Manila the City of Manila, is the capital of the Philippines and a urbanized city. It is the most densely populated city proper in the world as of 2018, it was the first chartered city by virtue of the Philippine Commission Act 183 on July 31, 1901 and gained autonomy with the passage of Republic Act No. 409 or the "Revised Charter of the City of Manila" on June 18, 1949. Manila, alongside Mexico City and Madrid are considered the world's original set of Global Cities due to Manila's commercial networks being the first to traverse the Pacific Ocean, thus connecting Asia with the Spanish Americas, marking the first time in world history when an uninterrupted chain of trade routes circled the planet. Manila is the second most natural disaster-afflicted capital city in the world next to Tokyo, yet it is among the most populous and fastest growing cities in Southeast Asia; the Spanish city of Manila was founded on June 24, 1571, by Spanish conquistador Miguel López de Legazpi. The date is regarded as the city's official founding date.

Manila was the seat of power for most of the country's colonial rulers. It is home to many historic sites. Manila has many of the Philippines' firsts, including the first university, light station, lighthouse tower, water system, electricity, stock exchange, zoo, pedestrian underpass, science high school, city-run university, city-run hospital, rapid transit system; the term "Manila" is used to refer to the whole metropolitan area, the greater metropolitan area or the city proper. The defined metropolitan area called Metro Manila, the capital region of the Philippines, includes the much larger Quezon City and the Makati Central Business District, it is the most populous region of the country, one of the most populous urban areas in the world, is one of the wealthiest regions in Southeast Asia. The city proper is home to 1,780,148 people in 2015, is the historic core of a built-up area that extends well beyond its administrative limits. With 71,263 people per square kilometer, Manila is the most densely populated city proper in the world.

The city is located on the eastern shores of Manila Bay. The Pasig River flows through the middle of the city, dividing it into south sections. Manila is made up of 16 administrative districts: Binondo, Intramuros, Paco, Port Area, Sampaloc, San Andres, San Miguel, San Nicolas, Santa Ana, Santa Cruz, Santa Mesa and Tondo, while it is divided into six districts for its representation in Congress and the election of the city council members. In 2018, the Globalization and World Cities Research Network listed Manila as an "Alpha-" global city, while the Global Financial Centres Index ranks Manila 97th in the world. Maynilà, the Filipino name for the city, comes from the phrase may-nilà, which translates to "where indigo is found." Nilà is derived from the Sanskrit word nīla which refers to indigo, and, by extension, to several plant species from which this natural dye can be extracted. The Maynilà name is more in reference to the presence of indigo-yielding plants growing in the area surrounding the settlement, rather than Maynilà being known as a settlement that trades in indigo dye.

This is because the settlement was founded several hundred years before indigo dye extraction became an important economic activity in the area in the 18th century. The native Tagalog name for the indigo plant, tayum finds use in another toponym within the Manila area — Tayuman — and elsewhere in the Philippines. Maynilà was adopted into Spanish as Manila. An antiquarian and inaccurate etymology asserts the origin of the city's name as may-nilad. Here, nilad is taken to be the name for one of two littoral plant species: popularly, but incorrectly: the water hyacinth which still grows on the banks of the Pasig River to this day. However, it is a recent introduction to the Philippines from South America and therefore could not have been the plant species referred to in the toponym. Correctly: a shrub-like tree found in or near mangrove swamps, This tree is the actual species that the Tagalog terms nilád or nilár refer to. From a linguistic perspective it is unlikely for native Tagalog speakers to drop the final consonant /d/ in nilad to arrive at the present form Maynilà.

As an example, nearby Bacoor still retains the final consonant of the old Tagalog word bakoód in old Spanish renderings of the placename. Historians Ambeth Ocampo and Joseph Baumgartner have found that in all early documents, the place had always been written without the final /d/, thereby making the may-nilad etymology spurious; the misidentification of nilad as the source of the toponym appears to originate from an 1887 essay written by Trinidad Pardo de Tavera, in which he wrote nila as both referring to Indigofera tinctoria and to Ixora manila. Early 20th century writings, such as those of Julio Nakpil and of Blair and Robertson repeated the claim. Today, this erroneous etymology continues to be perpetuated through casual repetition in both literature and popular use, such as in Maynilad Wat

The Hanen Centre

The Hanen Centre is a not-for-profit registered charitable organization, based in Toronto, Canada. It defines its mission as, “providing the important people in a child’s life with the knowledge and training they need to help the child develop the best possible language and literacy skills”; the organization’s primary focus is on developing and disseminating parent and caregiver training programs in order to provide early language intervention for children with language delays. The organization creates and distributes resources such as guidebooks and DVDs for parents and professionals, as well as offering workshops worldwide for Speech-Language Pathologists on the implementation of this approach to early language intervention; the Hanen Centre was founded in 1975 by Ayala Hanen Manolson, a Speech-Language Pathologist based in Montreal, Canada. Following the successful implementation of Manolson’s parent-oriented pilot program, It Takes Two To Talk, The Hanen Centre was awarded funding by the Ontario government to offer these programs to families in Toronto.

The Hanen Centre’s programs are based on the social interactionist model of language acquisition, emphasize a family-centered approach to language intervention. Ongoing research is conducted on Hanen Programs in collaboration with the graduate Department of Speech-Language Pathology at the University of Toronto; the Hanen Centre operates six programs designed for a variety of language and communicative disorders, along with numerous workshops and supporting resources. Programs are designed for children who have, or are at risk for language delays, as well as those children who are developing normally. Specific programs and resources have been designed for children with autism spectrum disorder. Hanen programs for parents are administered by Speech-Language Pathologists who, upon successful completion of a training workshop, are certified to offer a particular Hanen program to families in their respective communities. Both Speech-Language Pathologists and Early Childhood Educators are eligible to become trainers of child care providers and preschool teachers, with a view to training these providers to create enriched language learning environments for the children in their care.

By employing an operational strategy in which professionals are trained in the administration of these programs and subsequently go on to provide this service locally, Hanen has created a large network of Speech-Language Pathologists – all of whom are licensed by the Hanen Centre. Hanen programs operate in North America, the U. K and Australia, with limited operations outside those regions. Aside from their programs, Hanen designs and distributes research-based resources to practicing Speech-Language Pathologists, Early Childhood Educators, Medical Professionals, Nursery Schools and numerous other organizations and professionals who work with young children; such resources include DVDs and a variety of other supporting resources. While published in English, Hanen resources have been translated into French, Spanish and Dutch, have been adapted for Native American/First Nations communities. Hanen programs are based on the social interactionist model of language acquisition and, as such, emphasize an interactive approach to language intervention.

Numerous studies in the field of language acquisition and communicative disorders have suggested that children learn best from their parents, in a naturalistic and familiar environment. As a result, Hanen programs instruct parents to be effective language facilitators, making use of everyday situations to encourage emergent literacy and language development in young children, rather than confining language intervention to clinical sessions; as such, the child is provided with an enriched language learning environment which engages them, provides the child with multiple opportunities to hear and learn language. Given this approach and literacy intervention take place while strengthening the bond between parent and child; the Hanen Centre Website The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association Website The Canadian Association of Speech-Language Pathologists and Audiologists Website The Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists Website The National Association for the Education of Young Children Website Developmental Milestones for Communication and Language Development in Children What Parents need to know about Language Delay

Boyfriend (manga)

Boyfriend is a Japanese manga series written and illustrated by Fuyumi Soryo. The story focuses on the developing relationship between Masaki, a delinquent and former basketball star, Kanako, a girl with a heart condition that forces her to repeat two years of school. In 1987, Boyfriend received the 33rd Shogakukan Manga Award for shōjo manga. On February 11, 1992, an anime adaptation produced by Magic Bus aired on TV Tokyo. In 2008, the manga was posted on Yahoo! Comic Japan's website for free browsing, in order to celebrate Shōjo Comic magazine's 40th anniversary. Masaki Takatō is the second youngest of four sons, a delinquent by nature, his hot temper has put a wedge between himself and his strict father, gotten him kicked out of one school, tossed in another school, notoriously horrible for the one thing he's good at—basketball. A chance encounter with the willful Kanako Yūki may serve as a catalyst for change, as the indefinable connection she feels with Masaki draws them together... Masaki Takatō Kanako Yūki Sō Nakatsugawa Akira Sofue Tadashi Takatō Masao Takatō Masahiko Takatō Miwako Takatō Misako Tanaka Koga Aki Togawa Megumi Hanyū Mami Hayashino Tōru Ogi Ōba Saeko Sofue Boyfriend at Anime News Network's encyclopedia