Saracen was a term used among Christian writers in Europe during the Middle Ages to refer to Arabs and Muslims. The term's meaning evolved during its history. In the early centuries of the Common Era and Latin writings used this term to refer to the people who lived in desert areas in and near the Roman province of Arabia Petraea, in Arabia Deserta. In Europe during the Early Middle Ages, the term came to be associated with tribes of Arabia; the oldest source mentioning the term Saracen dates back to the 7th century. It was found in Doctrina Jacobi, a commentary that discussed the event of the Arab conquests on Palestine. By the 12th century, "Saracen" had become synonymous with "Muslim" in Medieval Latin literature; such expansion in the meaning of the term had begun centuries earlier among the Byzantine Greeks, as evidenced in documents from the 8th century. In the Western languages before the 16th century, "Saracen" was used to refer to Muslim Arabs, the words "Muslim" and "Islam" were not used.
The term became obsolete following the Age of Discovery. The Latin term Saraceni is of unknown original meaning. There are claims of it being derived from the Semitic triliteral root srq "to steal, plunder", more from the noun sāriq, pl. sariqīn, which means "thief, plunderer". Other possible Semitic roots are šrq "east" and šrkt "tribe, confederation". In his Levantine Diary, covering the years 1699-1740, the Damascene writer ibn Kanan used the term sarkan to mean "travel on a military mission" from the Near East to parts of Southern Europe which were under Ottoman Empire rule Cyprus and Rhodes. Ptolemy's 2nd-century work, describes Sarakēnḗ as a region in the northern Sinai Peninsula. Ptolemy mentions a people called the Sarakēnoí living in the northwestern Arabian Peninsula. Eusebius in his Ecclesiastical history narrates an account wherein Pope Dionysius of Alexandria mentions Saracens in a letter while describing the persecution of Christians by the Roman emperor Decius: "Many were, in the Arabian mountain, enslaved by the barbarous'sarkenoi'."
The Augustan History refers to an attack by "Saraceni" on Pescennius Niger's army in Egypt in 193, but provides little information as to identifying them. Both Hippolytus of Rome and Uranius mention three distinct peoples in Arabia during the first half of the third century: the "Taeni", the "Saraceni" and the "Arabes"; the "Taeni" identified with the Arab people called "Tayy", were located around Khaybar and in an area stretching up to the Euphrates. The "Saraceni" were placed north of them; these Saracens, located in the northern Hejaz, were described as people with a certain military ability who were opponents of the Roman Empire and who were classified by the Romans as barbarians. The Saracens are described as forming the "equites" from Thamud. In one document the defeated enemies of Diocletian's campaign in the Syrian Desert are described as Saracens. Other 4th-century military reports make no mention of Arabs but refer to as'Saracens' groups ranging as far east as Mesopotamia that were involved in battles on both the Sasanian and Roman sides.
The Saracens were named in the Roman administrative document Notitia Dignitatum—dating from the time of Theodosius I in the 4th century—as comprising distinctive units in the Roman army. They were distinguished in the document from Arabs. Beginning no than the early fifth century, Christian writers began to equate Saracens with Arabs. Saracens were associated with Ishmaelites in some strands of Jewish and Islamic genealogical thinking; the writings of Jerome are the earliest known version of the claim that Ishmaelites chose to be called Saracens in order to identify with Abraham's "free" wife Sarah, rather than as Hagarenes, which would have highlighted their association with Abraham's "slave woman" Hagar. This claim was popular during the Middle Ages, but derives more from Paul’s allegory in the New Testament letter to the Galatians than from historical data; the name "Saracen" was not indigenous among the populations so described but was applied to them by Greco-Roman historians based on Greek place names.
As the Middle Ages progressed, usage of the term in the Latin West changed, but its connotation remained negative, associated with opponents of Christianity, its exact definition is unclear. In an 8th-century polemical work, John of Damascus criticized the Saracens as followers of a false prophet and "forerunner to the Antichrist."By the 12th century, Medieval Europeans had more specific conceptions of Islam and used the term "Saracen" as an ethnic and religious marker. In some Medieval literature, Saracens—that is, Muslims—were described as black-skinned, while Christians were lighter-skinned. An example is in The King of a medieval romance; the Song of Roland, an Old French 11th-century heroic poem, refers to the black skin of Saracens as their only exotic feature. The 15th-century Mishnah commentator, Rabbi Ovadiah of Bertinora, wrote that the word Saracen among Arabs had the connotation of "thieves"; the term "Saracen" remained in widespread use in the West as a term for "Muslim" until the 18th century when the Age of Discovery led to it becoming obsolete.
Arabs Arab–Byzantine wars Medieval Christian views on Muhammad Mohammedan Moors Orientalism Serkland Tatars
Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino, known as Raphael, was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance. His work is admired for its clarity of form, ease of composition, visual achievement of the Neoplatonic ideal of human grandeur. Together with Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci, he forms the traditional trinity of great masters of that period. Raphael was enormously productive, running an unusually large workshop and, despite his death at 37, leaving a large body of work. Many of his works are found in the Vatican Palace, where the frescoed Raphael Rooms were the central, the largest, work of his career; the best known work is The School of Athens in the Vatican Stanza della Segnatura. After his early years in Rome, much of his work was executed by his workshop from his drawings, with considerable loss of quality, he was influential in his lifetime, though outside Rome his work was known from his collaborative printmaking. After his death, the influence of his great rival Michelangelo was more widespread until the 18th and 19th centuries, when Raphael's more serene and harmonious qualities were again regarded as the highest models.
His career falls into three phases and three styles, first described by Giorgio Vasari: his early years in Umbria a period of about four years absorbing the artistic traditions of Florence, followed by his last hectic and triumphant twelve years in Rome, working for two Popes and their close associates. Raphael was born in the small but artistically significant central Italian city of Urbino in the Marche region, where his father Giovanni Santi was court painter to the Duke; the reputation of the court had been established by Federico da Montefeltro, a successful condottiere, created Duke of Urbino by Pope Sixtus IV – Urbino formed part of the Papal States – and who died the year before Raphael was born. The emphasis of Federico's court was rather more literary than artistic, but Giovanni Santi was a poet of sorts as well as a painter, had written a rhymed chronicle of the life of Federico, both wrote the texts and produced the decor for masque-like court entertainments, his poem to Federico shows him as keen to show awareness of the most advanced North Italian painters, Early Netherlandish artists as well.
In the small court of Urbino he was more integrated into the central circle of the ruling family than most court painters. Federico was succeeded by his son Guidobaldo da Montefeltro, who married Elisabetta Gonzaga, daughter of the ruler of Mantua, the most brilliant of the smaller Italian courts for both music and the visual arts. Under them, the court continued as a centre for literary culture. Growing up in the circle of this small court gave Raphael the excellent manners and social skills stressed by Vasari. Court life in Urbino at just after this period was to become set as the model of the virtues of the Italian humanist court through Baldassare Castiglione's depiction of it in his classic work The Book of the Courtier, published in 1528. Castiglione moved to Urbino in 1504, when Raphael was no longer based there but visited, they became good friends, he became close to other regular visitors to the court: Pietro Bibbiena and Pietro Bembo, both cardinals, were becoming well known as writers, would be in Rome during Raphael's period there.
Raphael mixed in the highest circles throughout his life, one of the factors that tended to give a misleading impression of effortlessness to his career. He did not receive a full humanistic education however, his mother Màgia died in 1491 when Raphael was eight, followed on August 1, 1494 by his father, who had remarried. Raphael was thus orphaned at eleven, he continued to live with his stepmother when not staying as an apprentice with a master. He had shown talent, according to Vasari, who says that Raphael had been "a great help to his father". A self-portrait drawing from his teenage years shows his precocity, his father's workshop continued and together with his stepmother, Raphael evidently played a part in managing it from a early age. In Urbino, he came into contact with the works of Paolo Uccello the court painter, Luca Signorelli, who until 1498 was based in nearby Città di Castello. According to Vasari, his father placed him in the workshop of the Umbrian master Pietro Perugino as an apprentice "despite the tears of his mother".
The evidence of an apprenticeship comes only from Vasari and another source, has been disputed—eight was early for an apprenticeship to begin. An alternative theory is that he received at least some training from Timoteo Viti, who acted as court painter in Urbino from 1495. Most modern historians agree that Raphael at least worked as an assistant to Perugino from around 1500. Vasari wrote that it was impossible to distinguish between their hands at this period, but many modern art historians claim to do better and detect his hand in specific areas of works by Perugino or his workshop. Apart from stylistic closeness, their techniques are similar as well, for example having paint applied thickly, using an oil varnish medium, in shadows and darker garments, but thinly on flesh areas. An excess of resin in the varnish causes cracking of areas of paint in the works of both masters; the Perugino workshop w
A galley is a type of ship, propelled by rowing. The galley is characterized by shallow draft and low freeboard. All types of galleys had sails that could be used in favorable winds, but human strength was always the primary method of propulsion; this allowed galleys to navigate independently of currents. The galley originated among the seafaring civilizations around the Mediterranean Sea in the late second millennium BC and remained in use in various forms until the early 19th century in warfare and piracy. Galleys were the warships used by the early Mediterranean naval powers, including the Greeks and Romans, they remained the dominant types of vessels used for war and piracy in the Mediterranean Sea until the last decades of the 16th century. As warships, galleys carried various types of weapons throughout their long existence, including rams and cannons, but relied on their large crews to overpower enemy vessels in boarding actions, they were the first ships to use heavy cannons as anti-ship weapons.
As efficient gun platforms they forced changes in the design of medieval seaside fortresses as well as refinement of sailing warships. The zenith of galley usage in warfare came in the late 16th century with battles like that at Lepanto in 1571, one of the largest naval battles fought. By the 17th century, sailing ships and hybrid ships like the xebec displaced galleys in naval warfare, they were the most common warships in the Atlantic Ocean during the Middle Ages, saw limited use in the Caribbean, the Philippines and the Indian Ocean in the early modern period as patrol craft to combat pirates. From the mid-16th century galleys were in intermittent use in the Baltic Sea, with its short distances and extensive archipelagoes. There was a minor revival of galley warfare in the 18th century in the wars among Russia and Denmark; the term "galley" derives from the medieval Greek galea, a smaller version of the dromon, the prime warship of the Byzantine navy. The origin of the Greek word is unclear but could be related to galeos, dogfish shark.
The word "galley" has been attested in English from c. 1300 and has been used in most European languages from around 1500 both as a general term for oared warships, from the Middle Ages and onwards more for the Mediterranean-style vessel. It was only from the 16th century. Before that in antiquity, there was a wide variety of terms used for different types of galleys. In modern historical literature, "galley" is used as a general term for various types of oared vessels larger than boats, though the "true" galley is defined as the ships belonging to the Mediterranean tradition. Ancient galleys were named according to the number of oars, the number of banks of oars or lines of rowers; the terms are based on contemporary language use combined with more recent compounds of Greek and Latin words. The earliest Greek single-banked galleys are called penteconters. For galleys with more than one row of oars, the terminology is based on Latin numerals with the suffix -reme from rēmus, "oar". A monoreme has one bank of a bireme two and a trireme three.
Since the maximum banks of oars was three, any expansion above that did not refer to additional banks of oars, but of additional rowers for every oar. Quinquereme was a "five-oar", but meant that there were several rowers to certain banks of oars which made up five lines of oar handlers. For simplicity, they have by many modern scholars been referred to as "fives", "sixes", "eights", "elevens", etc. Anything above six or seven rows of rowers was not common, though a exceptional "forty" is attested in contemporary source. Any galley with more than three or four lines of rowers is referred to as a "polyreme". Archaeologist Lionel Casson has used the term "galley" to describe all North European shipping in the early and high Middle Ages, including Viking merchants and their famous longships, though this is rare. Oared military vessels built on the British Isles in the 11th to 13th centuries were based on Scandinavian designs, but were referred to as "galleys". Many of them were similar to close relatives of longship types like the snekkja.
By the 14th century, they were replaced with balingers in southern Britain while longship-type "Irish galleys" remained in use throughout the Middle Ages in northern Britain. Medieval and early modern galleys used a different terminology than their ancient predecessors. Names were based on the changing designs that evolved after the ancient rowing schemes were forgotten. Among the most important is the Byzantine dromon, the predecessor to the Italian galea sottila; this was the first step toward the final form of the Mediterranean war galley. As galleys became an integral part of an advanced, early modern system of warfare and state administration, they were divided into a number of ranked grades based on the size of the vessel and the number of its crew; the most basic types were the following: large commander "lantern galleys", half-galleys, fustas and fregatas. Naval historian Jan Glete has described as a sort of predecessor of the rating system of the Royal Navy and other sailing fleets in Northern Europe.
The French navy and the British Royal Navy built a series of "galley frigates" from c. 1670–1690 that were small two-decked sailing cruisers with a set of oarports on the lower deck. The three British galley frigates had distinctive names - James Galley, Charles Galley and Mary Galley. In the late
Duchy of Amalfi
The Duchy of Amalfi or the Republic of Amalfi was a de facto independent state centered on the Southern Italian city of Amalfi during the 10th and 11th centuries. The city and its territory were part of the larger ducatus Neapolitanus, governed by a patrician, but it extracted itself from Byzantine vassalage and first elected a duke in 958. During the 10th and 11th centuries Amalfi was estimated to have a population of 50,000 -70,000 people, it rose to become an economic powerhouse, a commercial center whose merchants dominated Mediterranean and Italian trade for centuries before being surpassed and superseded by the other maritime republics of the North, like Pisa and Genoa. In 1073, Amalfi lost its independence, falling to French Norman invasion and subsequently to Pisa in 1137; the city of Amalfi was founded as a trading post in 339. Its first bishop was appointed in 596. In 838, the city was captured by Sicard of Benevento with help from traitors within the city, who led him in through the waterward defenses.
Many of the Amalfitans in Salerno left. In 839, Amalfi elected a prefect. Nearby Atrani participated in these early prefectural elections. Subsequently, Amalfi helped to free Siconulf to oppose the ruling Prince of Benevento. In 897, the self-governing republic, still nominally tied to the Byzantine Empire, was defeated in a war with Sorrento, supported by Naples, in which her prefect was captured ransomed. In 914, the prefect Mastalus. In 903 the Amalfitans joined forces with Naples to attack the Arabs that had established them selves on the banks of the Garigliano river; however the combined forces of Amalfi and the Naples were driven back by the Arabs and their allies, the Italian city state of Gaeta. In 915 Amalfi did not join the Battle of Garigliano to fight against the Arabs; this was most due to the fact that since 909 Amalfi had been trading with the Fatimid Caliphate and did not want to jeopardize relations with this powerful trade partner. In 958, Mastalus II Sergius I was elected first duke.
From 981 to 983, Amalfi ruled the Principality of Salerno. In 987, the Amalfitan bishopric was raised to archiepiscopal status. From 1034, Amalfi came under the control of the Principality of Capua and, in 1039, that of Salerno. In 1073, Robert Guiscard conquered the city and took the title dux Amalfitanorum: "duke of the Amalfitans." In 1096, Amalfi revolted, but this was put down in 1101. It revolted again in 1130 and was subdued in 1131, when the Emir John marched on Amalfi by land and George of Antioch blockaded the town by sea and set up a base on Capri. In 1135 and 1137, Pisa sacked the glory of Amalfi was past; the Arab traveller Ibn Hawqal, writing in 977 during the great reign of Manso I, described Amalfi as: The title "Duke of Amalfi" was revived in the 14th century as a title used within the Kingdom of Naples. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow wrote these lines in a poem titled Amalfi in 1869; the poem is about medieval Amalfi. and it references the crusades and its important maritime history.
After the Amalfitans broke free of Lombard control they did not return to Neapolitan control but instead stated their independence. After 839 Amalfi created a strong maritime presence. Amalfi had strong ties with both the Fatimid Caliphate; the Amalfitans had a permanent and important presence in Constantinople during the 10th and 11th centuries. Amalfitans created Latin Christian outposts in the Levant around 1040 and hostels for Christian pilgrims in Jerusalem and Antioch. During the 10th and 11th centuries Amalfi was dominating trade and commerce with North Africa and the Levant, one of the major exports from Amalfi during the Middle Ages was the chestnut. While The Duchy of Amalfi never regained its independence after 1137 the city of Amalfi was still important to maritime trade for the next 200 years until 1343 when an earthquake and a storm destroyed most of its harbor; the most important contribution Amalfi made during those 200 years before its harbor was destroyed was the perfection of the modern day box compass.
Between 1295 and 1302 the Flavio Gioia turned the compass from a needle floating in water to what we use today, a round box with a compass card that rotates 360 degrees attached to a magnetic element. Dukes of Amalfi Amalfi Coast Maritime republics
Christians are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ. The words Christ and Christian derive from the Koine Greek title Christós, a translation of the Biblical Hebrew term mashiach. While there are diverse interpretations of Christianity which sometimes conflict, they are united in believing that Jesus has a unique significance; the term "Christian" is used as an adjective to describe anything associated with Christianity, or in a proverbial sense "all, noble, good, Christ-like."According to a 2011 Pew Research Center survey, there were 2.2 billion Christians around the world in 2010, up from about 600 million in 1910. By 2050, the Christian population is expected to exceed 3 billion. According to a 2012 Pew Research Center survey Christianity will remain the world's largest religion in 2050, if current trends continue. Today, about 37% of all Christians live in the Americas, about 26% live in Europe, 24% live in sub-Saharan Africa, about 13% live in Asia and the Pacific, 1% live in the Middle East and North Africa.
About half of all Christians worldwide are Catholic. Orthodox communions comprise 12% of the world's Christians. Other Christian groups make up the remainder. Christians make up the majority of the population in territories. 280 million Christians live as a minority. Christians have made noted contributions to a range of fields, including the sciences, politics and business. According to 100 Years of Nobel Prizes, a review of Nobel prizes awarded between 1901 and 2000 reveals that of Nobel Prizes laureates identified Christianity in its various forms as their religious preference; the Greek word Χριστιανός, meaning "follower of Christ", comes from Χριστός, meaning "anointed one", with an adjectival ending borrowed from Latin to denote adhering to, or belonging to, as in slave ownership. In the Greek Septuagint, christos was used to translate the Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, meaning " anointed." In other European languages, equivalent words to Christian are derived from the Greek, such as Chrétien in French and Cristiano in Spanish.
The abbreviations Xian and Xtian have been used since at least the 17th century: Oxford English Dictionary shows a 1634 use of Xtianity and Xian is seen in a 1634-38 diary. The word Xmas uses a similar contraction; the first recorded use of the term is in the New Testament, in Acts 11:26, after Barnabas brought Saul to Antioch where they taught the disciples for about a year, the text says: " the disciples were called Christians first in Antioch." The second mention of the term follows in Acts 26:28, where Herod Agrippa II replied to Paul the Apostle, "Then Agrippa said unto Paul, Almost thou persuadest me to be a Christian." The third and final New Testament reference to the term is in 1 Peter 4:16, which exhorts believers: "Yet if as a Christian, let him not be ashamed. The city of Antioch, where someone gave them the name Christians, had a reputation for coming up with such nicknames; however Peter's apparent endorsement of the term led to its being preferred over "Nazarenes" and the term Christianoi from 1 Peter becomes the standard term in the Early Church Fathers from Ignatius and Polycarp onwards.
The earliest occurrences of the term in non-Christian literature include Josephus, referring to "the tribe of Christians, so named from him. In the Annals he relates that "by vulgar appellation called Christians" and identifies Christians as Nero's scapegoats for the Great Fire of Rome. Another term for Christians which appears in the New Testament is "Nazarenes". Jesus is named as a Nazarene in Math 2:23, while Saul-Paul is said to be Nazarene in Acts 24:5; the latter verse makes it clear that Nazarene referred to the name of a sect or heresy, as well as the town called Nazareth. The term Nazarene was used by the Jewish lawyer Tertullus which records that "the Jews call us Nazarenes." While around 331 AD Eusebius records that Christ was called a Nazoraean from the name Nazareth, that in earlier centuries "Christians" were once called "Nazarenes". The Hebrew equivalent of "Nazarenes", occurs in the Babylonian Talmud, is still the modern Israeli Hebrew term for Christian. A wide range of beliefs and practices are found across the world among those who call themselves Christian.
Denominations and sects disagree on a common definition of "Christianity". For example, Timothy Beal notes the disparity of beliefs among those who identify as Christians in the United States as follows: Although all of them have their historical roots in Christian theology and tradition, although most would identify themselves as Christian, many would not identify others within the larger category as Christian. Most Baptists and fundamentalists, for example, would not acknowledge Mormonism or Christian Science as Christian. In fact, the nearly 77 percent of Americans who self-identify as Christian are a diverse pluribus of Christianities that are far from any collective unity. Linda Woodhead attempts to provide a common belief thread for Christians by noting that "Whatever else they might disagree about, Christians are at least united
Ostia is a large neighbourhood in the X Municipio of the comune of Rome, near the ancient port of Rome, named Ostia, now a major archaeological site known as Ostia Antica. Ostia is the only municipio or district of Rome on the Tyrrhenian Sea and many Romans spend the summer holidays there. With about 85,000 inhabitants, Ostia is the first or second-most populated frazione of Italy, depending on whether Mestre is counted; the town is located on the Tyrrhenian coast, close to Acilia and separated from Fiumicino by the mouth of the Tiber River. Being located on the coast, Ostia enjoys cooler summers than central Rome. Ostia was the site of the death of Saint Monica in 387 on their way back to Africa after Augustine's conversion to Christianity. In 846, a Saracen fleet of 73 ships landed at Ostia, raided inland, sacking Rome. In doing so, they burnt the churches of St. Paul; the new pope Leo IV ordered Rome’s walls to be rebuilt and refurbished, had them extended to protect the Vatican hill. He formed a naval alliance with the cities of Amalfi and Gaeta, which drove off a Saracen fleet in 849.
Three years Pope Leo IV issued a call to the Franks, declaring "Whoever meets death steadfastly in this fight the Heavenly Kingdom will not be closed to him." This becomes a much quoted text among canonists of the High Middle Ages. The neighbourhood was founded in 1884 near the remains of Ostia Antica, the port city of ancient Rome; this was possible after reclamation of the nearby marshland, infested by malaria. The first inhabitants were peasants coming from Ravenna, in Romagna. Due to the opening of the urban Roma-Ostia railway in 1924, the new village soon became the favourite sea resort of the Romans, while many Art Nouveau houses were built on the waterfront; the new village was connected to central Rome through the new Via Ostiense, opened in 1907. During the Fascist period, the government massively expanded the neighbourhood, which got its ultimate architectural character thanks to many new buildings in Stile Littorio. New infrastructures, like a second road to Rome, the promenade, a water airport were all built during this period.
After World War II, many bathing establishments were built on the sea side, Ostia experienced a tourist boom. The new Cristoforo Colombo avenue connected Ostia with the EUR district in Rome. However, sea pollution, which became apparent during the 1970s, lowered the popularity of Ostia as a sea resort; the building of the Leonardo da Vinci Airport in Fiumicino in 1956 made Ostia an attractive district for airport and airline workers. Italian intellectual, film director and poet Pier Paolo Pasolini was assassinated near the water airport on 2 November 1975. In 1976 Ostia became part of the XIII Municipio of the Comune of Rome. Nowadays, due to the expansion of the city, only the Park of Castelfusano separates Ostia from the other quarters of Rome; the regional Rome-Lido railway line, which carries over 90,000 passengers a day, connects Ostia to the centre of Rome, providing up to 12 journeys per hour during rush hour. The full length of the line is 28.359 kilometres. It has 13 stops, the journey time is 37 minutes.
The Roman terminal is at Roma Porta San Paolo station close to the Piramide stop and close to Roma Ostiense railway station. Rail stops in Ostia are Ostia Antica, Ostia Lido Nord, Ostia Lido Centro, Ostia Stella Polare, Ostia Castel Fusano and Ostia Cristoforo Colombo. Lorenzatti, Sandro. Ostia. Storia Ambiente Itinerari. Rome. Ostia Online Site of the Centro Studi Storici Ambientali Ostia and of Genius Loci Publisher Le Date della storia di Ostia Met. Ro. Metropolitana di Roma
The Aghlabids were an Arab dynasty of emirs from the Najdi tribe of Banu Tamim, who ruled Ifriqiya, nominally on behalf of the Abbasid Caliph, for about a century, until overthrown by the new power of the Fatimids. In 800, the Abbasid Caliph Harun al-Rashid appointed Ibrahim I ibn al-Aghlab, son of a Khurasanian Arab commander from the Banu Tamim tribe, as hereditary Emir of Ifriqiya as a response to the anarchy that had reigned in that province following the fall of the Muhallabids. At that time there were 100,000 Arabs living in Ifriqiya, although the Berbers still constituted the great majority. Ibrahim was to control an area that encompassed eastern Algeria and Tripolitania. Although independent in all but name, his dynasty never ceased to recognise Abbasid overlordship; the Aghlabids paid an annual tribute to the Abbasid Caliph and their suzerainty was referenced in the khutba at Friday prayers. After the pacification of the country Ibrahim ibn al-Aghlab established a residence at a new capital, al-‘Abbāsiyya, founded outside Kairouan to distance himself from the opposition of the Malikite jurists and theologians, who condemned what they saw as the luxurious life of the Aghlabids, disliked the unequal treatment of the Muslim Berbers.
Additionally, border defenses were set up in Monastir. The Aghlabids built up the irrigation of the area and enhanced the public buildings and mosques of al-‘Abbāsiyya, it was recorded. One unique feature of the Aghlabids is that despite the political differences and rivalry between Aghlabids, who served under the Abbasid Caliphate, the Umayyad Emirate of Cordoba, the Muslims in Spain sent a fleet under Asba' ibn Wakil to aid the Aghlabids conquest of Sicily. Ibn Kathir recorded that a joint force of 300 Aghlabid ships were present; the Aghlabid garrison at Mineo managed to get into contact with the Andalusian Umayyads whom agreed to the alliance, provided that Asbagh was recognized as the overall commander, together with fresh troops from Ifriqiya they marched on Mineo. Theodotus retreated to Enna and the siege of Mineo was broken; the combined Ifriqiyan and Andalusian army torched Mineo and laid siege to another town Calloniana. However, a plague broke out in their camp causing the death of many others.
The town fell in autumn, but the Arabs' numbers were depleted subsequently they had to abandon it and retreat west. Theodotus launched a pursuit and inflicted heavy casualties, so that most of the Andalusians departed the island. However, Theodotus too was killed at this time in one of these skirmishes. Under Ziyadat Allah I came the crisis of a revolt of Arab troops in 824, not quelled until 836 with the help of the Berbers; the conquest of Byzantine Sicily from 827 under Asad ibn al-Furat was an attempt to keep the unruly troops under control - it was only achieved and only in 902 was the last Byzantine outpost taken. Plundering raids into mainland Italy, which included the sack of the Roman basilicas in 846, took place until well into the 10th century; the Aghlabids lost control of the Arab forces in Sicily and a new dynasty, the Kalbids, emerged there. The Aghlabid kingdom reached its high point under Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Aghlabi. Ifriqiya was a significant economic power thanks to its fertile agriculture, aided by the expansion of the Roman irrigation system.
It became the focal point of trade between the Islamic world and Byzantium and Italy the lucrative slave trade. Kairuan became the most important centre of learning in the Maghreb, most notably in the fields of theology and law, a gathering place for poets; the Aghlabid emirs sponsored building projects, notably the rebuilding of the Mosque of Uqba and the kingdom developed an architectural style which combined Abbasid and Byzantine architecture. The decline of the dynasty began under Ibrahim II ibn Ahmad. An attack by the Tulunids of Egypt had to be repelled and a revolt of the Berbers put down with much loss of life. In addition, in 893 there began amongst the Kutama Berbers the movement of the Shiite Fatimids to overthrow the Aghlabids. Abdullah al-Mahdi Billah captured the cities of Qairawan and Raqqada and took an oath of allegiance from the people. By 909, the Aghlabid Dynasty was replaced with the Fatimids. Ibrahim I ibn al-Aghlab ibn Salim Abdallah I ibn Ibrahim Ziyadat Allah I ibn Ibrahim al-Aghlab Abu Iqal ibn Ibrahim Abu'l-Abbas Muhammad I ibn al-Aghlab Abi Affan Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Aghlabi Ziyadat Allah II ibn Abil-Abbas Abu'l-Gharaniq Muhammad II ibn Ahmad Abu Ishaq Ibrahim II ibn Ahmad Abu'l-Abbas Abdallah II ibn Ibrahim Abu Mudhar Ziyadat Allah III ibn Abdallah History of Islam in southern Italy History of medieval Tunisia List of Sunni Muslim dynasties History of Algeria History of Libya Georges Marçais, "Aghlabids," Encyclopedia of Islam, 2nd ed. Vol. I, pp. 699–700.
Mohamed Talbi, Emirat Aghlabide, Paris: Adrien Maisonneuve, 1967. Maurice Vonderheyden, La Berbérie orientale sous la dynastie des Benoû l-Aṛlab, 800-909, Paris: Geuthner, 1927. Versteegh, Kees; the Arabic Language. Columbia University Press