Battle of Port Royal
The sound was guarded by two forts on opposite sides of the entrance, Fort Walker on Hilton Head Island to the south and Fort Beauregard on Phillips Island to the north. A small force of four gunboats supported the forts, but did not materially affect the battle, the attacking force assembled outside of the sound beginning on November 3 after being battered by a storm during their journey down the coast. Because of losses in the storm, the army was not able to land, the fleet moved to the attack on November 7, after more delays caused by the weather during which additional troops were brought into Fort Walker. His plan soon broke down and most ships took enfilading positions that exploited a weakness in Fort Walker, the Confederate gunboats put in a token appearance, but fled up a nearby creek when challenged. Early in the afternoon, most of the guns in the fort were out of action, a landing party from the flagship took possession of the fort. When Fort Walker fell, the commander of Fort Beauregard across the sound feared that his soldiers would soon be cut off with no way to escape, another landing party took possession of the fort and raised the Union flag the next day.
Despite the heavy volume of fire, loss of life on both sides was low, at least by standards set in the Civil War, only eight were killed in the fleet and eleven on shore, with four other Southerners missing. Total casualties came to less than 100, the problems of the blockade were considered by a commission appointed by Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles. Chairman of the commission was Capt. Samuel Francis Du Pont, the commission stated its views of the South Carolina coast in its second report, dated July 13. In order to improve the blockade of Charleston, they considered seizing a nearby port and they gave particular attention to three, Bulls Bay to the north of Charleston, and St. Helena Sound and Port Royal Sound to the south. The latter two would be useful in the blockade of Savannah and they considered Port Royal to be the best harbor, but believed that it would be strongly defended and therefore were reluctant to recommend that it be taken. Shortly after the bombardment of Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor had started the war, Beauregard did not believe that Port Royal Sound could be adequately defended, as forts on opposite sides of the sound would be too far apart for mutual support.
Overruled by South Carolina Governor Francis Pickens, he drew up plans for two forts at the entrance. Soon called away to serve the Confederate Army in Virginia, he turned the task of implementing his plans over to Maj. Francis D. Lee of the South Carolina Army Engineers, before the war, Lee had been an architect, and had designed several churches in Charleston. Work on the two began in July 1861, but progressed only slowly. Labor for the construction was obtained by requisitions of slave labor from local plantations, construction was not complete when the attack came. Beauregards plan was altered because the heavy guns he wanted were not available. Fitting the increased number into the space required that the traverses be eliminated
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
Battle of Wassaw Sound
Atlanta ran aground while attempting to break the Union blockade, and after a short battle surrendered to the Union forces. Captain Rodgers became a hero, and he was promoted to Commodore. Captain John Rodgers in Weehawken had overall command of this Union force, Webb dropped anchor at 8,00 p. m. and spent the remainder of the night coaling. CSS Atlanta, accompanied by wooden steamers CSS Isondiga and CSS Resolute, a percussion torpedo was fitted to a long spar projecting forward from the rams bow which Webb intended to detonate against the Weehawken. During battle maneuvers the Atlanta suddenly ran aground and swayed at an angle which made it difficult to shoot, the USS Weehawken held fire until it was at 300 yards and pounded the immobile ship. The USS Nahant had drawn the fire of the CSS Atlanta allowing the USS Weehawken to draw within firing distance, the battle lasted only a few minutes, and the Atlanta became the first Confederate ironclad to surrender to the Union. Meanwhile, the two boats escorting the Atlanta scurried upriver for safety, the CSS Atlanta suffered the sole fatality of the battle, as well as 16 wounded.
At the time of capture,21 officers and 124 men, Atlanta was condemned by a prize court in September 1863, repaired and commissioned as USS Atlanta on 2 February 1864. Captain Rodgers became a hero, and received the Thanks of Congress along with a promotion to Commodore. This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships, a History of the Confederate Navy, Naval Institute Press,1996
Battle of Fort Sumter
Following declarations of secession by seven Southern states, South Carolina demanded that the U. S. Army abandon its facilities in Charleston Harbor. On 26 December 1860, Major Robert Anderson of the U. S, an attempt by U. S. President James Buchanan to reinforce and resupply Anderson using the unarmed merchant ship Star of the West failed when it was fired upon by shore batteries on 9 January 1861. South Carolina authorities seized all Federal property in the Charleston area except for Fort Sumter, during the early months of 1861, the situation around Fort Sumter increasingly began to resemble a siege. In March, Brigadier General P. G. T. Beauregard, Beauregard energetically directed the strengthening of batteries around Charleston harbor aimed at Fort Sumter. Conditions in the fort, growing ever dire due to shortages of men, the resupply of Fort Sumter became the first crisis of the administration of the newly inaugurated U. S. President Abraham Lincoln following his victory in the election of November 6,1860.
Beginning at 4,30 a. m. on April 12, although the Union garrison returned fire, they were significantly outgunned and, after 34 hours, Major Anderson agreed to evacuate. There were no deaths on either side as a result of this engagement. Following the battle, there was support from both North and South for further military action. Lincolns immediate call for 75,000 volunteers to suppress the rebellion resulted in an additional four southern states declaring their secession, on February 7, the seven states adopted a provisional constitution for the Confederate States of America and established their temporary capital at Montgomery, Alabama. A February peace conference met in Washington, D. C. the remaining eight states declined pleas to join the Confederacy. The seceding states seized numerous Federal properties within their boundaries, including buildings, President James Buchanan protested but took no military action in response. Several forts had been constructed in Charlestons harbor, including Fort Sumter and Fort Moultrie, Fort Moultrie on Sullivan Island was the oldest—it was the site of fortifications since 1776—and was the headquarters of the U. S.
Army garrison. When the garrison began clearing away the dunes, the papers objected, Major Robert Anderson of the 1st U. S. Artillery regiment had been appointed to command the Charleston garrison that fall because of rising tensions, Anderson had served an earlier tour of duty at Fort Moultrie and his father had been a defender of the fort during the American Revolutionary War. Throughout the fall, South Carolina authorities considered both secession and the expropriation of property in the harbor to be inevitable. S. In contrast to Moultrie, Fort Sumter dominated the entrance to Charleston Harbor and, South Carolina authorities considered Andersons move to be a breach of faith. Buchanan, a former U. S. Secretary of State and diplomat, had used carefully crafted ambiguous language to Pickens, from Major Andersons standpoint, he was merely moving his existing garrison troops from one of the locations under his command to another. He had received instructions from the War Department on December 11, written by Major General Don Carlos Buell, Assistant Adjutant General of the Army and you are to hold possession of the forts in this harbor, and if attacked you are to defend yourself to the last extremity
Siege of Port Hudson
The Siege of Port Hudson, was the final engagement in the Union campaign to recapture the Mississippi in the American Civil War. While Union General Ulysses Grant was besieging Vicksburg upriver, General Nathaniel Banks was ordered to capture the Confederate stronghold of Port Hudson, when his assault failed, Banks settled into a 48-day siege, the longest in US military history. A second attack failed, and it was only after the fall of Vicksburg that the Confederate commander. This left the Mississippi open to Union navigation from its source to the Gulf of Mexico, from the time the American Civil War started in April 1861, both the North and South made controlling the Mississippi River a major part of their strategy. The Confederacy wanted to keep using the river to transport needed supplies, particularly important to the South was the stretch of the Mississippi that included the mouth of the Red River. In the spring and early summer of 1862, the Union advanced their control of the Mississippi from both the north and the south, a second Union fleet commanded by Charles H.
Davis occupied Memphis, after defeating Confederate riverine forces in Battle of Memphis. To make sure it could continue to use the section of the river. The initial idea of fortifying the heights of Port Hudson came from the master of fixed defenses, General Pierre G. T. Beauregard, Army of the Mississippi. ”In June 1862, Major General Earl Van Dorn wrote Jefferson Davis, “I want Baton Rouge and Port Hudson” A few days after the fall of Baton Rouge to the Union. Breckinridge with 4,000 men, carried out the wishes of General Van Dorn by occupying Port Hudson, soldiers of the 4th Louisiana Infantry arrived at the site on August 15,1862. According to historian John D. Winters, Port Hudson, unlike Baton Rouge, was one of the strongest points on the river and it was a position similar to that of Quebec City in the French and Indian War. The political momentum behind the Union actions against Port Hudson came from the elections of November 1862, the Republican base, centered in Ohio and Illinois, had been shaken by embarrassing Democratic victories.
A dramatic letter from Indiana Governor Oliver P. Morton to Lincoln claimed “The fate of the North-West is trembling in the balance. ”His implication was that unless the independent trade of Union states along the Ohio River was restored by Union control of the entire Mississippi, further breakup of the Union was possible. Morton believed the states of Ohio and Illinois were in danger of breaking away from the Northeast to join the Confederacy, the threatening political fractures galvanized the Lincoln administration into action. Major General Nathanial Banks was diverted from an expedition to Texas and given Benjamin Butler’s command of the Department of the Gulf. ”On December 4,1862, Banks. In May 1863, Union land and naval forces began a campaign they hoped would give control of the full length of the Mississippi River. Banks simultaneously attacked Port Hudson, which stood at the southern end, Port Hudson was sited on an 80 feet bluff on the east bank above a hairpin turn in the Mississippi River 25 miles upriver from Baton Rouge.
The hills and ridges in the area of the town represented extremely rough terrain, a maze of deep, thickly forested ravines, the town was a port for shipping cotton and sugar downriver from the surrounding area. Despite its importance, the city consisted of a few buildings and 200 people by the start of the war, the river had shifted south and the docks had been moved about.5 miles south
Battle of Gainesville
The Battle of Gainesville was fought on 17 August 1864, when a Confederate force defeated Union detachments on a raid from the Union garrison in the Jacksonville, area. However, the other and first Battle of Gainesville was fought on 14 February 1864, site of a railroad junction and depot in north central Florida, was the scene of two small-scale engagements during the war. On 14 February 1864, the first battle occurred when about 50 Union troops entered the city intending to capture two trains. Company H of the 2nd Florida Cavalry with 130 men attempted to repulse this raid, but were defeated by the Union force, which successfully returned to Jacksonville after holding the town. The Battle of Gainesville took place on 17 August 1864, in the town square, a Union column of 342 men under the command of Col. Andrew L. Harris had occupied Gainesville that morning. It was composed of the 75th Ohio Mounted infantry, 4th Massachusetts Cavalry, Battery A, 3rd Rhode Island Heavy Artillery, dickisons men numbered about 290, although only 175 entered Gainesville and engaged in the fighting.
The Union troops were tired from a march from Baldwin in the August heat. They were taken by surprise and had not fully deployed when the Confederate attack began, after about two hours Col. Harris gave the order to retreat from Gainesville, the Confederates continued to close in on the disorganized Union columns. About 40 Union troops, including Colonel Harris, escaped and he reported his column was destroyed by a large Confederate force of 600—800 men and three cannon. After hearing his account, the remaining Union forces in the north central Florida area withdrew to the garrisons at Jacksonville, Gainesville remained in Confederate control for the duration of the war. General Seymours Report on the Results of the 1st Battle of Gainesville General Seymours General Order No
Battle of St. Johns Bluff
The Battle of St. Johns Bluff was fought from October 1–3,1862, between Union and Confederate forces in Duval County, during the American Civil War. The battle resulted in a significant Union victory, helping secure their control of the Jacksonville area, the St. Johns River was important in the Union effort of taking Florida. If Federals controlled the St. Johns River they could raid Confederate positions in the interior of Florida, the Union wanted to control North Florida and use it as a haven for escaped slaves and use its position to initiate Reconstruction for Florida. Federals first occupied Jacksonville in March 1862, Federal gunboats stationed at Mayport Mills operated up and down the river. The Union victories at Fort Donelson and Fort Henry forced Florida Confederates to go to Tennessee to reinforce the Confederate Army, with few resources Finnegan managed to fortify St. Johns Bluff where Confederate troops used slave labor to construct defenses. This was part of a series of Confederate defensive works that had constructed near Fort Caroline.
On September 11 Confederates opened fire on Union gunboat USS Uncas approaching the bluff, the USS Patroon joined the USS Uncas and opened fire on the bluff but failed to destroy the Confederate position. The Union dispatched over 800 soldiers to Florida from South Carolina to take the bluff expecting it to be a challenging obstacle, Union reinforcements arrived on October 1 at Mayport Mills. The next day, Union soldiers under Brigadier General J. M, brannon approached the bluff from the rear. Confederate Colonel Charles F. Hopkins was in a due to the Union reinforcements approaching from the rear. Captain Winston Stephens believed the Confederate position could hold off the Federal assault, Hopkins decided to order a retreat from the Confederate position on October 2–3. Federals occupied the Confederate position and seized the cannons, two days on October 5 the Federals moved on to nearby Yellow Bluff Fort which had retreated. Jacksonville was reoccupied on October 3 after the Union victory at St.
Johns Bluff, Finnegan believed that Hopkins retreat from St. Johns Bluff was a gross military blunder but Hopkins still defended his position for retreating. The Confederate threat in North Florida no longer prevented Federals from seizing the St. Johns River, Florida in the American Civil War National Park Service battle description CWSAC Report Update Fort Caroline National Memorial - official National Park Service website
Florida /ˈflɒrᵻdə/ is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. It is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the north by Alabama and Georgia, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, Florida is the 22nd-most extensive, the 3rd-most populous, and the 8th-most densely populated of the U. S. states. Jacksonville is the most populous municipality in the state and is the largest city by area in the contiguous United States, the Miami metropolitan area is Floridas most populous urban area. The city of Tallahassee is the state capital, much of the state is at or near sea level and is characterized by sedimentary soil. The climate varies from subtropical in the north to tropical in the south, the American alligator, American crocodile, Florida panther, and manatee can be found in the Everglades National Park. It was a location of the Seminole Wars against the Native Americans. Today, Florida is distinctive for its large Cuban expatriate community and high population growth, the states economy relies mainly on tourism and transportation, which developed in the late 19th century.
Florida is renowned for amusement parks, orange crops, the Kennedy Space Center, Florida has attracted many writers such as Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Ernest Hemingway and Tennessee Williams, and continues to attract celebrities and athletes. It is internationally known for golf, auto racing, by the 16th century, the earliest time for which there is a historical record, major Native American groups included the Apalachee, the Timucua, the Ais, the Tocobaga, the Calusa and the Tequesta. Florida was the first part of the continental United States to be visited and settled by Europeans, the earliest known European explorers came with the Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León. Ponce de León spotted and landed on the peninsula on April 2,1513 and he named the region La Florida. The story that he was searching for the Fountain of Youth is a myth, in May 1539, Conquistador Hernando de Soto skirted the coast of Florida, searching for a deep harbor to land. He described seeing a wall of red mangroves spread mile after mile, some reaching as high as 70 feet.
Very soon, many smokes appeared along the whole coast, billowing against the sky, the Spanish introduced Christianity, horses, the Spanish language, and more to Florida. Both the Spanish and French established settlements in Florida, with varying degrees of success, in 1559, Don Tristán de Luna y Arellano established a settlement at present-day Pensacola, making it the first attempted settlement in Florida, but it was abandoned by 1561. Spain maintained tenuous control over the region by converting the tribes to Christianity. The area of Spanish Florida diminished with the establishment of English settlements to the north, the English attacked St. Augustine, burning the city and its cathedral to the ground several times. Florida attracted numerous Africans and African-Americans from adjacent British colonies who sought freedom from slavery, in 1738, Governor Manuel de Montiano established Fort Gracia Real de Santa Teresa de Mose near St
Siege of Fort Pulaski
The Siege of Fort Pulaski concluded with the Battle of Fort Pulaski fought April 10–11,1862, during the American Civil War. Union forces on Tybee Island and naval operations conducted a 112-day siege, the siege and battle are important for innovative use of rifled guns which made existing coastal defenses obsolete. The Union initiated large scale amphibious operations under fire, the forts surrender strategically closed Savannah as a port. The Union extended its blockade and aids to navigation down the Atlantic coast, the Confederate army-navy defense blocked Federal advance for over three months, secured the city, and prevented any subsequent Union advance from seaward during the war. Coastal rail connections were extended to blockaded Charleston, South Carolina, Fort Pulaski is located on Cockspur Island, near the mouth of the Savannah River. The fort commanded seaward approaches to the City of Savannah and it was commercially and industrially important as a cotton exporting port, railroad center and the largest manufacturing center in the state, including a state arsenal and private shipyards.
Two southerly estuaries led to the Savannah River behind the fort, immediately east of Pulaski, and in sight of Hilton Head Island, South Carolina, lay Tybee Island with a lighthouse station. Fort Pulaski was built as a Third System fort in the United States system of defense on land ceded to the United States by the State of Georgia. Authorized by appropriations begun by Congress under the James Madison administration, construction of Third System forts was directed under U. S, Secretaries of War including James Monroe of Virginia, William H. Crawford of Georgia, and John Calhoun of South Carolina. The new construction replaced two earlier forts on Tybee Island, a British colonial fort was torn down in the American Revolution. The first U. S. fort, authorized in the Washington Administration, was away in an 1804 hurricane. Construction began on Fort Pulaski during 1830, and was completed in 1845 in the administration of John Tyler by a successor of U. S. Secretary of War John Bell of Tennessee.
The new fort was named to honor Casimir Pulaski, the Polish hero of the American Revolution, a young Lieutenant Robert E. Lee served as an engineer during the construction of the fort, at which time he resided in Savannah, Georgia. The Third System fort expanded Savannahs defenses downriver from Old Fort Jackson, in the campaigns for national elections in 1860, Southern secessionists threatened civil war, were their opponent to be elected President. Following the policy of President James Buchanan and his Secretary of War John B, floyd of Virginia, the newly inaugurated Lincoln Administration at first did not garrison and defend forts, arsenals or U. S. Treasury Mints in the South. The policy was continued until April 12,1861, at Fort Sumter, South Carolina, in late 1861, the commander, Department of Georgia, General Alexander Robert Lawton would transfer to Richmond. On November 5, General Robert E. Lee assumed command of the newly created Department of South Carolina, lawtons October report for his Department listed 2,753 men and officers in the environs of Savannah, almost half of the command.
First Georgia Regulars had been assigned to Tybee Island and they built a battery on Tybee Island and manned it, along with lookouts along the beach
Finnegan was born November 17,1814 at Clones in County Monaghan, Ireland. He came to Florida in the 1830s, first establishing a sawmill at Jacksonville, Finnegans successes are perhaps attributable to his first marriage on July 28,1842, to the widow Rebecca Smith Travers. Her sister Mary Martha Smith was the wife of Floridas territorial governor Robert Raymond Reid, at a courthouse auction in 1849, Finnegan paid just forty dollars for five miles of shoreline along Lake Monroe. In 1852, he was a member of the Committee of Vigilance and Safety of Jacksonille and his family included his three stepdaughters Maria and Martha Travers, and children Rutledge, Agnes and Yulee Finnegan. At Floridas secession convention, Finnegan represented Nassau County alongside James G. Cooper, in April 1862, Finnegan assumed command of Middle and East Florida from Brigadier General James H. Trapier. Soon thereafter, he suffered some embarrassment surrounding the wreck of the blockade runner Kate at Mosquito Inlet and her cargo of rifles, medical supplies and shoes was plundered by civilians.
Attempts to recover these items took months before he issued a public appeal, most of the rifles were found, but the other supplies were never recovered. At this time, the principal Confederate military post in east Florida was dubbed Camp Finegan to honor the states highest-ranking officer and it was about seven miles west of Jacksonville, south of the rail line near modern Marietta. In 1863, Finnegan complained of the quantity of rum making its way from the West Indies into Florida. Smugglers were buying it in Cuba for a mere seventeen cents per gallon and he urged Governor John Milton to confiscate the vile article and destroy it before it could impact army and civilian morals. Beauregard began rushing reinforcements to Finnegan after Confederate officials became aware of a build-up of Federal troops in the city of Jacksonville. As Florida was a supply route and source of beef to the other southern states. On February 20,1864, Finnegan stopped a Federal advance from Jacksonville under General Truman Seymour that was intent upon capturing the capitol at Tallahassee.
Their two armies clashed at the Battle of Olustee, where Finnegans men defeated the Union Army, critics have faulted Finnegan for failing to exploit his victory by pursuing his retreating enemy, contenting himself by salvaging their arms and ammunition from the battlefield. But, his victory was one bright spot in an otherwise gloomy year for the dying Confederacy. They point out that Finnegan was quickly relieved of his command over the state troops, but this change in command was necessary as Finnegan was ordered to lead the Florida Brigade in the Army of Northern Virginia. And, he performed with excellence in that capacity until near the end of the war, col David Lang was the brigades last commander before the surrender after the Battle of Appomattox Court House. General Finnegan returned to Fernandina after the war to discover his mansion had been seized by the Freedmens Bureau for use as an orphanage and it took some legal wrangling, but he was eventually able to recover this property
Alfred H. Colquitt
Alfred Holt Colquitt was a lawyer, soldier, 49th Governor of Georgia and two-term U. S. Senator from Georgia, dying in office and he served as an officer in the Confederate army, reaching the rank of major general. Alfred Colquitt was born in Monroe and his father, Walter T. Colquitt was a United States Representative and Senator from Georgia. The younger Colquitt graduated from Princeton College in 1844, studied law and he began practicing law in Monroe. During the Mexican-American War, he served in the United States Army at the rank of major, after the war, Colquitt was elected as a member of the United States House of Representatives from 1853 to 1855. He next was elected to and served in the Georgia state legislature, Colquitt was a delegate to The Georgia Secession Convention of 1861—voting in favor of secession and signing Georgias Ordinance of Secession on January 19,1861. At the beginning of the Civil War, Colquitt was appointed captain in the 6th Georgia Infantry and he saw action in the Peninsula Campaign and the Seven Days Battles.
He rose through the ranks to become a general in 1862. He led his brigade under Stonewall Jackson in the Battle of South Mountain, Battle of Antietam, the Battle of Fredericksburg, after Chancellorsville, some questions arose about Colquitts performance during that battle, and his brigade was transferred to North Carolina in exchange for another. His brigade was transferred again in the summer of 1863 to protect Charleston, in February 1864, Colquitt marched his brigade south to help defend against the Union invasion of Florida, and was victorious in the Battle of Olustee. After this battle, Colquitts brigade rejoined Robert E. Lees Army of Northern Virginia, late in the war, the brigade returned to defend North Carolina, where Colquitt surrendered in 1865. After returning to life, Colquitt in 1876 defeated Republican candidate Jonathan Norcross for Governor of Georgia. Around that time, several thousand friends asked for about thirty open government jobs and those who did not get one of the jobs tried to turn voters against Colquitt.
There were rumors that Colquitt had been involved in dealings with the Northeastern Railroad. A legislative committee found the governor innocent and he was reelected in 1880 to serve two years under the new state constitution, which reduced the term of governor. Under his term, debt was reduced, in 1883, Colquitt was elected by the state legislature as a Democrat to the US Senate from Georgia. He was re-elected in 1888 and served until his death in Washington and he is buried in Rose Hill cemetery in Macon. List of signers of the Georgia Ordinance of Secession Confederate States of America, causes of secession, biographical Directory of the United States Congress