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Battle of Manila (1945)

The Battle of Manila was a major battle of the Philippine campaign of 1944-45, during the Second World War. It was fought by American forces from both the U. S. mainland and the Philippines against Japanese troops in Manila, the capital city of the Philippines. The month-long battle, which resulted in the death of over 100,000 civilians and the complete devastation of the city, was the scene of the worst urban fighting in the Pacific theater. Japanese forces committed mass murder against Filipino civilians during the battle. Along with massive loss of life, the battle destroyed architectural and cultural heritage dating back to the city's foundation, Manila became one of the most devastated capital cities during the entire war, alongside Berlin and Warsaw; the battle ended the three years of Japanese military occupation in the Philippines. The city's capture was marked as General Douglas MacArthur's key to victory in the campaign of reconquest, it is the last of the many battles fought within Manila's history.

On 9 January 1945, the Sixth U. S. Army under Lt. Gen. Walter Krueger waded ashore at Lingayen Gulf and began a rapid drive south in the Battle of Luzon. On 12 Jan. MacArthur ordered Krueger to advance to Manila; the 37th Infantry Division, under the command of Major Gen. Robert S. Beightler, headed south. After landing at San Fabian on 27 Jan. the 1st Cavalry Division, under the command of Major Gen. Vernon D. Mudge, was ordered by MacArthur on 31 Jan. to "Get to Manila! Free the internees at Santo Tomas. Take Malacanang Palace and the Legislative Building.". On 31 January, the Eighth United States Army of Lt. Gen. Robert L. Eichelberger, consisting of the 187th and 188th Glider Infantry Regiments of Col. Robert H. Soule, components of the U. S. 11th Airborne Division under Maj. Gen. Joseph Swing, landed unopposed at Nasugbu in southern Luzon and began moving north toward Manila. Meanwhile, the 11th A/B Division's 511th Regimental Combat Team, commanded by Col. Orin D. "Hard Rock" Haugen, parachuted onto Tagaytay Ridge on 4 February.

On 10 Feb. the 11th Airborne Division came under the command of the Sixth Army, seized Fort William McKinley on 17 Feb. Swing was joined by the Hunters ROTC Filipino guerrillas, under the command of Lt. Col. Emmanuel V. de Ocampo, by 5 Feb. they were on the outskirts of Manila. As the Americans converged on Manila from different directions, they found that most of the Imperial Japanese Army troops defending the city had been withdrawn to Baguio City, on the orders of General Tomoyuki Yamashita, commander in chief of Japanese Army forces in the Philippines. Yamashita planned to engage Filipino and U. S. forces in northern Luzon in a co-ordinated campaign, with the aim of buying time for the build-up of defences against the pending Allied invasion of the Japanese home islands. He had three main groups under his command: 80,000 men of the Shimbu Group in the mountains east of Manila, 30,000 of the Kembu Group in the hills north of Manila, 152,000 in the Shobu Group in northeastern Luzon. General Yamashita did not declare Manila an open city, although General Douglas MacArthur had done so before its capture in 1941.

Yamashita had not intended to defend Manila. Yamashita did order the commander of Shimbu Group, Gen. Shizuo Yokoyama, to destroy all bridges and other vital installations and evacuate the city as soon as any large American forces made their appearance. However, Rear Admiral Sanji Iwabuchi, commander of the Imperial Japanese Navy's 31st Naval Special Base Force, was determined to fight a last-ditch battle in Manila, though nominally part of the Shimbu Army Group ignored Army orders to withdraw from the city; the naval staff in Japan agreed to Iwabuchi's scheme, eroding a frustrated Yamashita's attempts at confronting the Americans with a concerted, unified defense. Iwabuchi had 12,500 men under his command, designated the Manila Naval Defence Force, augmented by 4,500 army personnel under Col. Katsuzo Noguchi and Capt. Saburo Abe, they built defensive positions in the city, including Intramuros, cut down the palm trees on Dewey Blvd. to form a runway, set up barricades across major streets. Iwabuchi formed the Northern Force under Noguchi, the Southern Force under Capt. Takusue Furuse.

Iwabuchi had been in command of the battleship Kirishima when she was sunk by a US Navy task force off Guadalcanal in 1942, a blot on his honor which may have inspired his determination to fight to the death. Before the battle began, he issued an address to his men: We are glad and grateful for the opportunity of being able to serve our country in this epic battle. Now, with what strength remains, we will daringly engage the enemy. Banzai to the Emperor! We are determined to fight to the last man. On 3 February, elements of the U. S. 1st Cavalry Division under Maj. Gen. Verne D. Mudge pushed into the northern outskirts of Manila and seized a vital bridge across the Tullahan River, which separated them from the city proper, captured Malacanang Palace. A squadron of Brig. Gen. William C. Chase's 8th Cavalry, the first unit to arrive in the city, began a drive toward the sprawling campus of the University of Santo Tomas, turned into the Santo Tomas Internment Camp for civilians and the US Army and Navy nurses sometimes known as the "Angels of Bataan".

Since 4 January 1942, a total of thirty-seven months, the university's main building had been used to hold civilians. Out of 4,255 prisoners, 466 died in captivity, three were killed while attempting to escape on 15 February 1942, one made a successful breakout in early January 1945. Capt. Manuel Colayco, a US

Mark Grebner

Mark Grebner is an American politician, political consultant, psephologist from the state of Michigan. Grebner is a resident of Michigan, he enrolled at Michigan State University as an Alumni Distinguished Scholar in 1970, completing a bachelor's degree in urban policy through MSU's James Madison College in 1981. He earned a juris doctorate from the University of Michigan Law School, he became active in voter registration efforts in East Lansing in 1971 following the ratification of the U. S. Constitution's 26th Amendment, which lowered the voting age from 21 to 18, he was an elected Ingham County Commissioner from 1977 to 2012, except 1981–84, was selected by board colleagues as Chairperson of the Board of Commissioners in 1997, 2001, 2005 and 2011. Grebner's work as Ingham County Commissioner included drafting a comprehensive county ethics policy and support for public transit initiatives. A Democrat, he represented a district on the Board of Commissioners that included a substantial portion of the MSU campus.

In 2012, instead of running for re-election to the county board, Grebner challenged incumbent Ingham County Drain Commissioner Patrick E. Lindemann, alleging fiscal mismanagement and cronyism, while Lindemann touted environmental protection and cost-savings. Lindemann defeated Grebner in the primary election and won re-election in the November general election. In 2016, Grebner again ran for Ingham County Commissioner, this time as a resident of district 8, including precincts on the western edge of East Lansing, he was elected to a two-year term with 70 percent of the vote. Grebner is the president of Practical Political Consulting, a voter list and consulting firm which works for Democrats in Michigan. In 1999, the firm expanded its operations to include Wisconsin. In an article about local and national campaign consultants in the early years of electronic data science, The Wall Street Journal described the work necessary to transform raw voter data into a mailing label targeted to specific voters: "Mr. Grebner painstakingly gathers lists of local voters from hundreds of Michigan township and municipal clerks, many of whom don't have computers and keep only hard-copy records.

He enters the names in his battery of desktop computers matches them to addresses and other data."Beginning in 2004, his firm conducted a large-scale experiment, called ETOV, to "shame" nonvoters into participating in elections. The results of the research were published in multiple academic peer-reviewed journals, including American Political Science Review; the journal Political Behavior described the origins of the experiment: "Mark Grebner, a political consultant in search of a cost effective way to increase voter turnout, developed a form of direct mail with information about whether they and their neighbors voted in recent elections. Grebner's intuition was that nonvoters are ashamed of abstaining but believe they can get away with it because no one knows whether in fact they voted." The effects of this study communicating voter history to neighbors, in research conducted in partnership with Yale University, was determined to be three times more effective at increasing voter turnout from other get-out-the-vote mailings.

From 1974 to 2004, he published Grading the Profs, which reported student survey results on Michigan State University teaching faculty. Grebner is a commentator on politics and political issues, is interviewed on radio and television and quoted in news articles, he writes on "Technical Politics" for the web site Michigan Liberal. He is described by public radio as "an ardent liberal known for his political savvy and his irreverent provocative commentary."Grebner is noted for his iconoclastic and humorous political tactics. The New York Times wrote that "Calling Mr. Grebner eccentric would be too obvious." David Josar, of the Detroit News, calls him "super wonk". During his campaigns for election and re-election as county commissioner, he has used self-deprecating slogans such as "No Worse Than The Rest," "He May Be a Fool, But He's Our Fool," and "Buy One Politician, Get One Free." A humorous letter he sent to his constituents in 1986, announcing his plans for re-election, was reprinted in the "Readings" section of Harper's Magazine.

In 2009 Grebner filed a lawsuit based on alterations to this Wikipedia page that he alleges were defamatory. Grebner has been involved in public controversies as an advocate for liberal positions, for voting rights, for freedom of information, for the interests of university students: To resolve a $4 million deficit, the county's 2009 budget cut 19 full-time positions, including six in the sheriff's department, prompting criticism of possible impact on public safety. Grebner, as chair of the finance committee, defended the budget. In 2007, he led a group of plaintiffs who sued to overturn the Michigan presidential primary law as unconstitutional. Judge Collette of Ingham County Circuit Court ruled in plaintiffs' favor. A different group of plaintiffs sued on similar grounds in federal court. On March 26, 2008, a federal district judge ruled that the primary law violated the 14th Amendment guarantee of equal protection. Grebner and his firm have been plaintiffs in Freedom of Information Act lawsuits in Michigan and Wisconsin.

As county commissioner, Grebner defended the county's practice of selling county animal control animals for medical and veterinary research, called animal rights activists "fanatics". Grebner has advocated measures to restrict smoking in workplac

Employment and Social Development Canada

Employment and Social Development Canada is a department of the Government of Canada responsible for social programs and the labour market at the federal level. The Department of Human Resources and Skills Development Canada was created in December 2003, when Human Resources Development Canada was split into two separate departments: HRSDC and Social Development Canada. Though they continued to share many common services and operations, HRSDC was to focus on workforce-related aspects of the former HRDC portfolio, while SDC was to focus on social support programs for children and seniors; the split was given formal legal effect when the Department of Humans Resources and Skills Development Act and the Department of Social Development Act were enacted in July 2005. Upon taking office in February 2006, the Conservative Party government of Stephen Harper announced it would recombine the two departments, through a series of Orders in Council Social Development Canada was folded into HRSDC. Though a Department of Social Development remains in effect in legal terms, it no longer exists in any real sense.

From 2006 to 2008, Social Development's preceding role was reflected by styling the Minister of Human Resources and Skills Development as the "Minister of Human Resources and Social Development", by changing the department's applied title to "Human Resources and Social Development Canada". This practice ended in late 2008 when the title was changed to "Minister of Human Resources and Skills Development." The post was referred to as "Minister of Employment and Social Development" when the department was renamed. On November 4, 2015 the department underwent Machinery of Government Changes which saw the employment responsibilities transfer to the Labour Minister resulting in the newly re-titled Minister of Employment and Labour; the Social Development aspects were shaped into the Minister of Families and Social Development. The Minister of Sport and Persons with Disabilities is now tasked with handling the file on persons with disabilities. Sub-agencies of ESDC include: Service Canada Service Canada Centres for Youth Canada Student Loans Program Canada Employment Insurance Commission Canada Pension Plan National Seniors Council Seasonal Agricultural Workers Program Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation Canada Industrial Relations BoardESDC delivers $87 billion in programs and services and has 24,000 employees.

19,000 of those employees work under the Service Canada banner. Minister of Families and Social Development Hon. Jean-Yves DuclosMinister of Employment, Workforce Development and Labour Hon. Patty HajduMinister of Public Services and Procurement and Accessibility Hon. Carla QualtroughMinister of Seniors Hon. Filomena Tassi On January 11, 2013, Minister Diane Finley announced that a hard drive containing information of 583,000 student loan borrowers had been lost from a Canada Student Loans Program /HRSDC office in Gatineau, Quebec. Borrowers who registered a loan between 2000–2006 were affected; the information on the hard drive contained full names, Social Insurance Numbers, contact information, loan balances. The hard drive contained information on 250 HRSDC employees. Concerns of privacy breaches and identity theft led to the filing of three class-action suits against the federal government on behalf of the affected students. On January 18, 2013, the Office of the Privacy Commissioner of Canada stated that a formal investigation had been launched.

The stated outcome of this investigation was to provide information to organizations and individuals to improve privacy protection. The RCMP was notified but is waiting for the outcome of the Office of the Privacy Commissioner of Canada's investigation to do their own investigation; this incident has become known as "1 in 60", representing the ratio of affected individuals to the Canadian population as a whole. In 2018, the government of Justin Trudeau introduced a new mandatory criteria for eligible employers and projects of the Canada Summer Jobs program, for which "the core mandate of the organization must respect individual human rights in Canada, including the values underlying the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms as well as other rights" like the "reproductive rights and the right to be free from discrimination". After nine ongoing Federal Court challenges, the complaints of the Canadian Conference of Catholic Bishops in union with the Canadian Council of Christian Charities, the requirement was rewritten and become a mandatory point for eligible projects and job activities, which must not "actively work to undermine or restrict a woman’s access to sexual and reproductive health services.".

Poverty in Canada Human Resources and Skills Development Canada Service Canada

Thisizima fasciaria

Thisizima fasciaria is a moth of the family Tineidae. It is found in China; the wingspan is 17 mm for females. The forewing ground color is bright white with a black triangular patch from the costal margin to the dorsum on the basal 1/6 and an oblique, black fascia from the basal 1/3 to just before the middle of the dorsum. There is a rectangular black patch from the outer margin of the cell to the distal 1/6 of the forewing, confluent with two black subtriangular patches from the costa and termen before apex forming a broad Y-shaped pattern. Furthermore, there are two black costal spots between the Y-shaped pattern; the termen and dorsum are scattered with faint dark brown dots. The fringe is yellowish brown; the hindwings are light grayish brown with a gray fringe. The specific name is derived from Latin fasciarius and refers to the oblique, black fascia near the middle of the forewing

The Dragon's Call

"The Dragon's Call" is the first episode of the first series of the British fantasy-adventure family television series Merlin. Written by Julian Jones and directed by James Hawes, the episode was first broadcast on BBC One on 20 September 2008; the episode tells the arrival of Merlin as a young man in Camelot, where magic is banned by King Uther Pendragon. Taken under the wing of Camelot's physician, Gaius, he is warned that he must keep his innate magical ability a secret. In Camelot, he meets Uther's heir, the arrogant Prince Arthur, as well as Lady Morgana and her handmaid, Guinevere; as a witch plans revenge on the King's heir for the execution of her son, Merlin is informed by a cryptic dragon that his destiny is to protect Arthur. Merlin was conceived by Julian Murphy and Johnny Capps to be an origin story for the characters of the Arthurian legends, with family-centered entertainment. Young actors with little experience were cast as the four lead characters, while better-known actors were cast in supporting roles.

Many of the scenes in Camelot were filmed in France, at the Château de Pierrefonds, while the rest was filmed in England and Wales. Special effects were done by The Mill. "The Dragon's Call" was watched by 7.15 million viewers in the UK and 6.3 million in the US on NBC. Critical reception was mixed, with some feeling the show had promise but lacked imagination, the actual plot of "The Dragon's Call" was deemed slight. Merlin, a young sorcerer, arrives in Camelot just in time to witness the execution of Thomas Collins, a man accused of sorcery, by the order of King Uther Pendragon, who has banned the practice of magic in his kingdom on pain of death; as soon as the man is beheaded, Uther declares to the watching crowd that he shall throw a festival to celebrate twenty years since he wiped out magic and magicians from the kingdom. When he finishes his announcements, a hideous old hag, Thomas' mother Mary, swears revenge for the murder of her son, "a son for a son!", before vanishing to avoid arrest.

The King's ward, warns that Uther may be making enemies through his hatred and radical methods of wiping out magic. Merlin reports to Camelot's physician Gaius and saves the old man's life when he falls from a balcony by magically moving a mattress to cushion his fall. Though denying his abilities, Merlin admits that he has had magical powers since birth, which Gaius warns him to keep secret. Reading a letter from Merlin's mother, Gaius realises that the boy was sent to Camelot for protection. Meanwhile, in the forest outside Camelot, Mary kills Lady Helen, a singer, to perform at Uther's court, with a poppet. Mary assumes Helen's appearance using an enchantment, though her true hideous appearance can still be seen in her reflection. Outside, Merlin stands up for a servant, being bullied by his master, but as the master turns out to be the King's spoiled son, Merlin is imprisoned. For the second night in a row, he hears a voice calling his name. Gaius frees him the next morning. There he meets "Gwen", who commends him for being brave.

Merlin confronts Arthur after being released. Merlin keeps Arthur away using magic, met with ridicule by Gaius. Hearing the same voice calling his name that night, Merlin follows it to a cave where a dragon informs him that he is destined to protect Arthur with his powers. Gaius instructs Merlin to deliver elixirs to Lady Helen. Helen kills a handmaiden who glimpses her true form in a mirror. At the feast, Mary sings an enchantment as Lady Helen. Merlin, covers his ears. Mary attempts to kill Arthur, but Merlin drops a chandelier on her with magic before she releases the dagger; as she has stopped singing, the enchantment is lifted and her true appearance is revealed. In a last effort she throws the dagger at Arthur. Mary dies from her injuries. Uther rewards Merlin by making him Arthur's servant; the next day, Gaius gives Merlin a book under condition that he keep it hidden. Merlin was conceived by Shine Television producers Julian Murphy and Johnny Capps, who had worked together on Hex, a fantasy series produced by Shine for Sky One.

The two had enjoyed presenting a "high-concept" show, wished to do more. The BBC had been interested in broadcasting a drama based on the character of Merlin for some time; the programme was designed to appeal to a wide audience. As the Arthurian legends do not reflect genuine historical events, not being set in any one singular period in time, the show's creators were more interested in conveying a world that felt "real". Not constrained by historical accuracy, they had many opportunities to build the world in which they set their series; the series was intended to have an "epic scale" that would have a wide "cross-ge

Nedžat Šabani

Nedžat Šabani (Macedonian: Неџат Шабани is a Macedonian football manager and former striker. After playing with FK Vardar in the Yugoslav First League, he went on during the mid-1980s to several Yugoslav Second League clubs in order to gain more experience, such were KF Liria, FK Belasica and FK Proleter Zrenjanin, he also played with third-level side FK Metalurg Skopje, at time rising to become in the flowing decade a regular participant in the Macedonian top-league. He moved to Turkey and played in the Süper Lig one season with Sarıyer S. K. and another with Kayserispor. He started coaching FK Sloga Jugomagnat in March 2002 after the departure of the main coach Gjore Jovanovski whose Šabani was working with as assistant manager. Once Jovanovski left to Turkey to coach Sansunspor, the Renova direction board decided to give a chance to Šabani to demonstrate hiis sills as main coach, he would resigned be late October that year.Šabani coached FK Renova from July 2008 till November 2010. What he became best known was by taking the unknown club to win the 2009–10 Macedonian First Football League.

In October 2011 Šabani was appointed as the main coach of KF Shkëndija. As coach: RenovaMacedonian First League: 2009–10