Córdoba Province, Argentina
Córdoba is a province of Argentina, located in the center of the country. Neighboring provinces are: Santiago del Estero, Santa Fe, Buenos Aires, La Pampa, San Luis, La Rioja and Catamarca. Together with Santa Fe and Entre Ríos, the province is part of the economic and political association known as the Center Region. Córdoba is the second most populous Argentine province, with 3,308,876 inhabitants, the fifth by size, at about 165,321 km2. 41% of its inhabitants reside in the capital city, Córdoba, its surroundings, making it the second most populous metro area in Argentina. Before the Spanish conquista the region now called Córdoba Province was inhabited by indigenous groups, most notably the Comechingones and Sanavirones. Once settled in Alto Perú, the Spaniards searched for a route to the Río de la Plata port in the Atlantic Ocean to transport the Peruvian gold and silver to Europe. Córdoba de la Nueva Andalucía was founded as a middle point on that route on July 6, 1573 by Jerónimo Luis de Cabrera.
The Colegio Convictorio de Nuestra Señora de Monserrat was founded by the Jesuits in 1599, followed by the National University of Córdoba, Argentina's first university, in 1613. The city continued to grow as an important cultural center, supported by the trade of precious metals from Peru. In 1761 a printing press was installed in the University. In 1783, seven years after the consolidation of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, the Intendency of Córdoba became the capital of what now includes the La Rioja, San Juan and San Luis Province, dividing the former Tucumán Intendency in two. Rafael de Sobremonte was its first governor. After the May Revolution in 1810, Governor Juan Gutiérrez de la Concha joined a meeting that decided to ignore the authority of the Buenos Aires Junta. Francisco Ortiz de Ocampo attacked the city and executed the leaders of the opposition, among whom was Santiago de Liniers, leader of the resistance during the British invasions of the Río de la Plata. Led by Juan Bautista Bustos after 1820, Córdoba struggled for control of the Nation with Buenos Aires.
Córdoba sought a federal organization of the provinces while Rivadavia pushed for a centralised government in Buenos Aires. For 15 years the province was submerged in internal revolts that started to stabilize in 1868 under the provisional government of Félix de la Peña. During the presidency of Sarmiento an astronomic observatory and the Faculty of Physical Sciences and Mathematics were inaugurated; the creation of the railways and the consequent immigration brought a second wave of population growth to Córdoba. From 1887 on, several agricultural colonies emerged, while former rest-point Fraile Muerto and Los Luceros, on the route to Buenos Aires, became agricultural and industrial centers, respectively; the University Reform movement, which originated in Córdoba in 1918, was influential not only in Argentina but throughout South America. Modernization of the curricular contents and the improvement of the students' rights were the main achievements of the movement and in Córdoba, were enacted by Governor Amadeo Sabattini, who became Argentina's most progressive governor at the time and enacted civil and land reforms that would set the national standard.
After World War II, many foreign workers and workers from other provinces in Argentina were seduced by Córdoba's industrial development, led by the expansion of the car industry. It was during Arturo Frondizi's presidency that most new auto industries settled in the city of Córdoba and its surroundings; as in the rest of the country, Peronist groups emerged in 1955 following the coup that removed Juan Perón from office. These Peronist groups, together with other socialist and anarchist groups, began opposing Argentina's third military dictatorship that began in 1966. Worker and student participation in politics grew due to the widespread discontent with the appointed governor's hard-line stance, culminating in the violent May, 1969, popular revolt known as the Cordobazo; this revolt, mirrored by the Rosariazo and others in several parts of the country, undermined the power of dictator Juan Carlos Onganía and led to his ouster by more moderate military factions. Córdoba has continued to prosper, despite left-wing violence in 1973, right-wing political interference in 1974, government atrocities in 1976–77, 1978–81 free trade policies that battered Córdoba's sizable industrial sector, the 1980s debt crisis and, the recent acute financial crisis that ended in 2002.
Córdoba, located just north of the geographical center of the nation, is Argentina's fifth largest province. The main feature of the province is the presence of an extensive plain covering the eastern two thirds of the province, the existence of three major mountain ranges which, are known as Sierras de Córdoba: the easternmost range starts just west of the city of Córdoba and reaches altitudes of around 1,000 meters in the southern portion, over 1,500 meters further north, with a maximum altitude of 1,950 meters at Cerro Uritorco. West of this chain, two valleys contain most of the tourist spots in the province: the Calamuchita valley in the south, the Punilla Valley in the north, home of scenic towns such as Villa Carlos Paz, Cosquín, La Cumbre and La Falda. West of these valleys, the Sierras Grandes form the highest chain in the province: their altitude increases to form a plateau of 2,000 to 2,300 meters
Hegemony is the political, economic, or military predominance or control of one state over others. In ancient Greece, hegemony denoted the politico-military dominance of a city-state over other city-states; the dominant state is known as the hegemon. In the 19th century, hegemony came to denote the "Social or cultural ascendancy, it could be used to mean "a group or regime which exerts undue influence within a society". It could be used for the geopolitical and the cultural predominance of one country over others, from, derived hegemonism, as in the idea that the Great Powers meant to establish European hegemony over Asia and Africa. In international relations theory, hegemony denotes a situation of great material asymmetry in favour of one state, who has enough military power to systematically defeat any potential contester in the system, controls the access to raw materials, natural resources and markets, has competitive advantages in the production of value added goods, generates an accepted ideology reflecting this status quo.
The Marxist theory of cultural hegemony, associated with Antonio Gramsci, is the idea that the ruling class can manipulate the value system and mores of a society, so that their view becomes the world view: in Terry Eagleton's words, "Gramsci uses the word hegemony to mean the ways in which a governing power wins consent to its rule from those it subjugates". In contrast to authoritarian rule, cultural hegemony "is hegemonic only if those affected by it consent to and struggle over its common sense". In cultural imperialism, the leader state dictates the internal politics and the societal character of the subordinate states that constitute the hegemonic sphere of influence, either by an internal, sponsored government or by an external, installed government. From the post-classical Latin word hegemonia from the Greek word ἡγεμονία hēgemonía, meaning "authority, political supremacy", related to the word ἡγεμών hēgemōn "leader". In the Greco–Roman world of 5th century BC European classical antiquity, the city-state of Sparta was the hegemon of the Peloponnesian League and King Philip II of Macedon was the hegemon of the League of Corinth in 337 BC.
The role of Athens within the short-lived Delian League was that of a "hegemon". Ancient historians such as Xenophon and Ephorus were the first who used the term in its modern sense. In Ancient East Asia, Chinese hegemony existed during the Spring and Autumn period, when the weakened rule of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty led to the relative autonomy of the Five Hegemons, they were appointed by feudal lord conferences, thus were nominally obliged to uphold the imperium of the Zhou Dynasty over the subordinate states. 1st and 2nd century Europe was dominated by the hegemonic peace of the Pax Romana. It was instituted by the emperor Augustus, was accompanied by a series of brutal military campaigns. From the 7th century to the 12th century, the Umayyad Caliphate and Abbasid Caliphate dominated the vast territories they governed, with other states like the Byzantine Empire paying tribute. In 7th century India, ruler of a large empire in northern India from AD 606 to 647, brought most of the north under his hegemony.
He preferred not to rule as a central government, but left "conquered kings on their thrones and contenting himself with tribute and homage."From the late 9th to the early 11th century, the empire developed by Charlemagne achieved hegemony in Europe, with dominance over France and Burgundy. During the 14th century, the Crown of Aragon became the hegemon in the Mediterranean Sea. In The Politics of International Political Economy, Jayantha Jayman writes "If we consider the Western dominated global system from as early as the 15th century, there have been several hegemonic powers and contenders that have attempted to create the world order in their own images." He lists several contenders for historical hegemony. Portugal 1494 to 1580. Based on Portugal's dominance in navigation. Spain 1516 to 1659. Based on the Spanish dominance of the European battlefields and the global exploration and colonization of the New World; the Netherlands 1580 to 1688. Based on Dutch control of credit and money. Britain 1688 to 1792.
Based on British textiles and command of the high seas. Britain 1815 to 1914. Based on British industrial supremacy and railroads. Phillip IV tried to restore the Habsburg dominance but, by the middle of the 17th century "Spain's pretensions to hegemony had and irremediably failed."In late 16th and 17th-century Holland, the Dutch Republic's mercantilist dominion was an early instance of commercial hegemony, made feasible with the development of wind power for the efficient production and delivery of goods and services. This, in turn, made possible the Amsterdam stock concomitant dominance of world trade. In France, King Louis XIV and Napoleon I attempted French true hegemony via economic and military domin
Tucumán is the most densely populated, the second-smallest by land area, of the provinces of Argentina. Located in the northwest of the country, the province has the capital of San Miguel de Tucumán shortened to Tucumán. Neighboring provinces clockwise from the north: Salta, Santiago del Estero and Catamarca, it is nicknamed El Jardín de la República, as it is a productive agricultural area. The word Tucumán originated from the Quechua languages, it may represent a deformation of the term Yucumán, which denotes the "place of origin of several rivers". It can be a deformation of the word Tucma, which means "the end of things". Before Spanish colonization, the region lay in the outer limits of the Inca empire. Before the Spanish colonization, this land was inhabited by the Tonocotes. In 1533, Diego de Almagro explored the Argentine Northwest, including Tucumán. In 1549 the Peruvian governor Pedro de la Gasca granted Juan Núñez de Prado the territory of Tucumán. Prado established the first Spanish settlement at the town of Barco on the Dulce River.
Prado named his province "Tucumán" after Tucumamahao, one of the leaders of the local people who formed an alliance with him. In 1552, Francisco de Aguirre was dispatched to take possession of the territory for Chile. Aguirre followed a repressive policy. Outnumbered, the colonists were forced to move in 1553 to a new location, where they founded the town of Santiago del Estero. By 1565, Diego de Villaroel founded San Miguel de Tucumán and the Provincia de Tucumán, Juríes y Diaguitas was organized; because of frequent attacks by the indigenous peoples, the Malones, in 1685, San Miguel de Tucumán was moved by Miguel de Salas some 65 km from its first location, where it was redeveloped. The aborigines of the region presented a strong resistance to the Spanish, who decided to move the defeated tribes toward Buenos Aires; the most noted of these relocations was the case of the Quilmes, who were moved to the city of Quilmes. Tucumán was a midpoint for shipments of gold and silver from the Viceroyalty of Peru to Buenos Aires.
It produced cattle and wood products that provided supplies for the convoys on their way to Buenos Aires. Because of its important geographical position, as head of the civil and Catholic governments, it acquired special importance during the 18th century; the creation of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata in 1776 meant the end of the convoys from Perú to Buenos Aires. Tucumán, with 20,000 inhabitants by that time, suffered from the British imports from the newly opened customs of Buenos Aires, no longer under the monopoly of the Spanish Crown. In 1783, the Intendency of Tucumán was divided. José de San Martín installed the military school. In 1814, the Intendency of Salta was divided into the present provinces. On July 9, 1816, at the Congress of Tucumán, the Provincias Unidas del Río de la Plata declared their independence from Spain. Internal conflicts delayed the final fusion of the provinces into the República Argentina. Following the failure of Argentina's first independence-era government, the Directorio, Governor Bernabé Aráoz on March 22, 1820, proclaimed the creation of the Federal Republic of Tucumán.
The experiment collapsed, when the neighboring provinces of Catamarca and Santiago del Estero withdrew the following year. The beginning of the 20th century, with the customs restrictions and the arrival of the railway, brought prosperous economic times for the province and its sugarcane production. Numerous landmarks were built, such as Ninth of July Park and the Tucumán Government Palace, a daily newspaper founded in 1912, La Gaceta, became the most circulated Argentine daily outside Buenos Aires, but the sugar price crisis of the 1960s and President Juan Carlos Onganía's order to have 11 large state-owned sugar mills closed in 1966, hit Tucumán's economy hard, ushered in an era of instability for the province. In 1975, President Isabel Perón declared a state of emergency in the province; the decree led to Operation Independence, an official military campaign at least as brutal on local magistrates and faculty as it was on its stated target, the ERP. Violence did not abate until the appointment of General Antonio Domingo Bussi, the operation's commander, as governor at the behest of the dictatorship that deposed Perón in 1976.
Efficient as well as ruthless, Bussi oversaw the completion of several stalled public works, but presided over some of the worst human rights abuses during that painful 1976-77 period. Retaining a sizable following, Bussi was elected governor in his own right in 1995, but lost much of his earlier popularity during his four-year tenure. Life in Tucumán has since returned to a certain normality, its economy has recovered during the expansive period Argentina has had in the decade since 2002. José Alperovich, elected governor in 2003, has presided over record investment in public works while reaping criticism for attempts to eliminate term limits for his office. Despite Tucumán's small size, it has two main different geographical systems; the east is associated with the Gran Chaco flat lands, while the west presents a mixture of the Sierras of the Pampas to the south and the canyons of the Argentine Northwest to the north. The Cerro del Bolsón is the highest peak at an elevation of 5,550 metres.
The Salí is the province's main river. Tucumán has four dams that are used for hydroelectricity and irrigation: El Cadillal on Salí River, the province's most important dam.
Pact of San José de Flores
The Pact of San José de Flores was a treaty signed between the Argentine Confederation and the State of Buenos Aires on November 11, 1859, on the aftermath of the Battle of Cepeda. It established guidelines for the entry of the latter into the Confederation, Buenos Aires' acceptance of the Argentine Constitution of 1853; the Argentine Confederation, consisting of thirteen provinces in the interior, the State of Buenos Aires, formed by the Province of Buenos Aires had divided what today is Argentina since the 1852 Battle of Caseros removed the paramount Governor of Buenos Aires, Juan Manuel de Rosas. The division was caused by the refusal of Buenos Aires to endorse the San Nicolás Agreement of 1853 or to recognize the Constitution of Argentina, promulgated that year; the most contentious issue remained the Buenos Aires Customs, which remained under the control of the city government and was the chief source of public revenue. Nations with which the Confederation maintained foreign relations, kept all embassies in Buenos Aires.
The Buenos Aires government enjoyed numerous alliances in the hinterland, including that of Santiago del Estero Province, as well as among powerful Liberal Party governors in Salta, Tucumán and San Juan. The 1858 assassination of San Juan's Federalist governor, Nazario Benavídez, by Liberals inflamed tensions between the Confederation and the State of Buenos Aires. Relations deteriorated further with the signing of a free trade agreement between the Port of Rosario and the Port of Montevideo to the detriment of Buenos Aires; the election of Valentín Alsina as Governor of Buenos Aires made hostilities imminent, culminating in the Battle of Cepeda of October 23, 1859. Buenos Aires forces, led by General Bartolomé Mitre, were defeated by those led by the President of the Confederacy, Justo José de Urquiza. Ordered to subjugate Buenos Aires separatists by force, Urquiza instead invited the defeated to a round of negotiations; the son of the President of Paraguay, General Francisco Solano López, had attempted to prevent the Battle of Cepeda, persuaded Governor Alsina to accept Urquiza's offer, a meeting place was soon arranged in the village of San José de Flores, by Buenos Aires emissaries Juan Bautista Peña and jurist Carlos Tejedor.
Buenos Aires was represented by Tejedor and Antonio Cruz Obligado. The Confederation was represented by Senate Vice President Tomás Guido, San Luis Province Governor Juan Esteban Pedernera, Jujuy Province Governor Daniel Aráoz; the negotiations were guarded by Urquiza's forces, despite objections to this by Buenos Aires delegates. Urquiza, demanded the resignation of Buenos Aires Governor Alsina and his cabinet. Faced with the threat of invasion, Alsina's government resigned, he was replaced by Vice Governor Felipe Llavallol. Following an impasse, General López succeeded in restarting talks on November 9, on November 11,the Pact of National Union was signed; the final text followed President Urquiza's stipulations, though with a number of concessions toward Buenos Aires. The principal terms were: Buenos Aires was declared part of the Argentine Confederation; the city government would convene a provincial convention to review and propose amendments to the National Constitution. Any amendments would be discussed by a National Constitutional Convention, meeting in Santa Fe, with the participation of all provinces.
The territory of Buenos Aires could not be divided without the consent of the Provincial Legislature. This was prescient because of the Constitutional stipulation that the nation's capital was the city of Buenos Aires as a federal district. Buenos Aires would forfeit any diplomatic relations; the Province of Buenos Aires would retain all public properties and buildings, with the exception of the Customs, which would be nationalized. Blanket amnesty would be declared for all participants in the past disputes, for any actions pursuant to those disputes; the occupying Argentine Army would withdraw from the Province of Buenos Aires. The constitutional convention met on September 14, 1860, approved the amendments outlined in the treaty on September 23. Elections on March 6, 1860, resulted in victory for the incumbent Federalist Party, electing Santiago Derqui and General Pedernera; the influence of the new governor of Buenos Aires, Bartolomé Mitre, on the Derqui presidency was strong, Mitre obtained numerous important bills from Derqui, including an extension on the province's customs house concession and measures benefiting the Bank of the Province of Buenos Aires, whose currency was authorized for use as legal tender at the customs house.
These concessions would strain Derqui's relations with Urquiza, returned as governor of Entre Ríos, though the enactment of the new constitution on October 8 temporarily placated ongoing tensions. This impasse continued until, on November 16, Domingo Sarmiento organized a revolt in his native San Juan Province, leading to Governor José Antonio Virasoro's murder and renewed hostilities; the insurrection spread to neighboring Córdoba Province, which the president attempted to quell by assuming the governor's post. The absence of the president from
The Museo Mitre in Buenos Aires, Argentina, is a museum dedicated to Argentine history, as well as to the legacy of President Bartolomé Mitre. The museum building is a Spanish colonial house built in 1785, it first appears in Argentine history as the refuge of the last Viceroy of Río de la Plata, Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros, following the May Revolution of 1810. In 1860 the house was rented by General Bartolomé Mitre in 1860, was his residence during his tenure as the 6th President of Argentina between 1862 and 1868. In 1868 the house was purchased and donated to Mitre by a group of local citizens in recognition of his term as President, as well as for his contributions to national unity. La Nación, one of the nation's oldest and most influential dailies, was published here from its establishment in 1870, until 1895; the house was purchased by the National Government via Law 4.943, in June of that year, on June 3, 1907, the Mitre Museum opened its doors to the public. The museum's first director, Alejandro Rosa, had founded the Western Hemisphere Historic and Numismatic Society with Mitre in 1893, following the classification of Mitre's extensive ethnolinguistic library and other collections, the society was located in the museum from 1918 until 1971.
The museum was declared a National Historic Monument on May 21, 1942, is maintained by the National Secretariat of Culture. The museum can be seen on some Argentine two peso bills. List of museums in Argentina List of National Historic Monuments of Argentina Official website
San Juan Province, Argentina
San Juan is a province of Argentina, located in the western part of the country. Neighbouring provinces are, moving clockwise from La Rioja, San Luis and Mendoza, it borders with Chile at the west. The province has an area of 89,651 km2, covering a mountainous region with scarce vegetation, fertile oases and turbulent rivers. Throughout the entire province there are an important number of paleontological sites. Similar to other regions in Argentina, agriculture is one of the most important economic activities, highlighting wine production and olive oil. Additionally, a variety of fruits and vegetables are produced in the fertile valleys irrigated by artificial channels in the western part, close to the Andes mountain range; this is the second province in volume of wine production at the national level and in South America, possesses outstanding varietal wines. It is an important center of mining and oil production. Before the arrival of Spanish conquistadores, different tribes like Huarpes, Capazanes and Yacampis influenced by the Inca empire, inhabited the area.
The city of San Juan de la Frontera was founded by Juan Jufré y Montesa in 1562 and relocated 2 kilometres south in 1593 due to the frequent flooding of the San Juan River. In 1776, San Juan was annexed to the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, becoming one of the cities of the Province of Cuyo. In the same year, the first recorded earthquake caused massive damage to the city; the father of Argentine independence, Gen. Jose de San Martin, was appointed Governor of the Province of Cuyo in 1814. From there, San Martin began his legendary crossing of the Andes, one of military history's great tactical decisions. San Juan a small town, was a great supporter of the expedition supplying gold and mules. In 1820, San Juan was granted autonomy from the Province of Cuyo, thereby becoming an autonomous province; the remainder of Cuyo region became Mendoza Province. Following an era of international isolation for Argentina, the advent of new, more liberal government in 1853 attracted a number of exiled intellectuals back into San Juan.
Among these, was a San Juan military officer and novelist named Domingo Sarmiento. Sarmiento was elected governor in 1862, pursuing sorely needed public investments and enacting Argentina's first law mandating compulsory education. Once elected President of Argentina in 1868, those policies became national law. In 1944 a moderate, yet destructive earthquake near the capital destroyed most of the city and killed 10,000 people. A fundraiser was organized to raise money for the victims of the quake where Colonel Juan Perón met his eventual wife and political companion Eva Duarte. A more powerful earthquake stuck the same city in 1977; the most noteworthy loss following this event was the destruction of the Cathedral of San Juan. A new, modernist house of worship was put up in its place and inaugurated in 1979. Among the most growing provinces in Argentina after 1945, the national government began the construction of the National University of San Juan, which opened its doors in 1973. Congress further responded to the needs of San Juan's growing agricultural sector by breaking ground in the mid'70s for the largest hydrostructural project in the province up to that point, the Ullum Dam and Reservoir.
Inaugurated in 1980, it has contributed to the province's production of irrigated desert crops, like olives, figs and, most wine grapes. In 2005, Barrick Gold Corporation, one of the world's largest gold-mining conglomerates, announced the purchase of large tracts in the San Juan Andes where a gold mine was started; these have, so far, been yielding over 11,000 ounces of gold yearly, though evidence suggests these activities may be having an adverse impact on San Juan's glaciers. In 2007, the same company installed the world's highest-situated wind turbine at the Veladero mine in San Juan Province at nearly 4,200m elevation; the province is part of the continental semi-desert Cuyo region. The arid plains start on the east, with a few low hills in the middle and swiftly turn into 6,000-meter-high mountain peaks towards the west. Both areas are subject to the dry hot Zonda. Most of the precipitations take place during the summer as electrical storms; the hot wind has modeled the clay-rich red soil into Pampa del Leoncito and Valle de la Luna 200-million-year-old geological formations.
The Jáchal and San Juan rivers, both part of Desaguadero River system, are the source of fertile valleys and centre of the province's economy. The San Juan River finishes on the southeast. San Juan concentrates most of its population in the oases or central valleys, Tulum Valley, Ullum and Jáchal, containing nearly 80% of this population; the remaining is located in the oasis located at the foot of the Andes in Calingasta. Another population concentration is in Fertile Valley. San Juan focuses its economy in agriculture, specially wine production. Additionally, preserved foods production is developed. Mining is a growing activity, with the extraction of various minerals financed by multinational companies. Tourism is a new and flourishing activity and it is becoming an important source of revenue for the province. San Juan's is a diversified, economy, its output was estimated in 2006 at US$3.613 billion, or US$5,827 per capita (a third less than the national averag
Córdoba is a city in the geographic center of Argentina, in the foothills of the Sierras Chicas on the Suquía River, about 700 km northwest of the Buenos Aires. It is the capital of Córdoba Province and the second most populous city in Argentina after Buenos Aires, with about 1,330,023 inhabitants according to the 2010 census, it was founded on 6 July 1573 by Jerónimo Luis de Cabrera, who named it after Spain. It was one of the first Spanish colonial capitals of the region, now Argentina; the National University of Córdoba is the oldest university of the country and the seventh to be inaugurated in Spanish America. It was founded in 1613 by the Jesuit Order; because of this, Córdoba earned the nickname La Docta. Córdoba has many historical monuments preserved from Spanish colonial rule buildings of the Roman Catholic Church; the most recognizable is the Jesuit Block, declared in 2000 as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO which consists of a group of buildings dating from the 17th century, including the Colegio Nacional de Monserrat and the colonial university campus.
The campus belongs today to the historical museum of the National University of Córdoba, the second-largest university in the country since the early 20th century, in terms of the number of students and academic programs. Córdoba is known for its historical movements, such as Cordobazo and La Reforma del'18. In 1570, Viceroy Francisco de Toledo entrusted the Spanish settler Jerónimo Luis de Cabrera, with the task of populating and founding a settlement in the Punilla Valley. Cabrera sent an expedition of 48 men to the territory of the Comechingones, he divided the principal column that entered through the north of the provincial territory at Villa María. The one hundred man expedition set foot on what today is Córdoba on 24 June 1573. Cabrera called the nearby river San Juan; the settlement was founded on 6 July of the same year and named Córdoba de la Nueva Andalucía in honour of ancestors of the founder's wife from Córdoba, Spain. The foundation of the city took place on the left bank of the river on Francisco de Torres' advice.
The settlement was inhabited by aboriginal people called Comechingones, who lived in communities called Ayllus. After four years, having repelled attacks by the aborigines, the settlement's authorities moved it to the opposite bank of the Suquía River in 1577; the Lieutenant Governor at the time, Don Lorenzo Suárez de Figueroa, planned the first layout of the city as a grid of seventy blocks. Once the city core had been moved to its current location, it acquired a stable population, its economy blossomed due to trade with the cities in the north. In 1599, the religious order of the Jesuits arrived in the settlement, they established a Novitiate in 1608 and, in 1610, the Colegio Maximo, which became the University of Córdoba in 1613, the fourth-oldest in the Americas. The local Jesuit Church remains one of the oldest buildings in South America and contains the Monserrat Secondary School, a church, residential buildings. To maintain such a project, the Jesuits operated five Reducciones in the surrounding fertile valleys, including Caroya, Jesús María, Santa Catalina, Alta Gracia and Candelaria.
The farm and the complex, started in 1615, had to be vacated by the Jesuits following the 1767 decree by King Charles III of Spain that expelled them from the continent. They were run by the Franciscans until 1853, when the Jesuits returned to the Americas; the university and the high-school were nationalized a year later. Each Estancia has its own church and set of buildings, around which towns grew, such as Alta Gracia, the closest to the Block. In 1776, King Carlos III created the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, in which Córdoba stays in 1785 as the Government Intendency of Córdoba, including the current territories of the provinces of Córdoba, La Rioja and the region of Cuyo. According to the 1760 census, the population of the city was 22,000 inhabitants. During the May Revolution in 1810, the widespread opinion of the most notable citizens was of continuing respecting the orders of Fernando VII, attitude assumed by the local authorities, which led to the Liniers Counter-revolution; this position was not shared by the Dean Gregorio Funes, adhering to the revolutionary ideas, beside supporting contact with Manuel Belgrano and Juan José Castelli.
In March 1816, the Argentine Congress met in Tucumán for an independence resolution. Córdoba sent Eduardo Pérez Bulnes, Jerónimo Salguero de Cabrera, José Antonio Cabrera, to the Canon of the cathedral Michael Calixto of the Circle, all of them of autonomous position; the 1820s belonged to caudillos. Until 1820 a central government taken root in Buenos Aires existed, but the remaining thirteen provinces felt that after 9 July 1816 what had happened it was a change of commander; the Battle of Cepeda pitted the commanders of the Littoral against the inland forces. The Federales obtained the victory, for what the country remained since integrated by 13 autonomous provinces, on the national government having been dissolved. From this way the period known like about the Provincial Autonomies began. From this moment the provinces tried to create a federal system, integrating them without coming to good port, this for the regional differences of every province. Two Córdoba figures stood out in this period: Governor Juan Bautista Bustos, an official of the Army o