829 he went to Munich, where he was commissioned to make drawings of various ancient buildings for King Ludwig I. In 1836 he joined Gotthilf Heinrich von Schubert's expedition to Egypt, travelling from Istanbul through Asia Minor and the Sinai peninsula. Forty pictures he made on the journey were published as Bilder aus dem heiligen Lande, nach der Natur gezeichnet in 1839; this led to an invitation to accompany Johannes Roth on an expedition to India. Bernatz made the voyage to Calcutta, but various obstacles prevented the expedition from taking place. In 1842 he visited Africa, the British authorities in India having decided to employ him as an official artist to an embassy, led by Captain William Cornwallis Harris to Sahela Selassie, the king of Shoa.

A set of lithographs of his drawings from this journey were published in London in 1852 as Scenes of Ethiopia. German editions followed. Bernatz settled as a landscape painter at Munich, where he died on 9 December 1878. List of German painters This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Bryan, Michael. "Bernatz, Martin". In Graves, Robert Edmund. Bryan's Dictionary of Engravers. I. London: George Bell & Sons

Franco Albrecht

Franco Albrecht is German Bundeswehr Leutnant in the Franco-German Brigade. He is suspected to carry out one or more'false flag' attacks in an domestic right-wing terror plot, his case led to investigations about a nation-wide army-based Neonazi network in Germany. Franco Albrecht, soldier Maximilian T. student Mathias F. and eleven other persons were suspected members of the group. Franco Albrechts case sparked a public debate about right-wing extremist attitudes in the recent Bundeswehr and their traditions in relation to the Wehrmacht. In November 2017 all three known suspects had to be released due to lack of urgent legal suspicion. Franco Albrecht was a professional soldier in the Franco-German Brigade, he studied since September 2009 at military Universities in Germany and the French École spéciale militaire de Saint-Cyr at Bretagne. There he had written his master's thesis, “political change and subversion strategy” at the French university in 2014; this thesis contains far-right thinking.

Franco Albrecht is accused of planning to carry out right wing motivated attacks against political opponents and false flag actions against asylum seekers to undermine the refugee policy of the German government. He was recognized as an Syrian refugee in an asylum procedure. Although he does not speak Arabic, the Federal Office for Migration and Refugees granted him limited protection following a hearing in French at the end of 2016. According to the German Prosecutor General Albrecht was determined to carry out an act of domestic terrorism by assassinating the head of the Amadeu Antonio Foundation Anetta Kahane. According to the prosecution, his intent is proved by Albrecht scouting the location of the Amadeu Antonio Foundation in Berlin, soon after acquiring a scope and training with it and his rifle. Albrecht is suspected of wanting to frame the intended attack on the refugee whose identity he faked. Albrecht had been detected with an illegally obtain pistol at Vienna Airport in February 2017.

On April 26, 2017, Lieutenant Franco Albrecht was taken in custody at a command course at the United Nations Training Center of the Bundeswehr in Hammelburg. The Federal Prosecutor's Office assumed that he planned a right wing terrorist attack under false flag, which should be charged to a fictional refugee; the German Federal Prosecutor's Office has filed charges against Franco Albrecht in December 2017. He was accused of "preparing a serious, state-damaging act of violence" at the Higher Regional Court in Frankfurt am Main. Albrecht was released from custody at the end of November 2017. However, the Higher Regional Court of Frankfurt did not allow the prosecution, regarded only a part of the allegations as and opened the main trial "down" at the district court Darmstadt. In addition, two other people were arrested in connection with the alleged attack plans, including the Bundeswehr soldier Maximilian T.. Maximilian T. is member of the right-wing party Alternative for Germany. In November 2017, all suspects were released due to lack of evidence.

In November 2019 the Federal Court of Justice has instructed the Higher Regional Court of Frankfurt, to open a process against Franco Albrecht on the accused of "preparing a serious, state-damaging act of violence". Investigations by Der Spiegel showed, Bundeswehr had in 2014 serious evidence of the extreme right-wing attitude of Franco Albrecht. After his arrest, the Ministry of Defense had claimed that until the investigation of the Frankfurt public prosecutor's office knew nothing of a right-wing outlook of Albrecht. During two security checks by the Military Counterintelligence Service had never noticed anything during the eight-year career of the soldier. In May 2017 German Bundestag committee for interior investigated the circumstances of this case and interviewed Bundesinnenminister Thomas de Maizière and Federal Office for Migration and Refugees-president Jutta Cordt. Bohemian Browser Balett: The case Franco A

Lake Wood

Lake Wood is a reservoir on the Guadalupe River 4 miles west of the town of Gonzales in Gonzales County, Texas. The reservoir was formed in 1931 by the construction of a dam to provide hydroelectric power to the area. Management of the dam and lake was assumed by the Guadalupe-Blanco River Authority on May 1, 1963. Lake Wood serves as a venue for outdoor recreation, including fishing and boating. Lake Wood is known locally as H-5 Reservoir or Guadalupe Reservoir H-5. Lake Wood has been stocked with species of fish intended to improve the utility of the reservoir for recreational fishing. Fish present in Lake Wood include catfish, white crappie and largemouth bass. Vegetation in the lake includes cattail, American lotus, rushes, water hyacinth, water lettuce, hydrilla; the Guadalupe-Blaco River Authority maintains a 35-acre park with a store on the lake with facilities for camping and fishing. Lake Wood - Guadalupe-Blanco River Authority Lake Wood - Texas Parks & Wildlife

End of the Spear

End of the Spear is a 2005 American drama film that recounts the story of Operation Auca, in which five American Christian missionaries attempted to evangelize the Huaorani people of the tropical rain forest of Eastern Ecuador. Based on actual events from 1956 in which five male missionaries were speared by a group of the Waodani tribe, the movie tells the story from the perspective of Steve Saint, Mincayani, one of the tribesmen who took part in the attack; the two form a bond that continues to this day. The Waodani people of the tropical rain forest along the Curaray River in a remote and undeveloped the Amazonian region of Ecuador live with a traditional animist worldview; as children, Mincayani saves Dayumae after a vicious nighttime spear attack on a Waodani village by a neighboring tribe, Dayumae's younger sister is killed in the attack. Other events of tribal life are pictured. In a conflict with her family, Dayumae—who, in part, has been blamed for the death of her sister—decides to leave the tribe for her safety, runs to the "foreigners" around her: foreigners who speak Spanish and dress differently.

Nate Saint is a missionary jungle pilot and aircraft mechanic, living with his family at a mission outpost where his job includes flying various missionaries and supplies into remote locations. He builds a small airplane out of wood with Steve Saint. Nate becomes obsessed with making contact with a jungle tribe who have resisted contact with the outside world before violently: the Waodani. Rachel Saint, Nate's older sister has had extensive contact with the now much older Dayumae, has learned some of the Waodani language from her. Nate does not want to tell his sister of his and others plans to attempt contact with the Waodani, for fear she would pass the information along to her superiors, the planned contact would be forbidden. Young Steve learns a few words of Waodani—"I am your sincere friend"—from Rachel, begs his father to learn them before his father and several others land their airplane on a sandbar in the Curaray, attempt to make peaceful contact with the Waodani, who they know people that area of the forest that surrounds the sandbar.

Mincayani is now a much older and developed warrior, exhibiting not a little leadership in the tribe. After some days, one Waodani man and two women approach the missionaries who have camped on the sandbar, have a reasonably friendly, if difficult to communicate, first encounter. Subsequently, misinformation about the meeting is shared with the other Waodani tribal members, a group of Waodani warriors decide to attack and spear the foreigners, they do so, all five men associated with the airplane at the sandbar camp are killed with spears. Authorities from Ecuador and the US military come up river in canoes in a large party, protected by many rifles, recover four of the five bodies. Years Steve Saint flies from the US to attend the funeral of Rachel Saint, comes into contact again with Mincayani. Mincayani asks Steve to live in Ecuador, become family to the Waodani, like Rachel had. Steve says. Mincayani tells Steve he needs to show him something, with no other detail, takes Steve on the Curaray river in a canoe to the sandbar where his father had been killed many years earlier.

Mincayani digs furiously in the bank of the river, uncovers a bit of the metal frame and fabric of Nate's airplane that the Waodani had buried. Mincayani gives Nate his spear, with the point at his own chest, tells Nate to kill him. Opening with a modest first weekend, End of the Spear took 8th place with $4.3 million USD. End of the Spear became one of the few independently released Christian movies to draw more than $1,000,000 in its first three weekends of release. By the time the film left the box office, it had grossed $11,967,000, it has since grossed over $20 million more in rentals and video sales. Rotten Tomatoes Meter, an average of critics' ratings, as of October 24, 2014, has given the movie 40%. Box Office Mojo, which incorporates user ratings, had nearly 2/3 of viewers give the film an'A' rating; the film won a Crystal Heart Award as well as the Grand Prize for Best Dramatic Feature at the 2005 Heartland Film Festival. The DVD and some theaters where the movie was shown included extra footage after the movie ended showing the real life Mincayani and the real life Steve Saint in our modern day.

Mincaye visited Steve Saint in America with humorous results while trying to understand American culture. End of the Spear: Original Motion Picture Soundtrack was released on January 24, 2006 by Word Records; the soundtrack features most of the instrumental score by Ron Owen, plus featured music from the film by known CCM artists like Steven Curtis Chapman and BarlowGirl, among others. Some secular critics believed the story may be seen as presenting an uncritical view of a situation where native peoples were exploited regardless of "good intentions" such as concerns about SIL International. There was some concern among various Christian groups that lead actor Chad Allen, who portrays aviator missionary Nate Saint in the movie, is gay; some Christian groups that had planned to promote the film began to question whether they should. The real Steve Saint, heavi

Philippine mouse-deer

The Philippine mouse-deer known as the Balabac chevrotain or pilandok, is a small, nocturnal ruminant, endemic to Balabac and nearby smaller islands southwest of Palawan in the Philippines. The genus Tragulus means'little goat' and the Philippine mouse-deer has been named so due to the horizontal pupils of the eyes; this position of the pupil allows for an increase in peripheral depth perception. It has traditionally been considered a subspecies of the greater mouse-deer. In 2004, though, T. nigricans was separated from T. napu as its own species due to differences in skull morphology. Contrary to its common name, the Philippine mouse-deer does not belong to the deer family Cervidae, but is a member of the chevrotain family, it has a brown coat with white stripes on the throat and chest. Each individual hair has sections of different colors - the base is light, with a tawny, orange, or brown midsection, a long black tip; the most striking markings of the Balabac chevrotain are on the throat, with three narrow white stripes beginning from a white patch under the chin and extending down towards the chest.

In intense contrast to these white stripes, the rest of the throat is jet black. Towards the chest, these black and white markings disappear into a broad brown band which crosses the lower throat; the head itself is darker in color than the rest of the body. Broad rufous or fulvous'eyebrow' stripes extend from the anterior corners of the eyes to the base of ears; the bridge of the nose and forehead are dark brown, becoming infused with black towards the crown of the head. The sides of the head are more fulvous. A naked glandular patch on the underside of the jaw is bordered with white, which runs into the white patch at the top of the throat, its slender legs and arched back are covered with a white base. A dark line runs from each ear past the eye toward the nose. Though the Philippine mouse-deer traditionally has been considered a subspecies of the greater mouse-deer, its measurements are intermediate between those of the greater mouse-deer and the lesser mouse-deer from the nearby island of Borneo.

Measurements for this species have been consistent over the last eighty years of research. On average, the Balabac mouse deer measures 40–50 cm from the head to the tail base and reaches an average of 18 cm tall at shoulder height; the male of its species does not have any antlers like a true deer. They use their large, tusk-like canine teeth on the upper jaw for self-defense or territorial fights with other males, it is a solitary, nocturnal animal, but has on occasion been seen in pairs for short periods of time. The Philippine mouse-deer's main diet consists of leaves and other vegetation in the dense forest undergrowth. During the day, it avoids movement. At sundown, it will wander into more open areas to feed, they have been spotted along the seashore. The natives of the Philippines believe the Philippine mouse-deer has a mutual relationship with a species of python; the Philippine mouse-deer can be classified as a r-selected species. This type of organism lives in habitats; those falling under this category reach sexual maturity at a young age.

T. nigricans is thought to reach sexual maturity at 5 months of age. R-selected species have small body sizes and have short lifespans; the mouse-deer has been estimated to live about 14 years and produces one offspring per litter. Two offspring can occur, but is rare; the gestation time ranges from 140 to 177 days. The Philippine mouse-deer is portrayed as a trickster in Philippine folklore. In a Maranao tale, the Philippine mouse-deer tricks a prince into giving up his bag of gold and facing a hive of angry bees, he is depicted as a clever guardian of the environment, using his wisdom as an advantage against those who destroy forests and wildlife. Due to this, Filipino Muslims, notably the Molbog people of southern Palawan, consider the mouse-deer as sacred; the Philippine mouse-deer is threatened due to a variety of reasons, such as poaching and capture for the wild animal trade. Hunting has caused a great decline in the number of individuals left; the meat is considered a delicacy on the islands, the skin is used to make leather.

Although no true estimates of the Philippine mouse-deer population have been made to date, they are assumed to be declining in numbers. Hunters have commented; the biggest reason for decline is habitat loss. The mouse-deer's habitat is being converted to agricultural lands for coconut plantations and other crops, it is protected under Philippine law, but enforcement of this protection is ineffective. The Philippines do have. 18 priority sites are funded by Global Environment Facility/World Bank and the European Union. T. nigricans does not occur on any of these sites to benefit from their protection. Outside the Philippines, the only Philippine mouse-deer in captivity are at six different collections in Europe