The Battle of Poitiers was a major English victory in the Hundred Years' War. It was fought on 19 September 1356 in Nouaillé, near the city of Poitiers in Aquitaine, western France. Edward, the Black Prince, led an army of English, Welsh and Gascon troops, many of them veterans of the Battle of Crécy, they were attacked by a larger French force led by King John II of France, which included allied Scottish forces. The French were defeated; the effect of the defeat on France was catastrophic. Charles faced populist revolts across the kingdom in the wake of the battle, which had destroyed the prestige of the French upper-class; the Edwardian phase of the war ended four years in 1360, on favourable terms for England. Poitiers was the second major English victory of the Hundred Years' War. Poitiers was fought ten years after the Battle of Crécy, about half a century before the third, the Battle of Agincourt; the town and battle were referred to as Poictiers in contemporaneous recordings, a name commemorated in several warships of the Royal Navy.
Following the death of Charles IV of France in 1328, Count of Valois, had been crowned as his successor, over his closest male relative and legal successor, Edward III of England. Edward had been reluctant to pay homage to Philip in his role as Duke of Aquitaine, resulting in Philip's confiscating those lands in 1337 and precipitating war between the two nations. Three years Edward declared himself King of France; the war had begun well for the English. They had achieved naval domination early in the war at the Battle of Sluys in 1340,devastated the French in south west France with the Gascon campaigns of 1345 and 1346, inflicted a severe defeat on the French army at Crécy in 1346, captured Calais in 1347. In the late 1340s and early 1350s, the Black Death devastated the population of Western Europe, bringing all significant efforts in campaigning to a halt, while Philip VI of France himself died as well. In 1355, Edward III laid out plans for a second major campaign, his eldest son, the Black Prince, now an experienced soldier following the Crécy campaign, landed at Bordeaux in Aquitaine, leading his army on a march through southern France to Carcassonne.
Unable to take the fortified settlement, Edward withdrew to Bordeaux. In early 1356, the Duke of Lancaster led an army through Normandy, while Edward led his army on a great chevauchée from Bordeaux on 8 August 1356. Edward's forces met little resistance, sacking numerous settlements, until they reached the Loire river at Tours, they were unable to burn the town due to a heavy rainstorm. This delay allowed King John II to attempt to destroy Edward's army. John, besieging Breteuil in Normandy, organised the bulk of his army at Chartres to the north of Tours. In order to increase the speed of his army's march, he dismissed between 15,000 and 20,000 of his lower quality infantry, just as Edward turned back to Bordeaux; the French rode hard and cut in front of the English army, crossing the bridge over the Vienne at Chauvigny. Learning of this, the Black Prince moved his army south. Historians disagree over whether the outnumbered English commander was seeking battle or trying to avoid it. In any case, after preliminary manoeuvres and failed negotiations for a truce, the two armies faced-off, both ready for battle, near Poitiers on Monday, 19 September 1356.
Edward arrayed his army in a defensive posture among the hedges and orchards of the area, in front of the forest of Nouaillé. He deployed his front line of longbowmen behind a prominent thick hedge, through which the road ran at right angles; the Earl of Douglas, commanding the Scottish division in the French army, advised King John that the attack should be delivered on foot, with horses being vulnerable to English arrows. John heeded this advice, his army leaving its baggage behind and forming up on foot in front of the English; the English gained vantage points on the natural high ground in order for their longbowmen to have an advantage over the armoured French troops. The English army was led by Edward, the Black Prince, composed of English and Welsh troops, though there was a large contingent of Gascon and Breton soldiers with the army. Edward's army consisted of 2,000 longbowmen, 3,000 men-at-arms, a force of 1,000 Gascon infantry. Like the earlier engagement at Crécy, the power of the English army lay in the longbow, a tall, thick self-bow made of yew.
Longbows had demonstrated their effectiveness against massed infantry and cavalry in several battles, such as Falkirk in 1298, Halidon Hill in 1333, Crécy in 1346. Poitiers was the second of three major English victories of the Hundred Years' War attributed to the longbow, though its effectiveness against armoured French knights and men-at-arms has been disputed. Geoffrey the Baker wrote that the English archers under the Earl of Salisbury "made their arrows prevail over the knights' armour", but the bowmen on the other flank, under Warwick, were ineffective against the mounted French men-at-arms who enjoyed the double protection of steel plate armour and large leather shields. Once Warwick's archers redeployed to a position where they could hit the unarmored sides and backs of the horses, they routed the cavalry force opposing them; the archers were unquestionably effective against common infantry, who did not have the wealth to afford plate armour. The English army was an experienced force.
The x32 ABI is an application binary interface and one of the interfaces of the Linux kernel. It allows programs to take advantage of the benefits of x86-64 instruction set while using 32-bit pointers and thus avoiding the overhead of 64-bit pointers. Though the x32 ABI limits the program to a virtual address space of 4 GiB, it decreases the memory footprint of the program by making pointers smaller; this can allow it to run faster by fitting more data into cache. The best results during testing were with the 181.mcf SPEC CPU 2000 benchmark, in which the x32 ABI version was 40% faster than the x86-64 version. On average, x32 is 5–8% faster on the SPEC CPU integer benchmarks compared to x86-64. There is no speed advantage over x86-64 in the SPEC CPU floating-point benchmarks. Running a userspace that consists of programs compiled in ILP32 mode and which have principal access to 64-bit CPU instructions has not been uncommon in the field of "classic RISC" chips. For example, the Solaris operating system does so for both SPARC and x86-64.
On the Linux side, SPARC and PowerPC Linux distributions such as Aurora SPARC Linux and Debian ship an ILP32 userspace. The underlying reason is the somewhat "more expensive" nature of LP64 code, just like it has been shown for x86-64. In that regard, the x32 ABI extends the ILP32-on-64bit concept to the x86-64 platform. Several people had discussed the benefits of an x86-64 ABI with 32-bit pointers in the years since the Athlon 64's release in 2003, notably Donald Knuth in 2008. There was little publicly visible progress towards implementing such a mode until August 27, 2011, when Hans Peter Anvin announced to the Linux kernel mailing list that he and H. J. Lu had been working on the x32 ABI; that same day, Linus Torvalds replied with a concern that the use of 32-bit time values in the x32 ABI could cause problems in the future. This is because the use of 32-bit time values would cause the time values to overflow in the year 2038. Following this request, the developers of the x32 ABI changed the time values to 64-bit.
A presentation at the Linux Plumbers Conference on September 7, 2011, covered the x32 ABI. The x32 ABI was merged into the Linux kernel for the 3.4 release with support being added to the GNU C Library in version 2.16. In December 2018 it was considered to deprecate the x32 ABI, which has not happened as of September 2019. X32 ABI Development Website x32 ABI Presentation Slides from the Linux Plumbers Conference
James Warren Bronstad is an American former professional baseball pitcher who appeared in 45 games in Major League Baseball for the New York Yankees and Washington Senators. Born in Fort Worth, Texas, he attended R. L. Paschal High School. Bronstad threw and batted right-handed, stood 6 feet 3 inches tall and weighed 196 pounds during his ten-season active career. After signing with the Yankees in 1955, he moved up through the Bombers' farm system until his recall in mid-1959, the least successful season of Casey Stengel's 12-year run as the club's manager. After three effective relief appearances in Bronstad's MLB debut, Stengel gave him his first big-league start on June 12, 1959, against the Detroit Tigers, he allowed six hits and three earned runs through seven full innings pitched, but the Yankee hitters couldn't solve Detroit left-hander Don Mossi, Bronstad took the 3–1 defeat. In two other starts, Bronstad gained a no-decision June 18 against the eventual American League champion Chicago White Sox, but absorbed his second loss six days against the second-division Kansas City Athletics, despite again allowing only three earned runs, this time over six innings.
Returning to the bullpen, Bronstad kept his earned run average below 3.00 through July 4, but a series of rough outings that month inflated his ERA to 5.22. The three starts. Bronstad remained in the New York organization through spring training of 1963, when his contract was sold to the Senators, he pitched out of the Washington bullpen for the season's first three months, although he struggled on the mound, he was able to post his only MLB victory on May 2, 1963, against the Tigers. Relieving Claude Osteen in the fifth inning with the Senators leading 3–2, he held off a Tiger threat and remained on the mound for the final out of Washington's 9–4 victory. However, Bronstad again posted ERAs of over 5.00 during each of his partial seasons with the Senators. In his 45 big-league games, 16 with the Yankees and 29 with the Senators, he had a 1–7 won–lost record with a career 5.48 ERA, with three saves earned as a reliever. In 93 2⁄3 innings pitched, he allowed 37 bases on balls, he had 45 strikeouts.