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Battle of Moscow

The Battle of Moscow was a military campaign that consisted of two periods of strategically significant fighting on a 600 km sector of the Eastern Front during World War II. It took place between October 1941 and January 1942; the Soviet defensive effort frustrated Hitler's attack on Moscow, the capital and largest city of the Soviet Union. Moscow was one of the primary military and political objectives for Axis forces in their invasion of the Soviet Union; the German strategic offensive, named Operation Typhoon, called for two pincer offensives, one to the north of Moscow against the Kalinin Front by the 3rd and 4th Panzer Armies severing the Moscow–Leningrad railway, another to the south of Moscow Oblast against the Western Front south of Tula, by the 2nd Panzer Army, while the 4th Army advanced directly towards Moscow from the west. The Soviet forces conducted a strategic defence of the Moscow Oblast by constructing three defensive belts, deploying newly raised reserve armies, bringing troops from the Siberian and Far Eastern Military Districts.

As the German offensives were halted, a Soviet strategic counter-offensive and smaller-scale offensive operations forced the German armies back to the positions around the cities of Oryol and Vitebsk, nearly surrounded three German armies. It was a major setback for the Germans, the end of the idea of a fast German victory in the USSR; as a result of the failed offensive, Field Marshal Walther von Brauchitsch was dismissed as supreme commander of the German Army, with Hitler replacing him in the position. Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion plan, called for the capture of Moscow within four months. On 22 June 1941, Axis forces invaded the Soviet Union, destroyed most of the Soviet Air Force on the ground, advanced deep into Soviet territory using blitzkrieg tactics to destroy entire Soviet armies; the German Army Group North moved towards Leningrad, Army Group South took control of Ukraine, Army Group Centre advanced towards Moscow. By July 1941, Army Group Centre crossed the Dnieper River, on the path to Moscow.

On 15th of July 1941, German forces captured Smolensk, an important stronghold on the road to Moscow. At this stage, although Moscow was vulnerable, an offensive against the city would have exposed the German flanks. In part to address these risks, in part to attempt to secure Ukraine's food and mineral resources, Hitler ordered the attack to turn north and south and eliminate Soviet forces at Leningrad and Kiev; this delayed the German advance on Moscow. When that advance resumed on 30 September 1941, German forces had been weakened, while the Soviets had raised new forces for the defence of the city. For Hitler, the Soviet capital was secondary, he believed the only way to bring the Soviet Union to its knees was to defeat it economically, he felt. When Walther von Brauchitsch, Commander-in-Chief of the Army, supported a direct thrust to Moscow, he was told that "only ossified brains could think of such an idea". Franz Halder, head of the Army General Staff, was convinced that a drive to seize Moscow would be victorious after the German Army inflicted enough damage on the Soviet forces.

This view was shared by most within the German high command. But Hitler overruled his generals in favor of pocketing the Soviet forces around Kiev in the south, followed by the seizure of Ukraine; the move was successful, resulting in the loss of nearly 700,000 Red Army personnel killed, captured, or wounded by 26 September, further advances by Axis forces. With the end of summer, Hitler redirected his attention to Moscow and assigned Army Group Centre to this task; the forces committed to Operation Typhoon included three infantry armies supported by three Panzer Groups and by the Luftwaffe's Luftflotte 2. Up to two million German troops were committed to the operation, along with 1,000–2,470 tanks and assault guns and 14,000 guns. German aerial strength, had been reduced over the summer's campaign. Luftflotte 2 had only 549 serviceable machines, including 158 medium and dive-bombers and 172 fighters, available for Operation Typhoon; the attack relied on standard blitzkrieg tactics, using Panzer groups rushing deep into Soviet formations and executing double-pincer movements, pocketing Red Army divisions and destroying them.

Facing the Wehrmacht were three Soviet fronts forming a defensive line based on the cities of Vyazma and Bryansk, which barred the way to Moscow. The armies comprising these fronts had been involved in heavy fighting. Still, it was a formidable concentration consisting of 1,000 tanks and 7,600 guns; the Soviet Air Force had suffered appalling losses of some 7,500 to 21,200 aircraft. Extraordinary industrial achievements had begun to replace these, at the outset of Typhoon the VVS could muster 936 aircraft, 578 of which were bombers. Once Soviet resistance along the Vyazma-Bryansk front was eliminated, German forces were to press east, encircling Moscow by outflanking it from the north and south. Continuous fighting had reduced their effectiveness, logistical difficulties became more acute. General Guderian, commander of the 2nd Panzer Army, wrote that some of his destroyed tanks had not been replaced, there were fuel shortages at the start of the operation; the German attack went according to plan, with 4th Panzer Group pushing through the middle nearly unopposed and splitting its mobile forces north to complete the encirclement of Vyazma with 3rd Panzer Group, other units south to close the ring around Bryansk in conjunction with 2nd Panzer Group.

The Soviet de


Vaporwave is a microgenre of electronic music that emerged in the early 2010s as an Internet meme. It is defined by its mimetic embrace of Internet culture and its sampling of 1980s and 1990s styles such as smooth jazz, elevator music, R&B, lounge music manipulating tracks via chopped and screwed techniques and other effects; the surrounding subculture is sometimes associated with an ambiguous or satirical take on consumer capitalism and pop culture, tends to be characterized by a nostalgic or surrealist engagement with the popular entertainment and advertising of previous decades. It incorporates early Internet imagery, late 1990s web design, glitch art, anime, 3D-rendered objects, cyberpunk tropes in its cover artwork and music videos. Originating as an ironic variant of chillwave, vaporwave was loosely derived from the experimental tendencies of the mid-2000s hypnagogic pop scene; the style was pioneered by producers such as James Ferraro, Daniel Lopatin, Ramona Xavier, who each used various pseudonyms.

A circle of online producers were inspired by Xavier's Floral Shoppe, which established a blueprint for the genre. The movement subsequently built an audience on sites, Reddit and 4chan while a flood of new acts operating under online pseudonyms, turned to Bandcamp and SoundCloud for distribution. Following the wider exposure of vaporwave in 2012, a wealth of subgenres and offshoots emerged, such as future funk and hardvapour. Vaporwave is an Internet-based microgenre, built upon the experimental and ironic tendencies of genres such as chillwave and hypnagogic pop, it draws on musical and cultural sources from the 1980s and early 1990s while being associated with an ambiguous or satirical take on consumer capitalism and technoculture. The name derives from "vaporware", a term for commercial software, announced but never released. Defined for its subversion of dance music from the 1980s and 1990s, the music consists of "brief, cut-up sketches", cleanly produced, composed entirely from samples, along with the application of slowed-down chopped and screwed techniques and other effects.

Critic Adam Trainer writes of the style's predilection for "music made less for enjoyment than for the regulation of mood", such as corporate stock music for infomercials and product demonstrations. Musicologist Adam Harper described the typical vaporwave track as "a wholly synthesised or processed chunk of corporate mood music and earnest or slow and sultry beautiful, either looped out of sync and beyond the point of functionality."The style is defined by its surrounding subculture. It extends to visual formats as much as it does music and embraces the Internet as a cultural and aesthetic medium; the visual aesthetic incorporates early Internet imagery, late 1990s web design, glitch art, cyberpunk tropes, as well as anime, Greco-Roman statues, 3D-rendered objects. VHS degradation is another common effect seen in vaporwave art. Artists limit their source material between Japan's economic flourishing in the 1980s and the September 11 attacks or dot-com bubble burst of 2001. Vaporwave originated on the Internet as an ironic variant of chillwave, drawing on the retro style's "analog nostalgia" as well as the work of hypnagogic pop artists such as Ariel Pink and James Ferraro, who were characterized by the invocation of retro popular culture.

"Hypnagogic pop" was coined by Wire journalist David Keenan in August 2009, only a few weeks after "chillwave", to describe a host of new underground acts who were inspired by the memories of their childhoods in the 1980s. The two terms were used interchangeably with each other. According to Vice's Ezra Marcus, vaporwave was one of several short-lived internet genres to emerge during the era: "there was chillwave, witch house, shitgaze, cloud rap, countless other niche sounds with gimmicky names; as soon as one microgenre flamed out, another would take its place, with it a whole new set of beats, buzz artists, fashion trends." Ash Becks of The Essential notes that sites like Pitchfork and Drowned in Sound "seemingly refused to touch vaporwave throughout the genre’s two-year'peak'." The template for vaporwave came from the albums Chuck Person's Eccojams Vol. 1 and Far Side Virtual. Eccojams featured chopped and screwed variations on popular 1980s pop songs with album artwork that resembled the packaging of the 1992 video game Ecco the Dolphin, while Far Side Virtual drew on "the grainy and bombastic beeps" of past media such as Skype and the Nintendo Wii.

According to Stereogum's Miles Bowe, vaporwave was a fusion between Lopatin's "chopped and screwed plunderphonics" and the "nihilistic easy-listening of James Ferraro’s Muzak-hellscapes". A 2013 post on a music blog presented those albums, along with Skeleton's Holograms, as "proto vaporwave". Inspired by Lopatin's ideas, suburban teens and young adults used Eccojams as a starting point for what would become vaporwave while drawing on the postmodern, surreal themes explored by Far Side Virtual and Eccojams. Vaporwave artists were "mysterious and nameless entities that lurk the internet," academic Adam Harper noted, "often behind a pseudo-corporate name or web façade, whose music is free to download through Mediafire, Last FM, Soundcloud or Bandcamp." According to Metallic Ghosts, the original vaporwave scene came out of an online circle formulated on the site This circle included individuals known

Fort Herkimer

Fort Herkimer was a colonial fort located on the south side of the Mohawk River, opposite the mouth of its tributary West Canada Creek, in German Flatts, New York, United States. It should not be confused with Fort Dayton, located on the north side of the Mohawk River, in what is now Herkimer, New York; the fort was first built in 1740 around the homestead of the Hercheimer family. In 1757 during the Seven Years' War, young Captain Nicholas Herkimer had his first military command of colonial forces here when the French attacked German Flatts in 1757 and 1758, it has known as Fort Kaouri. During the American Revolutionary War, settlers rebuilt the fort as a defensive stone stockade around the Fort Herkimer Church. A joint British and Onondaga force attacked German Flatts and the forts on each side of the river in 1778, they captured some of the settlers who were outside the southern fort, including three children of the Demuth family: Catherine and Samuel. After the two older children returned to their family during a prisoner exchange but Samuel, the youngest Demuth captive, had been adopted by the Onondaga and chose to stay with them, as he had become assimilated.

He settled with them on a reservation near Syracuse, from where he kept in touch with his family and acted as an interpreter for the Onondaga and settlers. Both the old and new forts were destroyed in 1840 during expansion of the Erie Canal, as their stones were used for its construction; the Fort Herkimer Church still stands today. The church belongs to the regional Montgomery Classis of the Reformed Church in America; the former site of Fort Herkimer is located in the current town of German Flatts, on the south side of the Mohawk River in Herkimer County, New York. Fort Herkimer is sometimes confused with nearby Fort Dayton on the north side of the river, around which the Village of Herkimer developed. Text of historical marker on New York State Route 5, Revolutionary Day website Old Fort Herkimer, New York State Military Museum Biography of Nicholas Herkimer, which mentions the fort.


Stäubli is a Swiss mechatronics company known for its textile machinery and robotics products. Stäubli was founded in Horgen, Switzerland in 1892 as "Schelling & Stäubli" by Rudolph Schelling and Hermann Stäubli as a workshop specialized in producing dobbies. In 1909, the company opened a new manufacturing site in Haute-Savoie, France. After the death of Rudolph Schelling in the same year, the company was renamed to "Gebrüder Stäubli" In 1956, the company diversified its line of products into the field of hydraulics and pneumatics and commenced the production of rapid action couplings; the Connectors division was born. In 1969, they acquired the German dobby producer Erich Trumpelt and changed the company name to "Stäubli & Trumpelt". In 1982 the company diversified again. In 1983 they acquired French competitor Verdol SA and established "Stäubli - Verdol SARL" in Lyon-Chassieu, France. In 1989, Stäubli took over American competitor Unimation from Westinghouse, including their British division located in Telford, UK.

In 1994, they took over Zellweger Weaving Systems in Switzerland. In 2002 Stäubli acquired a majority stake in Multi-Contact, a leading provider of electrical connectors, which became "Stäubli Electrical Connectors" in 2017. In 2004, they acquired German competitor Bosch Rexroth's robotics division and incorporated their products into their own product line. In 2007 the Stäubli Group acquired a stake in the Italian electronic engineering company DEIMO. Since its foundation in 1892, Stäubli has expanded into three different lines of products and services: Stäubli Textile is the division of the company's original field of products and has since expanded into multiple countries, it manufactures dobbies and similar products related to textile weaving, including shedding systems, Jacquard machines, carpet weaving machines and weaving preparation systems. Stäubli Connectors manufactures quick and multi-connector systems used for all types of fluids and electrical power, as well as robot tool changers and quick mold change systems.

Stäubli Robotics is Stäubli's automation and robotics related division founded in 1982. It produces 6-axis robots for industrial automation, including controllers and software. With a workforce of 5500, the Stäubli Group generates a yearly turnover of 1.3 billion Swiss francs. The company has 14 industrial production sites as well as presence through business units and agents in 50 countries. Production sites include: Allschwil, Carate Brianza, Duncan, South Carolina, Faverges, Hangzhou, Hésingue, Sargans, Weil am Rhein. Official homepage

Yellow Line (Washington Metro)

The Yellow Line is a rapid transit line of the Washington Metro system, consisting of 21 stations in Fairfax County and Arlington County, Virginia, as well as Washington, D. C. and Prince George's Maryland. The Yellow Line runs from Huntington in Virginia to Greenbelt station during all times since May 2019. Before it used to short turns at Mount Vernon Square during peak hours and ended at Fort Totten station during off-peak hours; the line shares tracks with the Green Line from L'Enfant Plaza northward to Greenbelt. It is a quick link between downtown Washington and National Airport, shares nearly all of its track with either the Green or Blue Line; the Yellow Line has only two stations that are not shared by any other lines, only two sections of track that are not shared by any other lines – the section at the south end of the line, the section between the Pentagon and L'Enfant Plaza stations, crossing the Potomac River. Planning for Metro began with the Mass Transportation Survey in 1955 which attempted to forecast both freeway and mass transit systems sufficient to meet the needs of the region projected for 1980.

In 1959, the study's final report included two rapid transit lines which anticipated subways in downtown Washington. Because the plan called for extensive freeway construction within the District of Columbia, alarmed residents lobbied for federal legislation creating a regional transportation agency with a moratorium on freeway construction through July 1, 1962; the new agency, the National Capital Transportation Administration, issued a 1962 Transportation in the National Capital Region report, which did not include the route that became the Yellow Line. A central route under 7th Street in downtown was only added in 1967 to serve the "inner city". In March 1968, the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority board approved its 98-mile Adopted Regional System which included the Yellow Line from Franconia and Backlick Road to Greenbelt. While a cut-and-fill tunnel for Yellow Line was built under 7th Street and U Street, both street traffic and pedestrian access on those streets were difficult.

The result was the loss of the traditional retail businesses along the route. The downtown segment of the line was projected to open in September 1977. Obtaining approval of the District of Columbia and Prince Georges' County of the exact alignment of the Yellow Line north of U Street delayed construction; the ARS called for the line to be placed in the median strip of the planned North Central Freeway, but after that road was cancelled, the route of the replacement subway tunnel became controversial, resulting in years of expensive delays. Service on the Yellow Line began on April 30, 1983, adding Archives to the system and linking the two already-built stations of Gallery Place and Pentagon with a bridge across the Potomac River, it was extended beyond National Airport by four stations to Huntington on December 17, 1983, the first station outside the Capital Beltway. When the Green Line link to U Street opened on May 11, 1991, it acted as an extension of the Yellow Line until the southern Green Line branch was completed.

When Green Line service began, the Yellow Line was truncated at Mount Vernon Square, where a pocket track exists to relay trains. The Yellow Line was planned to follow a different route in Virginia; the plan would have sent Yellow Line trains to Franconia–Springfield, with Blue Line trains serving Huntington. This was changed due to a shortage of rail cars at the time of the completion of the line to Huntington; because fewer rail cars were required to operate Yellow Line service than would be required to run Blue Line service out to Huntington – due to the Yellow Line's shorter route – the line designations were switched. From 1999 to 2008, the Yellow Line operated to Franconia–Springfield on July 4, as part of Metro's special service pattern on that day. In 1998, Congress changed the name of the Washington National Airport to the Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport with the law specifying that no money be spent to implement the name change; as a result, WMATA did not change the name of the National Airport station.

In response to repeated inquiries from Republican congressmen that the station be renamed, WMATA stated that stations are renamed only at the request of the local jurisdiction. Because both Arlington County and the District of Columbia were controlled by Democrats, the name change was blocked. In 2001, Congress made changing the station's name a condition of further federal funding. In May 2018, Metro announced an extensive renovation of platforms at twenty stations across the system. To accommodate these platform reconstructions, the Blue and Yellow Lines south of Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport would be closed from May 25, to September 8, 2019, in what would be the longest line closure in Metro's history; as a result, all Yellow and Blue line services terminated at Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport during the closure. In 2006, Metro board member Jim Graham and D. C. Mayor Anthony A. Williams proposed re-extending Yellow Line service to Fort Totten station or to Greenbelt station, the planned northern terminus for the line.

Their proposal did not involve construction of any new track, because either extension would run along the same route as the existing Green Line and would thus relieve crowding on that line. Suburban members of the board resisted the proposal. Through a compromise that increased service on the Red Line, on April 20, 2006 the WMATA board approved a Yellow Line extension to the Fort Totten station during off-peak hours. An 18-month pilot program beg

The Kiddie

The Kiddie was a five-member visual kei rock band from Tokyo, Japan. The band was formed in May 2007 by drummer Yuudai, they held their first live performance on July 1, 2007 at Meguro Rockmaykan, debuted their first single "Little Senobi" on October 3, 2007. In 2010, The Kiddie signed with major label King Records and released their major debut single "Smile". on July 14. The Kiddie released their first album, Brave New World, on November 24, 2010, their second album, MA★PIECE was released on March 28, 2012. Their third album, The 5 -FIVE- was released on November 28, 2012. Yusa - vocals Yuusei - lead guitar Jun - rhythm guitar Sorao - bass Yuudai - drums Single Collection Brave New World Ma★Piece The 5 -Five- Single Collection 2 Dystopia Little Senobi Little Senobi - Oricon Single Chart Ranking No.184 Plastic Art - Oricon Single Chart Ranking No.133 Sayonara Setsuna - Oricon Single Chart Ranking No.103 Noah - Oricon Single Chart Ranking No.55 Elite Star+ - Oricon Single Chart Ranking No.58 Soar - Oricon Single Chart Ranking No.35 Black Side - Oricon Single Chart Ranking No.42 Poplar - Oricon Single Chart Ranking No.48 Smile.

- Oricon Single Chart Ranking No.19 Calling - Oricon Single Chart Ranking No.34 Nutty Nasty - Oricon Single Chart Ranking No.50 Sun'z Up Utsukushiki Redrum - Oricon Single Chart Ranking No.21 I Sing For You - Oricon Single Chart Ranking No.27 emit. 1414287356 OMELAS The Kiddie Happy Spring Tour 2011: Kidd's Now Wonder World V-Rock Disney - V. A compilation album Tribute II -Visual Spirits- - V. A compilation album Official website Official blog Visunavi profile