The Dutch Republic, or the United Provinces, was a confederal republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces—seceded from Spanish rule—until the Batavian Revolution of 1795. It was a predecessor state of the first Dutch nation state; the republic was known as the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands, Republic of the Seven United Provinces, the United Provinces, Seven Provinces, Federated Dutch Provinces, or the Dutch Federation. Common names for the Republic in official correspondence were: Republic of the United Netherlands Republic of the United Provinces Republic of the Seven Provinces Republic of the Seven United Netherlands Republic of the Seven United Provinces United Provinces United Provinces of the Netherlands United States of the Netherlands United Regions Seven United Regions Until the 16th century, the Low Countries—corresponding to the present-day Netherlands and Luxembourg—consisted of a number of duchies and prince-bishoprics all of which were under the supremacy of the Holy Roman Empire, with the exception of the county of Flanders, under the Kingdom of France.
Most of the Low Countries had come under the rule of the House of Burgundy and subsequently the House of Habsburg. In 1549 Holy Roman Emperor Charles V issued the Pragmatic Sanction, which further unified the Seventeen Provinces under his rule. Charles was succeeded by King Philip II of Spain. In 1568 the Netherlands, led by William I of Orange, revolted against Philip II because of high taxes, persecution of Protestants by the government, Philip's efforts to modernize and centralize the devolved-medieval government structures of the provinces; this was the start of the Eighty Years' War. In 1579, a number of the northern provinces of the Low Countries signed the Union of Utrecht, in which they promised to support each other in their defence against the Spanish army; this was followed in 1581 by the Act of Abjuration, the declaration of independence of the provinces from Philip II. In 1582, the United Provinces invited Duke of Anjou to lead them. After the assassination of William of Orange on 10 July 1584, both Henry III of France and Elizabeth I of England declined offers of sovereignty.
However, the latter agreed to turn the United Provinces into a protectorate of England, sent the Earl of Leicester as governor-general. This was unsuccessful and in 1588 the provinces became a confederacy; the Union of Utrecht is regarded as the foundation of the Republic of the Seven United Provinces, not recognized by the Spanish Empire until the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. During the Anglo-French war, the internal territory was divided into two groups: the Patriots, who were pro-French and pro-American, the Orangists, who were pro-British; the Republic of the United Provinces faced a series of republican revolutions in 1783–1787. During this period, republican forces occupied several major Dutch cities. On the defence, the Orangist forces received aid from Prussian troops and retook the Netherlands in 1787; the republican forces fled to France, but successfully re-invaded alongside the army of the French Republic, ousting stadtholder William V, abolishing the Dutch Republic, replacing it with the Batavian Republic.
After the French Republic became the French Empire under Napoleon, the Batavian Republic was replaced by the Napoleonic Kingdom of Holland. The Netherlands regained independence from France in 1813. In the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814 the names "United Provinces of the Netherlands" and "United Netherlands" were used. In 1815, it was rejoined with the Austrian Netherlands and Liège to become the Kingdom of the Netherlands, informally known as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, to create a strong buffer state north of France. On 16 March 1815, the son of stadtholder William V crowned himself King William I of the Netherlands. Between 1815 and 1890, the King of the Netherlands was in a personal union the Grand Duke of the sovereign Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. After Belgium gained its independence in 1830, the state became unequivocally known as the "Kingdom of the Netherlands", as it remains today. During the Dutch Golden Age in the late-16th and 17th centuries, the Dutch Republic dominated world trade, conquering a vast colonial empire and operating the largest fleet of merchantmen of any nation.
The County of Holland was the most urbanized region in the world. In 1650 the urban population of the Dutch Republic as a percentage of total population was 31.7 percent, while that of the Spanish Netherlands was 20.8 percent, of Portugal 16.6 percent, of Italy 14 percent. In 1675 the urban population density of Holland alone was 61 percent, that of the rest of the Dutch Republic 27 percent; the free trade spirit of the time was augmented by the development of a modern, effective stock market in the Low Countries. The Netherlands has the oldest stock exchange in the world, founded in 1602 by the Dutch East India Company, while Rotterdam has the oldest bourse in the Netherlands; the Dutch East-India Company exchange went public in six different cities. A court ruled that the company had to reside in a single city, so Amsterdam is recognized as the oldest such institution based on modern trading principles. While the banking system evolved in the Low Countries, it was incorporated by the well-connected English, stimulating English economic output.
Between 1590 and 1712 the Dutch possessed one of the strongest and fastest navies in the world, allowing for their varied conquests, including breaking the Portuguese s
Praia, is the capital and largest city of Cape Verde, an island nation in the Atlantic Ocean west of Senegal. It lies on the southern coast of Santiago island in the Sotavento Islands group, it is home to one of the nation's four international airports. The city centre is known as Plateau due to its location on a small plateau. Praia is a centre of commerce and education, a port that ships coffee, sugar cane, tropical fruits, it is the seat of the Praia municipality. The island of Santiago was discovered by António da Noli in 1460; the first settlement on the island was Ribeira Grande. The village Praia de Santa Maria grew near the natural harbour; the ports of Santiago were important ports of call for ships sailing between Portugal and the Portuguese colonies in Africa and South America. Between the end of the 16th century and the end of the 18th century, both Ribeira Grande and Praia suffered many pirate attacks, including those by Francis Drake and Jacques Cassard. Due to its strategic position on a plateau it had better protection against pirate attacks, which gave it a large advantage over the older city of Ribeira Grande.
It superseded Cidade Velha to become the most important settlement of Cape Verde, became the capital of Cape Verde in 1770. The naval battle of Porto Praya took place at Praia Harbour on 16 April 1781, as Portugal was neutral, it involved Great Britain and France and ended in a tactical draw and French strategic victory. Praia was the first stop of Charles Darwin's voyage with HMS Beagle in 1832. In the course of the 19th century, the Plateau was redeveloped with streets according to a grid plan, lined with grand colonial buildings and mansions. Praia became a city in 1858, which secured its status as the capital of Cabo Verde, concentrating political and economic roles. In the early 1920s, the population was around 21,000; as in other parts of the archipelago, resistance against Portuguese rule rose in the 1950s. There was no open independence war like in Guinea-Bissau. After independence, Praia underwent a demographic boom, receiving migrating movements from all the islands; as a result, 56% of the entire population of Cabo Verde resides in Santiago.
Its estimated population has reached 151,436. On June 28, 1985, Praia became member of UCCLA, the Union of Luso - Afro-Americo-Asiatic Capital Cities, an international organization. Geographically, Praia may be described as a set of their surrounding valleys; these plateaus have the name achada, but the central one is colloquially called Plateau. The urban settlement is made on top of these plateaus and along the valleys; the islet of Santa Maria is in front of the beach bearing the same name. For a long time, only the Plateau was considered to be the city, being the other neighbourhoods relegated to the condition of peripheral suburbs, in spite of always having a close relationship with the Plateau; this is why only the Plateau had well-developed urbanization with its own infra-structures. The remaining neighbourhoods developed in a more organic, chaotic way. Only after independence did the Plateau merge with the other neighbourhoods to constitute what is now considered the City of Praia; the whole city was, at the time, equipped with adequate infrastructure.
Urbanization begun after independence and sought to expand north. Praia has a desert climate with a short wet season and a lengthy pronounced dry season. In fact, outside of the months of August and October, little precipitation falls on Praia; the city on average sees about 210 millimetres of rain per year. Since the coldest month is far above 18 °C its temperature patterns resembles a tropical climate, but lacks enough precipitation to be classified as such. Despite the fact that it has an arid climate, Praia gets hot or cold, due to its oceanside location on Santiago Island. Temperatures are warm and constant with an average high temperature of 27 °C and an average low temperature of 22 °C; as of the mid-19th century, the population was estimated at 1,500 to 2,000. When Edmund Roberts visited in 1832, he noted a population of black people in Praia totaling about "nineteen twentieths" of the population. According to the national statistics office, the city's population is estimated 159,050 as of July 2017.
The city of Praia is home to the first primary school in the archipelago known as the Escola Central. For much time it was the only primary school in Praia. At the beginning of the 1960s, other primary schools began to be built in neighbourhoods around the Plateau and in other localities on the island. Praia was the first site in Cabo Verde with a secondary education institution with the creation of the Liceu Nacional in 1861. However, the Portuguese authorities were not interested in implementing secondary education in Cabo Verde and the school failed as a result.
Battle of Cape St. Vincent (1780)
The Battle of Cape St. Vincent was a naval battle that took place off the southern coast of Portugal on 16 January 1780 during the Anglo-Spanish War. A British fleet under Admiral Sir George Rodney defeated a Spanish squadron under Don Juan de Lángara; the battle is sometimes referred to as the Moonlight Battle because it was unusual for naval battles in the Age of Sail to take place at night. It was the first major naval victory for the British over their European enemies in the war and proved the value of copper-sheathing the hulls of warships. Admiral Rodney was escorting a fleet of supply ships to relieve the Spanish siege of Gibraltar with a fleet of about twenty ships of the line when he encountered Lángara's squadron south of Cape St. Vincent; when Lángara saw the size of the British fleet, he attempted to make for the safety of Cádiz, but the copper-sheathed British ships chased his fleet down. In a running battle that lasted from mid-afternoon until after midnight, the British captured four Spanish ships, including Lángara's flagship.
Two other ships were captured, but their final disposition is unclear. After the battle Rodney resupplied Gibraltar and Minorca before continuing on to the West Indies station. Lángara was released on parole, was promoted to lieutenant general by King Carlos III. One of Spain's principal goals upon its entry into the American War of Independence in 1779 was the recovery of Gibraltar, lost to Great Britain in 1704; the Spanish planned to retake Gibraltar by blockading and starving out its garrison, which included troops from Britain and the Electorate of Hanover. The siege formally began in June 1779, with the Spanish establishing a land blockade around the Rock of Gibraltar; the matching naval blockade was comparatively weak and the British discovered that small fast ships could evade the blockaders, while slower and larger supply ships could not. By late 1779, supplies in Gibraltar had become depleted, its commander, General George Eliott, appealed to London for relief. A supply convoy was organized, in late December 1779 a large fleet sailed from England under the command of Admiral Sir George Brydges Rodney.
Although Rodney's ultimate orders were to command the West Indies fleet, he had secret instructions to first resupply Gibraltar and Minorca. On 4 January 1780 the fleet divided, with ships headed for the West Indies sailing westward; this left Rodney in command of 19 ships of the line, which were to accompany the supply ships to Gibraltar. On 8 January 1780 ships from Rodney's fleet spotted a group of sails. Giving chase with their faster copper-clad ships, the British determined these to be a Spanish supply convoy, protected by a single ship of the line and several frigates; the entire convoy was captured, with the lone ship of the line, striking her colours after a perfunctory exchange of fire. Guipuzcoana was staffed with a small prize crew and renamed HMS Prince William, in honour of Prince William, the third son of the King, serving as midshipman in the fleet. Rodney detached HMS America and the frigate HMS Pearl to escort most of the captured ships back to England. On 12 January HMS Dublin, which had lost part of her topmast on 3 January, suffered additional damage and raised a distress flag.
Assisted by HMS Shrewsbury, she limped into Lisbon on 16 January. The Spanish had learnt of the British relief effort. From the blockading squadron a fleet comprising 11 ships of the line under Admiral Juan de Lángara was dispatched to intercept Rodney's convoy, the Atlantic fleet of Admiral Luis de Córdova at Cadiz was alerted to try to catch him. Córdova learnt of the strength of Rodney's fleet, returned to Cadiz rather than giving chase. On 16 January the fleets of Lángara and Rodney spotted each other around 1:00 pm south of Cape St. Vincent, the southwestern point of Portugal and the Iberian Peninsula; the weather was hazy, with occasional squalls. Rodney was ill, spent the entire action in his bunk, his flag captain, Walter Young, urged Rodney to give orders to engage when the Spanish fleet was first spotted, but Rodney only gave orders to form a line abreast. Lángara started to establish a line of battle, but when he realised the size of Rodney's fleet, he gave orders to make all sail for Cadiz.
Around 2:00 pm, when Rodney felt certain that the ships seen were not the vanguard of a larger fleet, he issued commands for a general chase. Rodney's instructions to his fleet were to chase at their best speed, engage the Spanish ships from the rear as they came upon them, they were instructed to sail to the lee side to interfere with Spanish attempts to gain the safety of a harbour, a tactic that prevented the Spanish ships from opening their lowest gun ports. Because of their copper-sheathed hulls, the ships of the Royal Navy were faster and soon gained on the Spanish; the chase lasted for about two hours, the battle began around 4:00 pm. Santo Domingo, trailing in the Spanish fleet, received broadsides from HMS Edgar, HMS Marlborough, HMS Ajax before blowing up around 4:40, with the loss of all but one of her crew. Marlborough and Ajax passed Princessa to engage other Spanish ships. Princessa was engaged in an hour-long battle with HMS Bedford before striking her colours at about 5:30. By 6:00 pm it was getting dark, there was a discussion aboard HMS Sandwich, Rodney's flagship, about whether to continue the pursuit
Battle of Ushant (1778)
The Battle of Ushant took place on 27 July 1778, was fought between French and British fleets 100 miles west of Ushant, an island at the mouth of the English Channel off the north-westernmost point of France. The battle, the first major naval engagement between the French and British fleets in the American Revolutionary War, ended indecisively and led to political conflicts in both countries; the British had a fleet of thirty ships-of-the-line, four frigates, two fire-ships commanded by Admiral Augustus Keppel, in HMS Victory, which sailed from Spithead on 9 July 1778. The French fleet had thirty-two ships-of-the-line, seven frigates, five corvettes and one lugger, commanded by Vice-Admiral Comte d'Orvilliers, who had sailed from Brest on 8 July 1778. Keppel sighted the French fleet west of Ushant at just after 12:00 on 23 July. Keppel ordered his battleships into line and set off in pursuit. At around 19:00, the French fleet began heading towards the British. Keppel, who did not wish to engage at night, had his ships hove to in response.
In the morning, d'Orvilliers, found himself to the north-west of the British fleet and cut off from Brest, although he retained the weather gage. Two of his ships, standing to leeward, escaped into port. Keppel tried for three days to bring the French to action but d'Orvilliers declined, maintaining his position upwind and heading into the Atlantic. At 06:00 on 27 July, with the British fleet line-abreast, Keppel gave the order for the rear division, under Sir Hugh Palliser, to chase to windward. At 09:00, the French, who had hitherto been sailing in the same direction, several miles to windward, went about once more; as the rearmost ships of the French fleet were tacking however, the wind changed allowing the British to close the gap between them and their quarry. At 10:15 the British were to leeward, line-ahead on the same course as the French. A little a change in wind direction brought about a rain squall which cleared at around 11:00. A further change in wind direction to the south-west gave advantage to the British which d'Orvilliers sought to negate by ordering his ships about.
The French, now heading towards British in a loose formation, would pass to windward. The French ships were a few points off the wind and d'Orvilliers ordered them close hauled which caused the French line to veer away from the British; the battle began at 11:20 when the fourth French ship in the line was able to bring her guns to bear. Keppel, who wished to save his salvo for the enemy flagship, received the broadsides of six French ships without reply. Once he had engaged the 110 gun Bretagne, he continued to attack the next six ships in the French line; as the British van, under Sir Robert Harland, passed the end of the French line, Harland ordered his ships about so as to chase the French rearguard, including the Sphinx. Palliser's ten ships at the rear had not formed line of battle but were instead in a loose irregular formation; this was in part due to Keppel's earlier order to chase the French ships to windward. Palliser's division therefore was badly mauled. At 13:00 Victory passed the last French ship and attempted to follow Harland but was so badly damaged in the masts and rigging that Keppel had to wear round and it was 14:00 before his ships were on the opposite tack.
It was about this time that Palliser in Formidable, emerged from the battle, downwind of Keppel's division. Meanwhile, the French line had tacked and was now heading south on the starboard tack and threatening to pass the British fleet to leeward; the French practice of firing high into the rigging had left several of the British ships disabled and it was this group that Keppel now stood down towards whilst making the signal,'form line of battle'. By 16:00, Harland's division had gone about and joined Keppel's ships in line but Palliser would not or could not conform and his ships, misunderstanding Keppel's intentions, formed line with their commander, several miles upwind from the rest of the British fleet. D'Orvilliers did not however attack the British fleet while it was divided into three sections but instead continued his course, passing the British fleet to leeward. At 17:00, Keppel sent the sixth-rate, HMS Fox to demand that Palliser join the main body of the fleet and when this failed, at 19:00, Keppel removed Palliser from the chain of command by individually signalling each ship in Palliser's division.
By the time those ships had joined Keppel, night had fallen and, under cover of darkness, the French fleet sailed off. By daylight the French were 20 miles away and with no chance of catching them, Keppel decided to return to Plymouth to repair his ships; the Duc de Chartres, Louis Philippe II d'Orléans, a French Prince du sang, who took part in the battle, requested permission to carry news of its outcome to Paris and Versailles. He arrived there early on the morning of 2 August 1778, had Louis XVI awakened, announced a victory. Chartres was celebrated and received a twenty-minute standing ovation when he attended the Paris Opera. An effigy of Admiral Keppel was burnt in the gardens of the Palais-Royal. Chartres returned to Brest to rejoin the fleet. Fresh reports of the battle and Chartres' role began to arrive in the French capital. Far from a victory, it was now reported as being at best indecisive, Chartres was accused by d'Orvilliers of either misunderstanding or deliberately ignoring an order to engage the enemy.
Chartres was soon mocked by street ballads in Paris, the embarrassment led to his eventual resignation from the Navy. He subsequently tr
Battle of Jersey
The Battle of Jersey was an attempt by French forces to invade Jersey and remove the threat the island posed to French and American shipping in the Anglo-French War. Jersey provided a base for British privateers, France, engaged in the war as an ally of the United States, sent an expedition to gain control of the island; the French expedition failed. Its commander, Baron Philippe de Rullecourt, died of wounds sustained in the fighting; the battle is remembered for the death of the British officer Major Peirson, a painting based on his final moments by John Singleton Copley. Only 14 miles off the coast of France, placed on the principal sea-borne supply route to the French naval base at Brest, Jersey was a location of strategic importance during any war between Britain and France. Large numbers of privateers operated out of the island, causing chaos amongst French merchant shipping. Jersey privateers operated off the coast of America; the French government decided to neutralize this threat. Furthermore, at the time, Gibraltar was in the midst of the Great Siege: contemporary British newspapers reported that the attack on Jersey was an attempt to distract British attention from Gibraltar and divert military resources away from the siege.
Aware of the military importance of Jersey, the British government had ordered that the island be fortified. On 28 May 1778 the Governor of Jersey, Field Marshal Henry Seymour Conway, submitted plans to Lord Weymouth for the construction of 30 round towers to forestall, or at least impede French incursions on the island. King George III granted approval and funding on 5 July 1778. Four towers had been completed by the time of the Battle of Jersey, none where the French would land. Gun batteries and redoubts existed around the coast, were being improved and rearmed. All adult males had for centuries been required by law to serve in the Jersey Militia which in 1780 comprised some 3,000 men in five regiments, including artillery and dragoons. Regular army units—the entire 95th Regiment of Foot, five companies each of the 83rd Regiment of Foot and 78th Seaforth Highlanders, around 700 "Invalids" —were present. A total force amounted to about 6,250 troops of all types were available on the island.
A naval force, the "Jersey Squadron", was based in the island, but was on a cruise against the Dutch at the time of the invasion. On 1 May 1779, during the Anglo-French War a French force under the command of the French born Prince of Nassau-Siegen attempted a landing at St Ouen's Bay. Early that morning lookouts sighted five large vessels and a great number of boats some three leagues off the coast, proceeding towards the coast to effect a landing. Guns on the cutters and small craft supporting the landing fired grapeshot at the defenders on the coast; the defenders, the half regiment of 78th Seaforth Highlanders and Jersey militia, together with some field artillery that they dragged through the sand of the beaches, had by fast marching arrived in time to oppose the landing. The defenders were able to prevent the landing, suffering only a few men wounded when a cannon burst; the French vessels withdrew, first holding off a league from the coast before leaving the area entirely. Despite the misgivings of the French military, who believed that an attack on Jersey would be a futile waste of resources, with any success being short-lived, the government approved a plan put forward by Baron Philippe de Rullecourt, who had accompanied the Prince of Nassau-Siegen in 1779.
De Rullecourt was a colonel in the French Army. King Louis XVI had promised de Rullecourt the rank of General and the Cordon rouge as soon as he had control of the town of Saint Helier, the island's capital; the Second Commander was an Indian prince, named Prince Emire, taken by England in wars in India, had been sent to France with other French prisoners and whom the French had since retained in their service. The expedition was a private affair. However, equipment and troops were provided by the French government. In order to conceal their involvement, the government went so far as to order the'desertion' of several hundred regular troops to De Rullecourt's forces. On 5 January 1781 the expedition set out from Granville, consisting of some 2,000 soldiers in four divisions. There was a storm which scattered some ships and only 1,200 made it to Jersey. Jersey still celebrated 6 January as'Old Christmas Night', the French landed undetected; the 800 men of the first division landed at La Rocque, Grouville, on the south east coast and passed close by the guards without being noticed.
A French officer said that he had slept beneath the guards, but that the guards had not heard the French. The guards were subsequently put on trial, where it was found they had abandoned their post to go drinking; the French first division stayed there most of the night. The 400 men of the French second division landed amongst rocks and were lost; the initial British report was that a privateer and four transport vessels had been lost, together with "upwards of 200 men". The boats that contained the third division, consisting of 600 men, separated from the rest of the fleet and were unable to join it; the fourth division, consisting of 200 men, landed early in the next morning at La Rocque. The total of the French troops landed on the island was therefore about 1,400. Landing during the night of 5/6 January, a French force of 700 me
American Revolutionary War
The American Revolutionary War known as the American War of Independence, was an 18th-century war between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia in Concord led to open combat on April 19, 1775.
Militia forces besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, the Americans failed decisively in an attempt to invade Quebec and raise insurrection against the British. On July 2, 1776, the Second Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States.
In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis Cowpens, he retreated to Yorktown, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in America, but the war continued overseas. Britain scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war.
French involvement had proven decisive. Spain failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar; the Dutch were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes. Parliament passed the Stamp Act in 1765 to pay for British military troops stationed in the American colonies after the French and Indian War. Parliament had passed legislation to regulate trade, but the Stamp Act introduced a new principle of a direct internal tax. Americans began to question the extent of the British Parliament's power in America, the colonial legislatures argued that they had exclusive right to impose taxes within their jurisdictions. Colonists condemned the tax because their rights as Englishmen protected them from being taxed by a Parliament in which they had no elected representatives. Parliament argued that the colonies were "represented virtually", an idea, criticized throughout the Empire. Parliament did repeal the act in 1766, but it affirmed its right to pass laws that were binding on the colonies.
From 1767, Parliament began passing legislation to raise revenue for the salaries of civil officials, ensuring their loyalty while inadvertently increasing resentment among the colonists, opposition soon became widespread. Enforcing the acts proved difficult; the seizure of the sloop Liberty in 1768 on suspicions of smuggling triggered a riot. In response, British troops occupied Boston, Parliament threatened to extradite colonists to face trial in England. Tensions rose after the murder of Christopher Seider by a customs official in 1770 and escalated into outrage after British troops fired on civilians in the Boston Massacre. In 1772, colonists in Rhode Island burned a customs schooner. Parliament repealed all taxes except the one on tea, passing the Tea Act in 1773, attempting to force colonists to buy East India Company tea on which the Townshend duties were paid, thus implicitly agreeing to Parliamentary supremacy; the landing of the tea was resisted in all colonies, but the governor of Massachusetts permitted British tea ships to remain in Boston Harbor, so the Sons of Liberty destroyed the tea chests in what became known as the "Boston Tea Party".
Parliament passed punitive legislation. It closed Boston Harbor until the tea was paid for and revoked the Massachusetts Charter, taking upon themselves the right to directly appoint the Massachusetts Governor's Council. Additionally, t
François Joseph Paul de Grasse
François Joseph Paul, comte de Grasse was a career French officer who achieved the rank of admiral. He is best known for his command of the French fleet at the Battle of the Chesapeake in 1781 in the last year of the American Revolutionary War, it helped gain the rebels' victory. After this action, de Grasse returned with his fleet to the Caribbean. In 1782 British Admiral Rodney decisively captured Grasse at the Battle of the Saintes. Grasse was criticised for his loss in that battle. On his return to France in 1784, he demanded a court martial, his grown children from his marriages all emigrated to Saint-Domingue, his eldest son Auguste assigned there as a naval officer, joined by his stepmother and sisters after the father's death. They had lost property in the French Revolution, he was among French officers. Auguste and his four sisters went as refugees to Charleston, South Carolina, where two sisters died of yellow fever. One founded a family line with her husband in New York City. Grasse's natural, adopted Indian-French son, George de Grasse, emigrated to New York City by 1799, where he married and made his adult life.
The admiral's eldest son, known as Auguste de Grasse, returned to France after Napoleon came to power, re-entered the military. He inherited his father's title as count. François-Joseph de Grasse was born and raised at Bar-sur-Loup in south-eastern France, the last child of Francois de Grasse Rouville, Marquis de Grasse, he supported his Provençal family. De Grasse married Antoinette Rosalie Accaron in 1764, they had six children who survived to adulthood, among them his eldest son Alexandre Francois Auguste de Grasse. Auguste had a career in the French army and inherited his father's title as count in 1788, his younger brother Maxime died young in 1773. They had four sisters: Amélie Rosalie Maxime, Adélaide, Melanie Veronique Maxime, Silvie de Grasse. Silvie married M. Francis de Pau in Charleston, South Carolina, raised a family with him in New York City. After his wife Antoinette died young, de Grasse married again, to Catherine Pien, widow of M. de Villeneuve. She died before him. Thirdly, he married Marie Delphine Lazare de Cibon.
In addition, while in service in India during and after the Seven Years' War, Grasse is believed to have fathered a mixed-race, French-Indian boy with an Indian woman in Calcutta. The boy, born about 1780, was known as Azar Le Guen. Grasse brought the boy back to Paris with him for his education and formally adopted him, naming him George de Grasse. After his father's death, the young man went to the United States by 1799, where he settled in New York City, he worked for a time for Aaron Burr meeting him through a connection of his father's. Burr gave him two lots of land in Manhattan, George de Grasse became a naturalized citizen in 1804, he married well and educated his three children: his son John van Salee de Grasse was the first African American to graduate from medical school and became a respected physician in Boston. The eldest son Isaac became a preacher, daughter Serena married George Downing, who became a renowned restaurant entrepreneur and civil rights activist. At the age of eleven, de Grasse entered the Order of Saint John as a page of the Grand Master.
He served as an ensign on the galleys in battles against the Moors. In 1740 at the age of 17, he formally entered the French Navy, he participated in French naval action in India during the Seven Years War. He was intermittently stationed in Calcutta, from the 1760s to 1781. Following Britain's victory over the French in the Seven Years War, Grasse helped rebuild the French navy in the years after the Treaty of Paris. In 1775, the American War of Independence broke out when American colonists rebelled against British rule. France supplied the colonists with covert aid, but remained neutral until 1778; the Treaty of Alliance established the Franco-American alliance, France entered the war on behalf of the rebels and against Great Britain. As a commander of a division, Comte de Grasse served under Louis Guillouet, comte d'Orvilliers at the First Battle of Ushant from July 23 to 27, 1778; the battle, fought off Britanny, was indecisive. In 1779, he joined the fleet of Count d'Estaing in the Caribbean as commander of a squadron.
He contributed to the capture of Grenada that year, took part in the three actions fought by Guichen against Admiral Rodney in the Battle of Martinique. Grasse was promoted to lieutenant-general of the Navy in March 1781, was successful in defeating Admiral Samuel Hood and taking Tobago. de Grasse responded to Washington and Rochambeau's Expédition Particulière when they appealed for his aid in 1781, setting sail with 3,000 troops from Saint-Domingue, where the French Caribbean fleet was based. Grasse landed the French reinforcements in Virginia. Afterward he decisively defeated the British fleet in the Battle of the Chesapeake in September 1781, he drew away the British forces and blockaded the coast until Lord Cornwallis surrendered at Yorktown, ensuring the independence of the new United States of America. De Grasse returned his fleet to the Caribbean, he was less fortunate in 1782 and defeated at the Battle of St. Kitts by Admiral Hood. Shortly afterward, in April 1782, Admiral de Grasse was defeated and taken prisoner by Admiral Rodney at the Battle of the Saintes.
He was taken to London for a time. While there