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Battle of Patay

The Battle of Patay was the culminating engagement of the Loire Campaign of the Hundred Years' War between the French and English in north-central France. It was a decisive victory for the French and with heavy losses inflicted on the corps of veteran English longbowmen; this victory was to the French. Although credited to Joan of Arc, most of the fighting was done by the vanguard of the French army as English units fled, the main portions of the French army were unable to catch up to the vanguard as it continued to pursue the English for several miles. After the English abandoned the Siege of Orléans on 8 May 1429, the survivors of the besieging forces withdrew to nearby garrisons along the Loire. A month having gathered men and supplies for the forthcoming campaign, the French army, under the nominal command of the Duke of Alençon, set out to capture these positions and the bridges they controlled. On 12 June they took Jargeau by storm captured the bridge at Meung-sur-Loire and marched on, without attacking the nearby castle, to lay siege to Beaugency on 15 June.

An English reinforcement army under Sir John Fastolf, which had set off from Paris following the defeat at Orléans, now joined forces with survivors of the besieging army under Lord Talbot and Lord Scales at Meung-sur-Loire. Talbot urged an immediate attack to relieve Beaugency, but was opposed by the more cautious Fastolf, reluctant to seek a pitched battle against the more numerous French; the garrison of Beaugency, unaware of the arrival of Fastolf's reinforcements and discouraged by the reinforcement of the French by a Breton contingent under Arthur de Richemont, surrendered on 18 June. Talbot agreed to Fastolf's proposal to retreat towards Paris. Learning of this movement, the French set off in pursuit, intercepted the English army near the village of Patay. In this battle, the English employed the same methods used in the victories at Crécy in 1346 and Agincourt in 1415, deploying an army composed predominantly of longbowmen behind a barrier of sharpened stakes driven into the ground to obstruct any attack by cavalry.

Becoming aware of the French approach, Talbot sent a force of archers to ambush them from a patch of woods along the road. Dissatisfied, Talbot attempted to redeploy his men, setting up 500 longbowmen in a hidden location which would block the main road. However, they were attacked before they had a chance to prepare their position by the vanguard of about 1,500 mounted men-at-arms under La Hire and Jean Poton de Xaintrailles and swiftly overwhelmed, leading to the exposure of the other English units which were spread out along the road; the English archers had inadvertently disclosed their position to French scouts before their preparations were complete when a lone stag wandered onto a nearby field and the archers raised a hunting cry. Fastolf's unit attempted to join up with the English vanguard but the latter fled, forcing Fastolf to follow suit; the rest of the battle was a prolonged mopping-up operation against the fleeing English units, with little organized resistance. In the rout and mop-up the English lost over 2,000 men out of a force of about 5,000, many of them archers.

By contrast the French lost only about one hundred men. Fastolf, the only English commander who remained on horseback, managed to escape. Talbot and Sir Thomas Rempston were captured. Talbot accused Fastolf of deserting his comrades in the face of the enemy, a charge which he pursued vigorously once he had negotiated his release from captivity. Fastolf hotly denied the charge and was cleared of the charge by a special chapter of the Order of the Garter; the virtual destruction of the English field army in central France and the loss of many of their principal veteran commanders, had devastating consequences for the English position in France, from which it would never recover. During the following weeks the French, facing negligible resistance, were able to swiftly regain swathes of territory to the south and north of Paris, to march to Reims, where the Dauphin was crowned as King Charles VII of France on 17 July. Allmand, Christopher; the Hundred Years War: England and France at War c. 1300–1450.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-31923-4. Barker, Juliet. Conquest: The English Kingdom of France. London: Little, Brown. ISBN 978-1-4087-0083-9. Cooper, Stephen; the Real Falstaff, Sir John Fastolf and the Hundred Years War. Pen & Sword Military. ISBN 9781848841239. Devries, Kelly. Joan of Arc: A Military Leader. Gloucestershire: Sutton Publishing. ISBN 0-7509-1805-5. Green, David; the Hundred Years War: A People's History. Yale University Press. Grummitt, David. Rogers, Clifford J.. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology. Vol. 3. Oxford University Press. P. 107-108. ISBN 978-0-19-533403-6. Leveel, Pierre. "Charles VII, la Touraine et les Etats Generaux". Bulletin de la Société archéologique de Touraine. Société archéologique de Touraine. Pernoud, Regine. Wheeler, Bonnie. Joan of Arc: Her Story. Translated by Adams, Jeremy duQuesnay. St. Martin's Griffin. Richey, Stephen W.. Joan of Arc: The Warrior Saint. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger. ISBN 0-275-98103-7

Moist static energy

The moist static energy is a thermodynamic variable that describes the state of an air parcel, is similar to the equivalent potential temperature. The moist static energy is a combination of a parcel's enthalpy due to an air parcel's internal energy and energy required to make room for it, its potential energy due to its height above the surface, the latent energy due to water vapor present in the air parcel, it is a useful variable for researching the atmosphere because, like several other similar variables, it is conserved during adiabatic ascent and descent. The moist static energy, S, can be described mathematically as: S = C p ⋅ T + g ⋅ z + L v ⋅ q where Cp is the specific heat at constant pressure, T is the absolute air temperature, g is the gravitational constant, z is the height above the surface, Lv is the latent heat of vaporization, q is water vapor specific humidity. Note that many texts use mixing ratio r in place of specific humidity q because these values tend to be close under normal atmospheric conditions, but this is an approximation and not correct.

Through the study of moist static energy profiles, Herbert Riehl and Joanne Malkus determined in 1958 that hot towers, small cores of convection 5 kilometres wide that extend from the planetary boundary layer to the tropopause, were the primary mechanism that transported energy out of the tropics to the middle latitudes. More idealized model simulations of the tropics indicate that the moist static energy budget is dominated by advection, with shallow inflow in the lowest 2 kilometres of the atmosphere with outflow concentrated about 10 kilometres above the surface. Moist static energy has been used to study the Madden–Julian oscillation; as with the tropics as a whole, the budget of moist static energy in the MJO is dominated by advection, but is influenced by the wind-driven component of the surface latent heat flux. The relationship between the advection component and the latent heat component influence the timing of the MJO. Hot tower Latent heat Western Hemisphere Warm Pool

Joyce Kilmer Memorial Forest

Joyce Kilmer Memorial Forest is an 3,800-acre tract of publicly owned virgin forest in Graham County, North Carolina, named in memory of poet Joyce Kilmer, best known for his poem "Trees". One of the largest contiguous tracts of old growth forest in the Eastern United States, the area is administered by the U. S. Forest Service; the memorial forest is a popular family hiking destination and features an easy two-mile, figure-eight trail that includes a memorial plaque at the juncture of the two loops. In 1975 the memorial forest was joined with a much larger tract of the Nantahala National Forest to become part of the Joyce Kilmer-Slickrock Wilderness. Beginning in 1915, the Babcock Lumber Company of Pittsburgh operated a standard gauge railroad in the area, logging out two-thirds of the Slickrock Creek watershed before construction of Calderwood Dam threatened to flood the lower part of the railroad. A decline in the price of lumber during the Great Depression encouraged preservation of the trees.

In 1934 the Bozeman Bulger Post of the Veterans of Foreign Wars petitioned "that the government of the United States examine its millions of forested acres and set aside a fitting area of trees to stand for all time as a living memorial" to Kilmer, a poet and journalist killed during World War I, whose 1913 poem "Trees" had become a popular favorite. After considering forests throughout the country, the Forest Service decided on an uncut 3,800-acre area along Little Santeetlah Creek, dedicated as the Joyce Kilmer Memorial Forest on July 30, 1936; the memorial is a rare example of old growth cove hardwood forest, a diverse type unique to the Appalachian Mountains. Dominant species are yellow-poplar, basswood and sycamore; some trees are over 400 years old, the oldest yellow-poplars are more than 20 feet in circumference and stand 100 feet tall. Missing is the American chestnut, once the dominant tree of the forest, a victim of the chestnut blight accidentally introduced from Asia during the early twentieth century.

Although the last of the Kilmer chestnuts had died by the late 1930s, their wood is so rot-resistant that remnants of the massive logs and stumps are still visible. Another more recent loss is that of the giant hemlocks due to an infestation of an exotic insect, the hemlock woolly adelgid. Concerned that a falling limb or tree might injure a visitor, Forest Service managers decided to bring down dead trees near the memorial trail in a way they believed would mimic natural windthrow. In November 2010, the Forest Service blew up the trees with explosives, making the lower loop trail much lighter and drier, thereby changing the environment and creating a public relations challenge

Sutcliffe, Nevada

Sutcliffe is a census-designated place in Washoe County, United States. The population was 253 at the 2010 census, it is part of the Reno–Sparks Metropolitan Statistical Area. Sutcliffe is located at 39°56′50″N 119°36′13″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 10.0 square miles, all of it land. The core settlement is located on the western banks of Pyramid Lake. For climate data for Sutcliffe, see: Pyramid Lake #Climate As of the census of 2000, there were 281 people, 105 households, 70 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 28.1 people per square mile. There were 113 housing units at an average density of 11.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 41.64% White, 47.69% Native American, 0.71% Pacific Islander, 2.14% from other races, 7.83% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.69% of the population. There were 105 households out of which 30.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.2% were married couples living together, 20.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.3% were non-families.

24.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.68 and the average family size was 3.21. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 31.7% under the age of 18, 7.5% from 18 to 24, 23.1% from 25 to 44, 26.3% from 45 to 64, 11.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 109.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.9 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $31,250, the median income for a family was $31,875. Males had a median income of $28,750 versus $22,292 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $13,629. About 27.4% of families and 30.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 41.7% of those under the age of eighteen and 11.1% of those sixty five or over

Tróndur í Gøtu (2010 ship)

Tróndur í Gøtu is a Faroese a fishing trawler and purse seiner. It belongs to the Faroese company called Varðin, based in Syðrugøta. Tróndur í Gøtu is active in the pelagic fishing industry and fishes mackerel, herring and blue whiting in the sea around the Faroe Islands and else where, depending on where the Faroe Islands gets fishing quotas; the ship was built in 2010 on Karstensens Skibsværft A/S in Denmark. Tróndur í Gøtu lands most of its catches to the pelagic fish factory Varðin Pelagic in Tvøroyri and to Havsbrún in Fuglafjørður

The Tribute Money (Titian)

The Tribute Money is a panel painting in oils of 1516 by the Italian late Renaissance artist Titian, now in the Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister in Dresden, Germany. It depicts Christ and a Pharisee at the moment in the Gospels when Christ is shown a coin and says "Render unto Caesar the things that are Caesar's, unto God the things that are God's", it is painted on the trim of the left side of the Pharisee's collar. It is the earliest representation in art of this scene, which had a personal significance for Alfonso I d'Este, Duke of Ferrara, who commissioned it; the subject is rare in art, some authorities have said that this is its first representation in art. The novelty is explained by the special significance of the subject for the patron, presumed to have suggested it. With one level of appropriateness, it was created for the door of a cupboard or cabinet containing the collection of medals and ancient and modern coins of Alfonso I d'Este, Duke of Ferrara. In the following years the duke became a important patron of Titian because he was impressed by this first commission.

At another level, the story had a political relevance. Duke Alfonzo's territories were in the Holy Roman Empire, in the Papal States, giving the subject a particular meaning to him. At the time the painting was produced he had been excommunicated and deprived, at least in theory, of some of his territories by the Papacy, after not following the papacy when it changed sides in the War of the League of Cambrai. For most of this period he was opposed to the papacy, aggressively expanding the Papal States, wanted to absorb the Duchy of Ferrara. For Alfonso the message of the injunction of Christ in the "Tribute Money" episode was that the Papacy should concentrate its attention on church matters, as opposed to expanding its territory, he included part of the gospel text of the episode on his gold coinage. Unusually for an early Titian, the painting can be dated with confidence, as Titian and two assistants or servants spent some five weeks staying at Alfonso's Castello Estense in Ferrara from 22 February 1516 until the end of March.

Titian painted on canvas, but the original use of the painting as a door necessitated the panel support here. It is Titian's earliest signed painting, was signed to show he was not a court painter, as well as advertising his name in a prominent court outside Venice and its territories; the location of the signature on the pharisee's collar may support it being a self-portrait, with the signature "identifying the subject like the inscription below the profile portrait on a coin". The painting, described as "Titian's sleekest, most polished early work", became famous. Giorgio Vasari thought the head of Christ "stupendous and miraculous" and that all artists at the time believed it to be Titian's most perfect painting. Carlo Ridolfi's biography relates that when he saw it, an envoy of the Emperor Charles V expressed surprise that any artist could compete with Albrecht Dürer so well. Much Titian painted a larger composition of the subject to meet a demand for replicas; this was begun around 1543, but not completed until the 1560s.

X-radiographs reveal that the gold coin in it was inscribed with "Ferrara". The figure of the pharisee has been claimed as a self-portrait by Titian, in his late twenties at the time; the same claim has been made for several figures painted in narrative scenes by Titian and more convincingly, the severed head of John the Baptist in his Salome, close in date to this painting, where the head does not much resemble the one here. Both paintings are examples of narrative subjects drawing on Titian's skill as a portraitist, as well as forming part of a number of paintings using the Giorgionesque type of composition showing two or three tightly-cropped half-length figures with their faces close together, heightening the drama of their interaction. Other examples of this type are Lucretia and her Husband and The Bravo, both now in Vienna, The Lovers; the painting is in the collection of Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister in Germany. After WWII together with many masterpieces of the gallery it was taken by the Red Army to the Pushkin Museum in Moscow.

The painting was badly damaged by water and was painstakingly restored by Russian painter Pavel Korin. Together with many others, in 1955 the painting was returned to Dresden in the DDR; the Tribute Money – showing a different episode. Goffen, Renaissance Rivals: Michelangelo, Raphael, Titian, 2004, Yale University Press, google books Hale, Titian, His Life, 2012, Harper Press, ISBN 978-0-00717582-6 Jaffé, Titian, The National Gallery Company/Yale, London 2003, ISBN 1 857099036 Penny, National Gallery Catalogues: The Sixteenth Century Italian Paintings, Volume II, Venice 1540–1600, 2008, National Gallery Publications Ltd, ISBN 1857099133 Schiller, Iconography of Christian Art, Vol. I, 1971, Lund Humphries, London, ISBN 0853312702