The Battle of Mohács was one of the most consequential battles in Central European history. It was fought on 29 August 1526 near Mohács, Kingdom of Hungary, between the forces of the Kingdom of Hungary, led by Louis II, those of the Ottoman Empire, led by Suleiman the Magnificent; the Ottoman victory led to the partition of Hungary for several centuries between the Ottoman Empire, the Habsburg Monarchy, the Principality of Transylvania. Further, the death of Louis II as he fled the battle marked the end of the Jagiellonian dynasty in Hungary and Bohemia, whose dynastic claims passed to the House of Habsburg; the Battle of Mohács marked the end of the Middle Ages in Hungary. After the death of the absolutist King Matthias Corvinus in 1490, the Hungarian magnates, who did not want another heavy-handed king, procured the accession of the notoriously weak-willed King Vladislaus of Bohemia, who reigned as King Vladislaus II of Hungary from 1490 to 1516, he was known as King Dobře, meaning "all right"), for his habit of accepting, without question, every petition and document laid before him.
The freshly-elected King Vladislaus II donated most of the Hungarian royal estates, régales and royalties to the nobility. Thus the king tried to preserve his popularity among the magnates. Given the naive fiscal and land policy of the royal court, the central power began to experience severe financial difficulties due to the enlargement of feudal lands at royal expense; the noble estate of the parliament succeeded in reducing their tax burden by 70–80%, at the expense of the country's ability to defend itself. Vladislaus became the magnates' helpless "prisoner"; the standing mercenary army of Matthias Corvinus was dissolved by the aristocracy. The magnates dismantled the national administration systems and bureaucracy throughout the country; the country's defenses sagged as border-guards and castle garrisons went unpaid, fortresses fell into disrepair, initiatives to increase taxes to reinforce defenses were stifled. Hungary's international role declined; the arrival of Protestantism further worsened internal relations in the country.
The strongest nobles were so busy oppressing the peasants and quarreling with the gentry class in the parliament that they failed to heed the agonized calls of King Louis II for support against the Turks. In 1514, the weakened and old King Vladislaus II faced a major peasant rebellion led by György Dózsa, ruthlessly crushed by the nobles, led by John Zápolya. After the Dózsa Rebellion, the brutal suppression of the peasants aided the 1526 Turkish invasion as the Hungarians were no longer a politically united people; the resulting degradation of order paved the way for Ottoman pre-eminence. King Louis II of Hungary married Mary of Habsburg in 1522; the Ottomans saw this Jagiellonian-Habsburg marital alliance as a threat to their power in the Balkans and worked to break it. After Suleiman I came to power in Istanbul in 1520, the High Porte made the Hungarians at least one and two offers of peace. For unclear reasons, Louis refused, it is possible that Louis was well aware of Hungary's situation and believed that war was a better option than peace.
In peacetime, the Ottomans raided Hungarian lands and conquered small territories, but a final battle still offered Louis a glimmer of hope. Accordingly, another Ottoman–Hungarian war ensued, in June 1526 an Ottoman expedition advanced up the Danube. King Francis I of France was defeated at the Battle of Pavia on 24 February 1525 by the troops of the Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V. After several months in prison, Francis I was forced to sign the Treaty of Madrid. In a watershed moment in European diplomacy, Francis formed a formal Franco-Ottoman alliance with Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent as an ally against Charles V; the French-Ottoman strategic, sometimes tactical, alliance lasted for about three centuries. To relieve the Habsburg pressure on France, in 1525 Francis asked Suleiman to make war on the Holy Roman Empire, the road from Turkey to the Holy Roman Empire led across Hungary; the request of the French king coincided well with the ambitions of Suleiman in Europe and gave him an incentive to attack Hungary in 1526, leading to the Battle of Mohács.
The Hungarians had long opposed Ottoman expansion in southeastern Europe, but in 1521 the Turks advanced up the Danube River and took Nándorfehérvár – the strongest Hungarian fortress on the Danube – and Szabács. This left most of southern Hungary indefensible; the loss of Nandorfehervar caused great alarm in Hungary, but the huge 60,000 strong royal army – led by the king, but recruited too late and too – neglected to take food along. Therefore, the army disbanded spontaneously under pressure from hunger and disease without trying to recapture Belgrade from the newly installed Turkish garrisons. In 1523, Archbishop Pál Tomori, a valiant priest-soldier, was made Captain of Southern Hungary; the general apathy that had characterized the country forced him to lean on his own bishopric revenues when he started to repair and reinforce the second line of Hungary's border defense system. Pétervárad fell to the Turks on July 1526 due to the chronic lack of castle garrisons. For about 400 km along the Danube between Pétervárad and Buda there was no single Hungarian town, village
The St Lawrence and Mary Magdalene Drinking Fountain is a drinking fountain on the eastern side of Carter Lane Gardens near St Paul's Cathedral in London, United Kingdom. The fountain was designed by architect John Robinson, it features bronze sculpture by artist Joseph Durham. Statuary on it depicts St Mary Magdalene; the fountain was installed in 1866 outside the Church of St Lawrence Jewry. It was dismantled into 150 pieces in the 1970s and put into a city vault for fifteen years stored in a barn at a farm in Epping; the pieces were sent to a foundry in Chichester for reassembly in 2009. It was moved to the current location in 2010. Historic England. "St Lawrence Jewry Drinking Fountain". National Heritage List for England
Sandrine Gruda is a French professional basketball player for PF Schio. Her primary position is center, she is the daughter of Ulysse Gruda, who played for the French men's national basketball team, grew up on Martinique. Before joining the WNBA, Gruda played professionally for the French club Union Sportive Valenciennes Olympic, she began playing on senior level in 2002, professionally in 2005. She was voted the best European young women's player of the year 2006. Gruda was drafted 13th overall in the 2007 WNBA Draft by the Connecticut Sun, she did not join the Sun until the 2008 season. She was touted by head coach Mike Thibault before joining the team. During her rookie season, she provided solid bench play and with her height and length, was a consistent rebounder and shot-blocker. In 2014, she returned to the WNBA after a three-year absence, joining the Los Angeles Sparks as a reserve on the roster. Gruda sat out the 2015 season to prepare for the 2016 Summer Olympics with the France women's national basketball team in the qualifying tournament.
In 2016, Gruda re-signed with the Sparks after the Olympic break. On in the season, Gruda would win her first WNBA championship with the Sparks after they defeated the Minnesota Lynx 3–2 in the Finals. Following the championship victory, after not being re-signed during free agency, Gruda returned to the Sparks midway through the 2017 season; the Sparks would go on to advance to the Finals for the second season in a row, after defeating the Phoenix Mercury in a 3-game sweep, setting up a rematch with the Lynx. However, the Sparks would lose to the Lynx in five games, she played for the Russian club UMMC Ekaterinburg from 2007 to 2016. On 6 July 2016, Fenerbahçe Istanbul announced her transfer to the club. Gruda is the starting center for the France women's national basketball team, led her team to the EuroBasket 2009 title, she was the best scorer and rebounder of the French side, was voted to the all-tournament team. She took part in the World Championship 2006 and the EuroBasket 2007, reaching the quarter-finals both times.
Sandrine Gruda Official Site sandrinegruda.com Sandrine Gruda at Olympics at Sports-Reference.com Sandrine Gruda at FIBA