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Battle of Marston Moor

The Battle of Marston Moor was fought on 2 July 1644, during the First English Civil War of 1642–1646. The combined forces of the English Parliamentarians under Lord Fairfax and the Earl of Manchester and the Scottish Covenanters under the Earl of Leven defeated the Royalists commanded by Prince Rupert of the Rhine and the Marquess of Newcastle. During the summer of 1644, the Covenanters and Parliamentarians had been besieging York, defended by the Marquess of Newcastle. Rupert had gathered an army which marched through the northwest of England, gathering reinforcements and fresh recruits on the way, across the Pennines to relieve the city; the convergence of these forces made. On 1 July, Rupert outmanoeuvred the Parliamentarians to relieve the city; the next day, he sought battle with them though he was outnumbered. He was dissuaded from attacking and during the day both sides gathered their full strength on Marston Moor, an expanse of wild meadow west of York. Towards evening, the Parliamentarians themselves launched a surprise attack.

After a confused fight lasting two hours, Parliamentarian cavalry under Oliver Cromwell routed the Royalist cavalry from the field and, with Leven's infantry, annihilated the remaining Royalist infantry. After their defeat the Royalists abandoned Northern England, losing much of the manpower from the northern counties of England and losing access to the European continent through the ports on the North Sea coast. Although they retrieved their fortunes with victories in the year in Southern England, the loss of the north was to prove a fatal handicap the next year, when they tried unsuccessfully to link up with the Scottish Royalists under the Marquess of Montrose. In Northern England, the Royalists had the advantage in numbers and local support, except in parts of Lancashire and the West Riding of Yorkshire, where the Parliamentarians had support from the clothing-manufacturing towns which "naturally maligned the gentry". On 30 June 1643, the Royalists commanded by the Marquess of Newcastle defeated the Parliamentarian army of Lord Fairfax at the Battle of Adwalton Moor near Bradford.

Fairfax and his son, Sir Thomas Fairfax, fled with their remaining forces to the port of Hull, held for Parliament. Newcastle sent some of his army south into Lincolnshire, as part of a planned "three-pronged" advance on London, but was forced to besiege Hull with most of his forces; the siege failed, as the Parliamentarian navy could supply and reinforce the port and the garrison flooded wide areas around the city, while the Royalist detachments sent into Lincolnshire were defeated at the Battle of Gainsborough and the Battle of Winceby. In late 1643, the English Civil War widened. King Charles I negotiated a "cessation" in Ireland, which allowed him to reinforce his armies with English regiments, sent to Ireland following the Irish Rebellion of 1641, but Parliament took an greater step by signing the Solemn League and Covenant, sealing an alliance with the Scottish Covenanters. Early in 1644, a Covenanter army under the Earl of Leven entered the north of England on behalf of the English Parliament.

The Marquess of Newcastle was forced to divide his army, leaving a detachment under Sir John Belasyse to watch the Parliamentarians under Lord Fairfax in Hull, while he led his main body north to confront Leven. During March and early April, the Marquess of Newcastle fought several delaying actions as he tried to prevent the Scots from crossing the River Tyne and surrounding the city of Newcastle upon Tyne. Meanwhile, a Parliamentarian cavalry force under Sir Thomas Fairfax, campaigning in Cheshire and Lancashire during the winter, crossed the Pennines and entered the West Riding of Yorkshire. To prevent Sir Thomas rejoining Lord Fairfax in Hull, Belasyse occupied the town of Selby which lay between them. On 11 April, Sir Thomas Fairfax's force, reinforced by infantry under Sir John Meldrum, stormed Selby, capturing Belasyse and most of his force. Hearing the news, Newcastle realised. York was the principal city and bastion of Royalist power in the north of England, its loss would be a serious blow to the Royalist cause.

He hastily retreated there to forestall the Fairfaxes. Leven left a detachment under the Earl of Callendar to mask the Royalist garrison of Newcastle upon Tyne, followed the Marquess of Newcastle's army with his main body. On 22 April and the Fairfaxes joined forces at Wetherby, about 14 miles west of York. Together, they began the Siege of York; the siege was a rather loose blockade as the Covenanters and Parliamentarians concentrated on capturing smaller Royalist garrisons which threatened their communications with Hull. On 3 June, they were reinforced by the Parliamentarian army of the Eastern Association under the Earl of Manchester. York was now encircled and siege operations began in earnest. Leven was accepted as commander in chief of the three combined allied armies before York, it was politic to make the Scottish Covenanters pre-eminent in the north as they were the largest single contingent in the army, but Leven was a respected veteran of the Thirty Years' War. News of the siege soon reached Oxford.

From 24 April to 5 May, he held a council of war attended by his nephew and most renowned field commander, Prince Rupert. It was settled. Rupert set out from Shrewsbury with a small force on 16 May, his first moves were intended to ga

Robert Clutterbuck

Robert Clutterbuck was an English antiquary and topographer. He was the eldest surviving son of Thomas Clutterbuck, of Watford, Hertfordshire, by Sarah, daughter of Robert Thurgood of Baldock, he was born at Watford on 28 June 1772, at an early age was sent to Harrow School. He went to Oxford as a gentleman commoner. After graduating B. A. in 1794 he entered Lincoln's Inn, intending to make the law his profession. In 1798 he married Marianne, eldest daughter of Colonel James Capper, after a few years living at the seat of his father-in-law, near Cardiff, Glamorganshire, he took possession of his paternal estate at Watford, he continued to live there until his death, on 25 May 1831. He was a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries. For 18 years he worked on a new county history. Embellished with views of the most curious monuments of antiquity, illustrated with a map of the County, 3 vols. London, 1815, 1821, 1827; the plates were in some cases from his own sketches, he had the assistance of Edward Blore and other prominent draughtsmen and engravers.

Clutterbuck published, in 1828, an Account of the Benefactions to the Parish of Watford in the County of Hertford, compiled from Authentic Documents. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Cooper, Thompson. "Clutterbuck, Robert". In Stephen, Leslie. Dictionary of National Biography. 11. London: Smith, Elder & Co. p. 138

SS Governor Cobb

SS Governor Cobb was an American coastal passenger steamboat built in 1906. The ship has the double distinction of being not only the first American-built ship to be powered by steam turbines, but late in her career, of becoming the world's first helicopter carrier. Governor Cobb was ordered by the Eastern Steamship Company of Charles W. Morse from the marine engine specialists W. & A. Fletcher Co. of Hoboken, New Jersey. W. & A. Fletcher had licensed the revolutionary steam turbine technology from the Parsons Marine Steam Turbine Company of Great Britain, a Parsons design was utilized for Governor Cobb's powerplant; the powerplant consisted of one large high-pressure central turbine for providing the motive power to a central propeller, a pair of low-pressure turbines driving two outboard screws which were used for manoeuvre, which were shut down when the vessel was under way. Steam was provided by six single-ended, forced draft Scotch boilers delivering a pressure of 150 pounds. W. & A. Fletcher subcontracted the hull to the Delaware River Iron Shipbuilding and Engine Works of Chester, Pennsylvania.

Construction of the engines aroused considerable interest, when the vessel had been completed, the Department of Naval Architecture received permission from the President of the Eastern Steamship Company, Calvin Austin, to conduct a number of tests. The tests were conducted by the Bureau of Steam Engineering, obliged to borrow one of only two instruments in the United States capable of determining the horsepower of a steam turbine; the turbines were found to deliver a total of 5,000 horsepower, which gave the vessel a speed of 17½ knots. When completed, Governor Cobb was 300 feet long, with a 51-foot draft of 14 feet; the ship had a double steel bottom and four decks—a main deck, saloon and dome deck. The ship had 175 staterooms, could carry a large number of passengers, it carried freight in the hold and on the main deck. Governor Cobb entered service in 1906 and was employed by the Eastern Steamship Company on the Boston to New Brunswick route. During World War I, the ship was requisitioned as a training ship by the United States Shipping Board.

Following the war, she was leased to the Peninsular & Occidental Steamship Co. a subsidiary of the Florida East Coast Railway for service on the Key West to Havana route. In 1937, the ship was sold to the Romance Line but failed an inspection by the Bureau of Navigation and Steamboat Inspection and was subsequently laid up. On 5 June 1942, Governor Cobb was requisitioned at Philadelphia by the War Shipping Administration, after which she was stationed at New York City. Following Governor Cobb's acquisition by the War Shipping Administration, the ship was acquired by the United States Coast Guard, in the process of testing the effectiveness of the newly developed Sikorsky helicopter for anti-submarine warfare; the Coast Guard renamed the ship USCGC Cobb and carried out extensive modifications, including removal of much of the superstructure and the installation of a large 38 × 63 foot flight deck for the purpose of testing helicopter take-offs and landings at sea. USCGC Cobb thus became the world's first helicopter carrier.

On 29 June 1944, the first successful take-off from a ship underway was performed from the flight deck of USCGC Cobb. Cobb later took part in some of the first helicopter search-and-rescue trials. Due to high maintenance costs, USCGC Cobb was sold shortly after the war, she was scrapped in 1947. The Technology Review, Association of Alumni and Alumnae of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1907. Cobb, 1944 WPG-181, United States Coast Guard website

Jaime Zapata

Jaime Jorge Zapata was an Immigration and Customs Enforcement, Homeland Security Investigations Special Agent, ambushed and murdered by the Mexican criminal group Los Zetas in San Luis Potosí, Mexico. He was one of the two agents that were ambushed in a part of the country, under the influence of drug violence. Zapata's death is the second highest-profile killing of a U. S. agent in Mexico—the first one was Enrique Camarena, an undercover DEA agent, tortured and murdered by the former Guadalajara Cartel. Zapata was born in Brownsville, United States, a border city directly north across Matamoros, Mexico, he was one of all in the field of criminal justice. Zapata attended Homer Hanna High School, graduated from the University of Texas at Brownsville in 2005, where he attained a degree in Criminal Justice and an associate degree in Applied Science. Zapata entered on duty with the U. S. Customs and Border Protection on February 6, 2006, as a Border Patrol Agent. Zapata was a member of the U. S. Border Patrol Academy's 611th Session.

After his graduation Zapata was assigned to Arizona Border Patrol Station. Zapata joined Immigration and Customs Enforcement, Homeland Security Investigations in 2006, after being assigned to the Office of the Deputy special agent in Laredo, where he served on the Human Smuggling and Trafficking Unit and in the Border Enforcement Security Task Force. Two U. S. Homeland Security Investigations special agents, Jaime Zapata and Víctor Ávila, were traveling from Laredo, Texas to Mexico City on an assignment for U. S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement; as they drove through the northern state of San Luis Potosí, the agents noticed two SUVs following them down Highway 57, a four-lane, federal highway from Mexico City to Monterrey. The two vehicles that came up behind them were at a high rate of speed, were described as driving "aggressively," according to agent Ávila. One vehicle passed the agents’ Suburban, while other gunmen started to fire at their vehicle, rammed them off the road; as one of the agents rolled down the window to inform them that they were U.

S. diplomats, the agent recalls how one of the gunmen got off his vehicle, with a rifle in his hand, forced the door of the agents’ car open and shot point blank at them. When Zapata shifted the vehicle into park, its doors automatically unlocked; the Zeta gunmen pulled open the driver's side door and tried to drag Zapata out, but he fought them off, managing to re-lock the doors. The agents, managed to crack the windows to talk with the assailants and identify themselves; the agents hoped to reason with the gunmen -- as many as 15 of them --. According to congressman McCaul, the agents said "We're Americans, we're diplomats", the response from the drug cartels was bullets; the gunmen fled, Ávila was able to use his cellphone to call for help. Dying, Zapata managed to drive away before collapsing at the wheel. Soon afterwards, a Mexican federal police helicopter arrived. Ávila was shot twice in the leg, was sent to a hospital in Houston, Texas. Jaime Zapata, gravely injured from three bullet wounds, died before the authorities could aid him with medical treatment.

According to federal sources, the ambush took place at a fake military checkpoint established by the gunmen, who were dressed in camouflage uniforms and armed with machine guns. There has been controversy of whether this attack was from a group of Los Zetas carrying on their own operation, or whether this incident was a well-planned and intentional ambush attack against the American agents; the captured individuals involved in the attack revealed through their interviews that they had mistaken the agents for a rival drug cartel. The agent's account, mentions that the gunmen knew that they were attacking U. S. law enforcement officers, since after Zapata mentioned that they were American diplomats, the Zetas said "We don't give a " and shot both of them. Moreover, the diplomatic plates indicated U. S. officials were on board. Texas Congressman Michael McCaul mentioned that the gunmen opened fire at the agents after they had identified themselves as U. S. diplomats. Five months after the slaying of Jaime Zapata, a report from the White House noted that Zapata's family demanded to know the source of the weapons used in the attack.

The gun that killed Zapata and wounded Víctor Ávila—a semi-automatic WASR-10—was purchased by Otilio Osorio in Dallas, the serial number obliterated, smuggled into Mexico along with nine additional rifles. Congressional investigators have stated that Osorio was known by the ATF to be a straw purchaser months before he purchased the gun used to kill Zapata, leading them to question the Bureau's Operation Fast and Furious leading to the illegal purchase and export of the murder weapon. Mexican functionaries mentioned that although their efforts have been significant, without full cooperation from the United States in preventing the drug consumption in the U. S. the flow of American weapons and of cash south of the border into the hands of the Mexican criminals, there will not be any significant improvement in dismantling the drug cartels. On another note, the slaying of Zapata has sparked a debate on whether U. S. agents in Mexico should be allowed to carry guns to defend themselves. President Felipe Calderón mentioned during his visit to Washington, D.

C. on March 3, 2011 that "alternatives" would be examined with Congress to improve the security of U. S. agents working in Mexico. The death of Jaime Zapata allowed for the United States to work with officials on the Mexican-

31st Independent Spirit Awards

The 31st Film Independent Spirit Awards announced its nominees on November 24, 2015. The winners were announced on February 2016 at Santa Monica Beach; the ceremony was hosted by Kumail Nanjiani. Krisha Advantageous Christmas, Again Heaven Knows What Out of My Hand Spotlight Recognizes a talented filmmaker of singular vision who has not yet received appropriate recognition; the award includes a $25,000 unrestricted grant funded by Kiehl's since 1851. Felix Thompson – King Jack Chloé ZhaoSongs My Brothers Taught Me Robert Machoian and Rodrigo Ojeda-Beck – God Bless the Child Honors emerging producers who, despite limited resources, demonstrate the creativity and vision required to produce quality, independent films; the award includes a $25,000 unrestricted grant funded by Piaget. Mel Eslyn Darren Dean Rebecca Green and Laura D. Smith Presented to an emerging director of non-fiction features who has not yet received significant recognition; the award includes a $25,000 unrestricted grant. Elizabeth Chai Vasarhelyi – Incorruptible Alex Sichel and Elizabeth Giamatti – A Woman Like Me Hemal Trivedi and Mohammed Ali NaqviAmong the Believers

105 South Washington Street

105 South Washington Street in Huntsville, Alabama, is a historic commercial building. It was built in 1931, after the previous building on the site had burned in 1925; the street level of the two-story brick building has three single-pane windows on either side of a recessed entry. A row of similar windows runs above the street level, separated by a row of rectangular panels. Above the storefront level sits a panel of soldier course bricks, with decorative terra cotta floral blocks on the corners; the same blocks are used on the top corners of the surrounds for five windows above. The frieze is terra cotta, with a series of narrow flutes above a decorative bed-mould chain; the cornice features a geometric X-pattern with small dentils on each block. The terra cotta detailing exhibits Art Deco influence, popular at the time the building was constructed; the building was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1984