Consul was the title of one of the two chief magistrates of the Roman Republic, subsequently an important title under the Roman Empire. The title was used in other European city states through antiquity and the Middle Ages revived in modern states, notably in the First French Republic; the related adjective is consular, from the Latin consularis. This usage contrasts with modern terminology. A consul held the highest elected political office of the Roman Republic, ancient Romans considered the consulship the highest level of the cursus honorum. Consuls were held power for one year. There were always two consuls in power at any time. Chronological listings of Roman consuls: List of Roman consuls List of topics related to ancient Rome Pauly–Wissowa Political institutions of Rome Hypatos It was not uncommon for an organization under Roman private law to copy the terminology of state and city institutions for its own statutory agents; the founding statute, or contract, of such an organisation was called lex,'law'.
The people elected each year were members of the upper class. While many cities had a double-headed chief magistracy another title was used, such as Duumvir or native styles such as Meddix, but consul was used in some. Throughout most of southern France, a consul was an office equivalent to the échevins of the north and similar with English aldermen; the most prominent were those of Bordeaux and Toulouse, which came to be known as jurats and capitouls, respectively. The capitouls of Toulouse were granted transmittable nobility. In many other smaller towns the first consul, was the equivalent of a mayor today, assisted by a variable number of secondary consuls and jurats, his main task was to collect tax. The Dukes of Gaeta used the title of "consul" in its Greek form "Hypatos"; the city-state of Genoa, unlike ancient Rome, bestowed the title of consul on various state officials, not restricted to the highest. Among these were Genoese officials stationed in various Mediterranean ports, whose role included helping Genoese merchants and sailors in difficulties with the local authorities.
This institution, with its name, was emulated by other powers and is reflected in the modern usage of the word. After Napoleon Bonaparte staged a coup against the Directory government in November 1799, the French Republic adopted a constitution which conferred executive powers upon three consuls, elected for a period of ten years. In reality, the first consul, dominated his two colleagues and held supreme power, soon making himself consul for life and in 1804, emperor; the office was held by: Napoleon Bonaparte, Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès, Roger Ducos, provisional consuls Napoleon Bonaparte, Jean-Jacques Cambacérès, Charles-François Lebrun, consuls The short-lived Bolognese Republic, proclaimed in 1796 as a French client republic in the Central Italian city of Bologna, had a government consisting of nine consuls and its head of state was the Presidente del Magistrato, i.e. chief magistrate, a presiding office held for four months by one of the consuls. Bologna had consuls at some parts of its Medieval history.
The French-sponsored Roman Republic was headed by multiple consuls: Francesco Riganti, Carlo Luigi Costantini, Duke Bonelli-Crescenzi, Antonio Bassi, Gioacchino Pessuti, Angelo Stampa, Domenico Maggi, provisional consuls Liborio Angelucci, Giacomo De Mattheis, Reppi, Ennio Quirino Visconti, consuls Brigi, Francesco Pierelli, Giuseppe Rey, Federico Maria Domenico Michele, consuls Consular rule was interrupted by the Neapolitan occupation, which installed a Provisional Government: Prince Giambattista Borghese, Prince Paolo-Maria Aldobrandini, Prince Gibrielli, Marchese Camillo Massimo, Giovanni Ricci Rome was occupied by France and again by Naples, bringing an end to the Roman Republic. Among the many petty local republics that were formed during the first year of the Greek Revolution, prior to the creation of a unified Provisional Government at the First National Assembly at Epidaurus, were: The Consulate of Argos had a single head of state, styled consul, 28 March 1821 – 26 May 1821: Stamatellos Antonopoulos The Consulate of East Greece was headed 1 April 1821 – 15 November 1821 by three consuls: Lambros Nakos, Ioannis Logothetis & Ioannis FilonNote: in Greek, the term for "consul" is "hypatos", which translates as "supreme one", hence does not imply a joint office.
In between a series of juntas and various other short-lived regimes, the young republic was governed by "consuls of the republic", with two consuls alternating in power every 4 months: 12 October 1813 – 12 February 1814, José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia y Velasco 12 February 1814 – 12 June 1814, Fulgencio Yegros y Franco de Torres 12 June 1814 – 3 October 1814, José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia y Velasco.
Licinius I was a Roman emperor from 308 to 324. For most of his reign he was the colleague and rival of Constantine I, with whom he co-authored the Edict of Milan that granted official toleration to Christians in the Roman Empire, he was defeated at the Battle of Chrysopolis, was executed on the orders of Constantine I. Born to a Dacian peasant family in Moesia Superior, Licinius accompanied his close childhood friend, the future emperor Galerius, on the Persian expedition in 298, he was trusted enough by Galerius that in 307 he was sent as an envoy to Maxentius in Italy to attempt to reach some agreement about the latter's illegitimate political position. Galerius trusted the eastern provinces to Licinius when he went to deal with Maxentius after the death of Flavius Valerius Severus. Upon his return to the east Galerius elevated Licinius to the rank of Augustus in the West on November 11, 308 his immediate command were the Balkan provinces of Illyricum and Pannonia. In 310 he took command of the war against the Sarmatians, inflicting a severe defeat on them and emerging victorious.
On the death of Galerius in May 311, Licinius entered into an agreement with Maximinus II to share the eastern provinces between them. By this point, not only was Licinius the official Augustus of the west but he possessed part of the eastern provinces as well, as the Hellespont and the Bosporus became the dividing line, with Licinius taking the European provinces and Maximinus taking the Asian. An alliance between Maximinus and Maxentius forced the two remaining emperors to enter into a formal agreement with each other. So in March 313 Licinius married Flavia Julia Constantia, half-sister of Constantine I, at Mediolanum, their marriage was the occasion for the jointly-issued "Edict of Milan" that reissued Galerius' previous edict allowing Christianity to be professed in the Empire, with additional dispositions that restored confiscated properties to Christian congregations and exempted Christian clergy from municipal civic duties. The redaction of the edict as reproduced by Lactantius - who follows the text affixed by Licinius in Nicomedia on June 14 313, after Maximinus' defeat - uses neutral language, expressing a will to propitiate "any Divinity whatsoever in the seat of the heavens".
Daia in the meantime decided to attack Licinius. Leaving Syria with 70,000 men, he reached Bithynia, although harsh weather he encountered along the way had gravely weakened his army. In April 313, he crossed the Bosporus and went to Byzantium, held by Licinius' troops. Undeterred, he took the town after an eleven-day siege, he moved to Heraclea, which he captured after a short siege, before moving his forces to the first posting station. With a much smaller body of men around 30,000, Licinius arrived at Adrianople while Daia was still besieging Heraclea. Before the decisive engagement, Licinius had a vision in which an angel recited him a generic prayer that could be adopted by all cults and which Licinius repeated to his soldiers. On 30 April 313, the two armies clashed at the Battle of Tzirallum, in the ensuing battle Daia's forces were crushed. Ridding himself of the imperial purple and dressing like a slave, Daia fled to Nicomedia. Believing he still had a chance to come out victorious, Daia attempted to stop the advance of Licinius at the Cilician Gates by establishing fortifications there.
For Daia, Licinius' army succeeded in breaking through, forcing Daia to retreat to Tarsus where Licinius continued to press him on land and sea. The war between them only ended with Daia’s death in August 313. Given that Constantine had crushed his rival Maxentius in 312, the two men decided to divide the Roman world between them; as a result of this settlement, Licinius became sole Augustus in the East, while his brother-in-law, was supreme in the West. Licinius rushed to the east to deal with another threat, this time from the Persian Sassanids. In 314, a civil war erupted between Licinius and Constantine, in which Constantine used the pretext that Licinius was harbouring Senecio, whom Constantine accused of plotting to overthrow him. Constantine prevailed at the Battle of Cibalae in Pannonia. Although the situation was temporarily settled, with both men sharing the consulship in 315, it was but a lull in the storm; the next year a new war erupted, when Licinius named Valerius Valens co-emperor, only for Licinius to suffer a humiliating defeat on the plain of Mardia in Thrace.
The emperors were reconciled after these two battles and Licinius had his co-emperor Valens killed. Over the next ten years, the two imperial colleagues maintained an uneasy truce. Licinius kept himself busy with a campaign against the Sarmatians in 318, but temperatures rose again in 321 when Constantine pursued some Sarmatians, ravaging some territory in his realm, across the Danube into what was technically Licinius’s territory; when he repeated this with another invasion, this time by the Goths who were pillaging Thrace under their leader Rausimod, Licinius complained that Constantine had broken the treaty between them. Constantine wasted no time going on the offensive. Licinius's fleet of 350 ships was defeated by Constantine's fleet in 323. In 324, tempted by the "advanced age and unpopular vices" of his colleague, again declared war against him and having defeated his army of 170,000 men at the Battle of Adrianople, succeeded in shutting him up within the walls of Byzantium; the defeat of the superior fleet of Licinius in the Battle of the Hellespont by Crispus
Battle of Verona (312)
The Battle of Verona was fought in 312 between the forces of the Roman emperors Constantine I and Maxentius. Maxentius' forces were defeated, Ruricius Pompeianus, the most senior Maxentian commander, was killed in the fighting. In 312 Constantine saw his chance to invade Italy to make an end of the usurpation of Maxentius. From Gaul he crossed the Alps into Italy. At the city of Segusium he met some resistance when the defenders refused to open their gates for him. After a short siege the gates were fired and the city was taken; the way to Italy lay open for him, shortly afterwards he destroyed a Maxentian army, whose most prominent contingent was of heavy cavalry, at Turin. After this victory large areas of northern Italy, including the city of Milan, changed allegiance and Constantine was able to march further to the east where he routed an enemy cavalry force camped near Brescia. Following the defection of Milan to Constantine, the city of Verona became Maxentius' most important military strongpoint in the northern part of Italy.
Verona was strong as it sat in a loop of the River Adige its fortifications formed a formidable barrier to attack. Maxentius' most able general, the praetorian prefect Ruricius Pompeianus, had gathered a numerous army from the forces in the region of Venetia and concentrated it at Verona. Constantine arrayed his troops to begin a formal siege of Verona. Constantine proceeded with his investment of Verona. Pompeianus managed to escape from the city before this was completed and rode east to gather reinforcements, he soon returned with a considerable army and placed Constantine in the difficult position of fighting on two fronts. Constantine responded by taking the offensive, he left a portion of his army to contain the garrison of the city, with the remainder attacked Pompeianus' reinforcements. Constantine led this attack and his fearless example inspired a heroic effort from his soldiers. Pompeianus was killed in the resulting melee and his forces were swiftly routed. Maxentius' troops within the city were demoralised by the fate of the relieving army and soon capitulated.
After the surrender of Verona all opposition to Constantine in the north of Italy collapsed. Furthermore, the cities in Etruria and Umbria declared for Constantine allowing him to march directly on Rome itself. At the Battle of the Milvian Bridge outside Rome, Constantine defeated Maxentius for the final time. Maxentius was killed during the battle and Constantine became ruler of the western half of the Roman Empire. Cornuti Primary Zosimus, Historia NovaSecondary Odahl, Charles Matson. Constantine and the Christian Empire. New York: Routledge, 2004. Hardcover ISBN 0-415-17485-6 Paperback ISBN 0-415-38655-1
Byzantium was an ancient Greek colony in early antiquity that became Constantinople, Istanbul. Byzantium was colonized by the Greeks from Megara in 657 BC; the etymology of Byzantion is unknown. It has been suggested, it may be derived from the Illyrian personal name Byzas. Ancient Greek legend refers to King Byzas, the leader of the Megarian colonists and founder of the city; the form Byzantium is a latinisation of the original name. Much the name Byzantium became common in the West to refer to the Eastern Roman Empire, its capital Constantinople stood on the site of ancient Byzantium. The name "Byzantine Empire" was introduced by the historian Hieronymus Wolf only in 1555, a century after the empire had ceased to exist. While the empire existed, the term Byzantium referred to only the city, rather than the empire; the name Lygos for the city, which corresponds to an earlier Thracian settlement, is mentioned by Pliny the Elder in his Natural History. The origins of Byzantium are shrouded in legend.
Traditional legend says Byzas from Megara founded Byzantium in 667 BC when he sailed northeast across the Aegean Sea. The tradition tells that Byzas, son of King Nisos, planned to found a colony of the Dorian Greek city of Megara. Byzas consulted the oracle of Apollo at Delphi, which instructed Byzas to settle opposite the "Land of the Blind". Leading a group of Megarian colonists, Byzas found a location where the Golden Horn, a great natural harbor, meets the Bosporus and flows into the Sea of Marmara, opposite Chalcedon, he adjudged the Chalcedonians blind not to have recognized the advantages the land on the European side of the Bosporus had over the Asiatic side. In 667 BC he founded Byzantium at their location, it was a trading city due to its location at the Black Sea's only entrance. Byzantium conquered Chalcedon, across the Bosporus on the Asiatic side; the city was taken by the Persian Empire at the time of the Scythian campaign of King Darius I, was added to the administrative province of Skudra.
Though Achaemenid control of the city was never as stable as compared to other cities in Thrace, it was considered, alongside Sestos, to be one of the foremost Achaemenid ports on the European coast of the Bosporus and the Hellespont. Byzantium was besieged by Greek forces during the Peloponnesian War; as part of Sparta's strategy for cutting off grain supplies to Athens, Sparta took the city in 411 BC. The Athenian military took the city in 408 BC. After siding with Pescennius Niger against the victorious Septimius Severus, the city was besieged by Roman forces and suffered extensive damage in 196 AD. Byzantium was rebuilt by Septimius Severus, now emperor, regained its previous prosperity, it was bound to Perinthos during the period of Septimius Severus. The location of Byzantium attracted Roman Emperor Constantine I who, in 330 AD, refounded it as an imperial residence inspired by Rome itself. After his death the city was called Constantinople; this combination of imperialism and location would affect Constantinople's role as the nexus between the continents of Europe and Asia.
It was a commercial and diplomatic centre. With its strategic position, Constantinople controlled the major trade routes between Asia and Europe, as well as the passage from the Mediterranean Sea to the Black Sea. On May 29, 1453, the city fell to the Ottoman Turks, again became the capital of a powerful state, the Ottoman Empire; the Turks called the city "Istanbul". To this day it remains the largest and most populous city in Turkey, although Ankara is now the national capital. By the late Hellenistic or early Roman period, the star and crescent motif was associated to some degree with Byzantium; some Byzantine coins of the 1st century BC and show the head of Artemis with bow and quiver, feature a crescent with what appears to be an eight-rayed star on the reverse. According to accounts which vary in some of the details, in 340 BC the Byzantines and their allies the Athenians were under siege by the troops of Philip of Macedon. On a dark and wet night Philip attempted a surprise attack but was thwarted by the appearance of a bright light in the sky.
This light is described by subsequent interpreters as a meteor, sometimes as the moon, some accounts mention the barking of dogs. However, the original accounts mention only a bright light in the sky, without specifying the moon. To commemorate the event the Byzantines erected a statue of Hecate lampadephoros; this story survived in the works of Hesychius of Miletus, who in all probability lived in the time of Justinian I. His works survive only in fragments preserved in the tenth century lexicographer Suidas; the tale is related by Stephanus of Byzantium, Eustathius. Devotion to Hecate was favored by the Byzantines for her aid in having protected them from the incursions of Philip of Macedon, her symbols were the crescent and star, the walls of her city were her provenance. It is unclear how the symbol Hecate/Artemis, one of many goddesses would have been transferred to the city itself, but it seems to have been an effect of being credited with the intervention against Philip and the subse
A. H. M. Jones
Arnold Hugh Martin Jones FBA — known as A. H. M. Jones or Hugo Jones — was a prominent 20th century British historian of classical antiquity of the Roman Empire. Jones's best-known work, The Later Roman Empire, 284–602, is considered the definitive narrative history of late Rome and early Byzantium, beginning with the reign of the Roman tetrarch Diocletian and ending with that of the Byzantine emperor Maurice. One of the most common modern criticisms of this work is its total reliance on literary and epigraphic primary sources, a methodology which mirrored Jones's own historiographical training. Archaeological study of the period was in its infancy when Jones wrote, which limited the amount of material culture he could include in his research, he published his first book, The Cities of the Eastern Roman Provinces, in 1937. In 1946, he was appointed to the chair of the Ancient History department at University College, London. In 1951, he assumed the same post there, he was elected a Fellow of the British Academy in 1947.
Jones was an fast reader with an encyclopedic memory. His disdain for "small talk" sometimes made him seem remote and cold to those who did not know him well, but he was warmly regarded by his students, he was sometimes criticized for not acknowledging the work of earlier scholars in his own footnotes, a habit he was aware of and apologized for in the preface to his first book. Jones died of a heart attack in 1970 while traveling by boat to Thessaloniki to give a series of lectures. Since Jones's death, popular awareness of his work has been overshadowed by the work of scholars of Late Antiquity, a period which did not exist as a separate field of study during his lifetime. Late Antiquity scholars refer to him and his enormous contributions to the study of the period are acknowledged. History of Abyssinia The Cities of the Eastern Roman Provinces The Herods of Judaea The Greek City from Alexander to Justinian Ancient Economic History Constantine and the Conversion of Europe Athenian Democracy Studies in Roman Government and Law The Later Roman Empire, 284–602: A Social and Administrative Survey Sparta The Decline of the Ancient World Augustus The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire, with John Robert Martindale and John Morris A. H. M. Jones and the Later Roman Empire.
Edited by David M. Gwynn. Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, 2008
The Maritsa, Meriç or Evros is, with a length of 480 km, the longest river that runs in the interior of the Balkans. Its drainage area is about 53,000 km2, of which 66.2% in Bulgaria, 27.5% in Turkey and 6.3% in Greece. It has its origin in the Rila Mountains in Western Bulgaria, flowing southeast between the Balkan and Rhodope Mountains, past Plovdiv and Parvomay to Edirne, Turkey. East of Svilengrad, the river flows eastwards, forming the border between Bulgaria and Greece, between Turkey and Greece. At Edirne, the river flows through Turkish territory on both banks turns towards the south and forms the border between Greece on the west bank and Turkey on the east bank to the Aegean Sea. Turkey was given a small sector on the west bank opposite the city of Edirne; the river enters the Aegean Sea near Enez. The Tundzha is its chief tributary; the lower course of the Maritsa/Evros forms part of the Bulgarian-Greek border and most of the Greek–Turkish border. The upper Maritsa valley is a principal east-west route in Bulgaria.
The unnavigable river is used for power irrigation. The places that the river flows through include Pazardzhik, Parvomay and Svilengrad in Bulgaria, Edirne in Turkey and Kastanies, Pythio and Lavara in Greece. There are a number of bridges over the river, including the one at Svilengrad, the one west of Edirne in Turkey and GR-2 with the D110/E90 further south and as its border crossings; the earliest known name of the river is Euros. Indo-European *ewru and Ancient Greek εύρύs meant "wide"; the Indo-European "wr" sound shifted in Thracian to "br". Thereafter, the river began to be known as Hebros in Greek and Latin. Rather than an origin as "wide river", an alternative hypothesis is that Hebros meant "goat" in Thracian. Since, when first attested, Europe referred only to Thrace proper, the name of the continent is derived from this river. While the name Έβρος was used in Ancient Greek, the name Μαρίτσα had become standard before the ancient form Έβρος was artificially restituted in Modern Greek.
The name Maritsa may derive from a mountain near the mouth of the river known in antiquity as Μηρισός or Μήριζος, Latinized as Meritus. In 1371, the river was the site of the Battle of Maritsa known as the battle of Chernomen, an Ottoman victory over the Serbs. Vukašin Mrnjavčević and Jovan Uglješa died in the battle; the Maritsa/Evros river has become one route for illegal migrants arriving into the EU. Many people, from Asia and Africa have used the Maritsa route after agreements sometimes seem to temporarily block other routes e.g. across the Mediterranean Sea to Italy and Spain. Starting from the river's source, significant tributaries of Maritsa include: Left tributaries: Topolnitsa Luda Yana Stryama Sazliyka Tundzha/Tunca Ergene Right tributaries: Chepinska reka Vacha Chepelarska reka Harmanliyska reka Arda/Ardas Erythropotamos/Luda reka The lower course of the river Maritsa/Evros, where it forms the border of Greece and Turkey, is vulnerable to flooding. For about 4 months every year, the low lands around the river are flooded.
This causes significant economic damage, estimated at several hundreds million Euro. Recent large floods took place in 2006 and 2007. Several causes have been proposed: more rainfall due to climate change, deforestation in the Bulgarian part of the catchment area, increased land use in the flood plains and difficult communication between the three countries. Maritsa Peak on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica is named after Maritsa River. La Maritza is a 1968 song written by Jean Renard and Pierre Delanoë and interpreted by Sylvie Vartan. Hebrus Valles on Mars is named after this river; the Bulgarian Maritsa motorway, which follows the course of the river from Chirpan to the Turkish border at Kapitan Andreevo, is named in honour of the river. "МАРИЦА". Българска енциклопедия А-Я. БАН, Труд, Сирма. 2002. ISBN 954-8104-08-3. OCLC 163361648