The Olt Defile is a defile, cut into the Transyvanian Alps in south-central Romania by the Olt River. In the Brezoi-Titesti Depression portion of the defile are located hot spring resorts. In the surrounding mountains grow Walnut and oak trees, wild roses, white ivy. Transportation is provided by railways between Râmnicu Vâlcea and Sibiu; the defile was important when Rome occupied the area during the 1st century BC to 2nd century AD, building roads and fortifications along the Olt to north of the Danube. This line of fortifications was known as the Limes Alutanus, which once marked the eastern frontier of Roman Dacia. Remains of these Roman castra have been found in several villages, including those of Boița, Câlineni, Călimăneşti. From the 14th to 18th century, several monasteries were built in the area. One of these, Turnul Monastery from the 17th century had cells that were carved into the cliffs by hermits from the 14th century Cozia Monastery, known for its exterior frescoes; the Ostrov Hermitage in the area, dates from the 17th century, while the Cornet Hermitage was built during the 17th and 18th centuries.
There are two fortresses, dating from the 16th century, located in Turnu Rosu and Boita
Wallachia or Walachia is a historical and geographical region of Romania. It is situated south of the Southern Carpathians. Wallachia is traditionally divided into two sections and Oltenia. Wallachia as a whole is sometimes referred to as Muntenia through identification with the larger of the two traditional sections. Wallachia was founded as a principality in the early 14th century by Basarab I, after a rebellion against Charles I of Hungary, although the first mention of the territory of Wallachia west of the river Olt dates to a charter given to the voivode Seneslau in 1246 by Béla IV of Hungary. In 1417, Wallachia accepted the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire. In 1859, Wallachia united with Moldavia to form the United Principalities, which adopted the name Romania in 1866 and became the Kingdom of Romania in 1881. Following the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the resolution of the elected representatives of Romanians in 1918, Transylvania as well as parts of Banat, Crișana, Maramureș were allocated to the Kingdom of Romania, thereby forming the modern Romanian state.
The name Wallachia is an exonyme not used by Romanians themselves who used the denomination "Țara Românească/Rumânească” - Romanian Land. The term "Wallachia" is derived from the term walhaz used by Germanic peoples to describe Celts, romanized Celts and all Romance-speaking people. In Northwestern Europe this gave rise to Wales and Wallonia, among others, while in Southeast Europe it was used to designate Romance-speakers, subsequently shepherds generally. In the Early Middle Ages, in Slavonic texts, the name Zemli Ungro-Vlahiskoi was used as a designation for its location; the term, translated in Romanian as "Ungrovalahia", remained in use up to the modern era in a religious context, referring to the Romanian Orthodox Metropolitan seat of Hungaro-Wallachia, in contrast to Thessalian or Great Vlachia in Greece or Small Wallachia in Serbia. The Romanian-language designations of the state were Muntenia, Țara Românească, România. For long periods after the 14th century, Wallachia was referred to as Vlaško by Bulgarian sources, Vlaška by Serbian sources, Voloschyna by Ukrainian sources and Walachei or Walachey by German-speaking sources.
The traditional Hungarian name for Wallachia is Havasalföld "Snowy Lowlands", the older form of, Havaselve, meaning "Land beyond the snowy mountains". In Ottoman Turkish, the term Eflâk Prensliği, or simply"Eflâk افلاق, appears. Arabic chronicles from the 13th century had used the name of Wallachia instead of Kingdom of Bulgaria, they gave the coordinates of Wallachia and specified that Wallachia was named al-Awalak and the dwellers ulaqut or ulagh. The area of Oltenia in Wallachia was known in Turkish as Kara-Eflak and Kuçuk-Eflak, while the former has been used for Ottoman Moldova. In the Second Dacian War western Oltenia became part of the Roman province of Dacia, with parts of Wallachia included in the Moesia Inferior province; the Roman limes was built along the Olt River in 119 before being moved to the east in the second century, during which time it stretched from the Danube up to Rucăr in the Carpathians. The Roman line fell back to the Olt in 245 and, in 271, the Romans pulled out of the region.
The area was subject to Romanization during the Migration Period, when most of present-day Romania was invaded by Goths and Sarmatians known as the Chernyakhov culture, followed by waves of other nomads. In 328, the Romans built a bridge between Sucidava and Oescus which indicates that there was a significant trade with the peoples north of the Danube. A short period of Roman rule in the area is attested under Emperor Constantine the Great, after he attacked the Goths in 332; the period of Goth rule ended when the Huns arrived in the Pannonian Basin and, under Attila and destroyed some 170 settlements on both sides of the Danube. Byzantine influence is evident during the 5th to 6th century, such as the site at Ipotești-Cândești, but from the second half of the 6th century and in the seventh century, Slavs crossed the territory of Wallachia and settled in it, on their way to Byzantium, occupying the southern bank of the Danube. In 593, the Byzantine commander-in-chief Priscus defeated Slavs and Gepids on future Wallachian territory, and, in 602, Slavs suffered a crucial defeat in the area.
Wallachia was under the control of the First Bulgarian Empire from its establishment in 681, until the Hungarians' conquest of Transylvania at the end of the 10th century
Voivode of Transylvania
The Voivode of Transylvania was the highest-ranking official in Transylvania within the Kingdom of Hungary from the 12th century to the 16th century. Appointed by the monarchs, the voivodes – themselves the heads or ispáns of Fehér County – were the superiors of the ispáns of all the other counties in the province, they had wide-ranging administrative and judicial powers, but their jurisdiction never covered the whole province. The Saxon and Székely communities – organized into their own districts or "seats" from the 13th century – were independent of the voivodes; the kings exempted some Transylvanian towns and villages from their authority over the centuries. So, the Voivodeship of Transylvania "was the largest single administrative entity" in the entire kingdom in the 15th century. Voivodes enjoyed income from the royal estates attached to their office, but the right to "grant lands, collect taxes and tolls, or coin money" was reserved for the monarchs. Although Roland Borsa, Ladislaus Kán and some other voivodes rebelled against the sovereign, most remained faithful royal officials.
Because of the gradual disintegration of the medieval Kingdom of Hungary in the 16th century, the last voivodes of Transylvania, who came from the Báthory family, ceased to be high-ranking officials. Instead they were the heads of state, although under Ottoman suzerainty, of a new principality emerging in the eastern territories of the kingdom. Accordingly, Stephen Báthory, the voivode elected by the Diet of the new realm abandoned the title of voivode and adopted that of prince in 1576, upon his election as King of Poland; the origin of the office is unclear. The title voivode is of Slavic origin with a meaning of "commander, lieutenant". Although Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos wrote of the voivodes or chieftains of the Hungarian tribes around 950, he seems to have adopted the term used by a Slavic interpreter; the border position of Transylvania led to the formation of the voivodeship, since the monarchs could not maintain direct control over this remote region. Thus the voivodes remained provincial officials of the kings.
The voivodes were heads of Fehér County from 1201, which may indicate that their position had its origin in the office of that county's ispán. Two royal charters issued in 1111 and 1113 mention one Mercurius "princeps Ultrasilvanus", but he may have been only an important landowner in Transylvania without holding any specific office; the title voivode was first documented in 1199, but Leustach Rátót voivode living some years earlier was mentioned by a document from 1230. In addition to voivode, royal charters used the titles banus and herzog for the same office in the next decades, showing that the terminology remained uncertain until the second half of the 13th century; the territories under the jurisdiction of the voivodes are known as Voivodeship of Transylvania or Voivodate of Transylvania. Voivodes were the chiefs of the ispáns of the Transylvanian counties. Although the counties in Transylvania were first attested from the 1170s, earlier references to fortresses at their seats and archaeological finds suggest that a system of counties existed in the 11th century.
For instance, Torda County was first mentioned in a charter of 1227, but a royal castle at Torda had been documented in 1097, three burials coin-dated to the reign of Stephen I of Hungary were unearthed in the same fortress. The ispáns of the Transylvanian counties of Doboka, Kolozs, Küküllő and Torda were not listed among the witnesses of royal charters from the beginning of the 13th century, hinting that their direct connection to the monarchs had by that time been interrupted. Thereafter they were employed by the voivode who dismissed them at will. Only the heads of Szolnok County remained directly connected to the monarchs for a longer period, until their office was united with the voivodeship in the 1260s; the voivodes were the ispáns of the nearby Arad County between 1321 and 1412. The kings exempted some communities from the jurisdiction of the voivodes; the Diploma Andreanum, a royal charter of 1224, placed the territory of the Saxons between Broos and Barót under the authority of the Count of Hermannstadt, appointed by and directly subordinate to the monarchs.
A special royal official, the Count of the Székelys, administered the Székely community from around 1228. In the latter case, the two offices were united by custom in 1462: from on each voivode was appointed Count of the Székelys. Following the Mongol invasion of 1241 and 1242, King Béla IV of Hungary exempted the inhabitants of Bilak, Gyulafehérvár, Tasnád and Zilah. King Charles I of Hungary granted immunity to the Saxon communities of Birthälm, Mediasch in 1315, but the same monarch annulled other communities' similar privileges in 1324. Altrodenau and Bistritz received immunity in 1366; the office of voivode was one of the most important royal honours in the kingdom. All income from lands attached to the Transylvanian royal castles was collected for the voivodes, they enjoyed the income from fines, but royal revenues from taxes and mines remained the kings' due. During most of the 14th century, the voivodes held the castles at Bánffyhunyad, Boroskrakkó, Csicsóújfalu, Déva, Hátszeg (Haț
Visegrád is a small castle town in Pest County, Hungary. It is north of Budapest on the right bank of the Danube in the Danube Bend, it had a population of 1,864 in 2010. Visegrád is famous for the remains of the Early Renaissance summer palace of King Matthias Corvinus of Hungary and the medieval citadel; the name Visegrád is of Slavic origin, meaning acropolis, literary "the upper castle" or "the upper settlement". In modern Slovak and Czech the form is Vyšehrad; the castle of Visegrád is called Fellegvár in Hungarian, In German, the town is called Plintenburg. Other places with names that are the same or similar include Višegrad, a town in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Visegrád was first mentioned in 1009 as the chief town of an archdeaconry. After the destructive Mongol invasion of Europe in 1242, the town was rebuilt in a different location to the south. King Charles I of Hungary made Visegrád, his hometown, the royal seat of Hungary in 1325. At the same time, his diplomat Stephen Sáfár was appointed castellan.
In 1335, Charles hosted at Visegrád a two-month congress with the Bohemian king, John of Luxembourg, the Polish king, Casimir III. It was crucial in creating a peace between the three kingdoms and securing an alliance between Poland and Hungary against Habsburg Austria. Another congress followed in 1338. Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Hungary and Croatia in personal union with Hungary, moved the royal seat to Buda between 1405 and 1408. King Matthias Corvinus, King of Hungary, used Visegrád as a country residence. Visegrád lost importance after the partition of the Kingdom of Hungary following the Battle of Mohács in 1526. In 1991, the leading politicians of Hungary and Poland met here to form a periodical forum, the Visegrád group, with an intentional allusion to the meeting centuries earlier in 1335. Visegrád was granted town privileges again in 2000. After the Mongol invasion, King Béla IV of Hungary and his wife had a new fortification system constructed in the 1240-50s near the one destroyed earlier.
The first part of the new system was the Upper Castle on top of a high hill. The castle had three towers at its corners. In the 14th century, at the time of the Angevin kings of Hungary, the castle became a royal residence and was enlarged with a new curtain wall and palace buildings. Around 1400 King Sigismund had a third curtain wall enlarged the palace buildings. At the end of the 15th century, King Matthias Corvinus had the interior renovated; the Upper Castle served for the safekeeping of the Hungarian royal insignia between the 14th century and 1526. In 1544 Visegrád was occupied by the Ottoman Empire, apart from a short period in 1595-1605, it remained in Turkish hands until 1685; the castle was damaged by the Turks and was never used afterwards. The castle is now open to the public to visit; the Lower Castle is the part of the fortification system that connects the Upper Castle with the Danube. In its centre rises the Solomon Tower, a large, hexagonal residential tower dating from the 13th century.
In the 14th century, new curtain walls were built around the tower. During a Turkish raid in 1544, the southern part of the tower collapsed, its renovation was finished in the 1960s. At present, the Tower houses exhibitions installed by the King Matthias Museum of Visegrád; the exhibitions present the reconstructed Gothic fountains from the Royal Palace, Renaissance sculpture in Visegrád, the history of Visegrád. The first royal house on this site was built by King Charles I of Hungary after 1325. In the second half of the 14th century, this was enlarged into a palace by his son, King Louis I of Hungary. In the last third of the 14th century, King Louis and his successor Sigismund of Luxembourg had the majority of the earlier buildings dismantled and created a new, sumptuous palace complex, the extensive ruins of which are still visible today; the palace complex was laid out on a square ground plan measuring 123 x 123 m. A garden adjoined to it from the north and a Franciscan friary, founded by King Sigismund in 1424, from the south.
In the time of Louis I and Sigismund, the palace was the official residence of the kings of Hungary until about 1405-08. Between 1477 and 1484 Matthias Corvinus had the palace complex reconstructed in late Gothic style; the Italian Renaissance architectural style was used for decoration, the first time the style appeared in Europe outside Italy. After the Ottoman Turks' siege in 1544, the palace fell into ruins. By the 18th century it was covered by earth, its excavation continues today. The reconstructed royal residence building is open to the public and houses exhibitions on the history of the palace and reconstructed historical interiors; the ruins of this military camp can be seen outside Visegrád, to the north, on a hill that overlooks the Danube. The camp has a triangular ground plan, it was built in the first half of the 4th century as one of the important fortifications along the limes, the frontier of the Roman Empire. Its praetorium was constructed at the end of the 4th century. In the early 5th century, the Roman army abandoned the military camp.
In the 10th and 11th centuries, the fortification, rebuilt as a castle, became a regional centre of the formed Hungarian state. "Visegrád" appears for the first time as the name of this regional centre. The fortification w
Drobeta-Turnu Severin is a city in Mehedinți County, Romania, on the left bank of the Danube, below the Iron Gates. The city administers three villages: Dudașu Schelei, Gura Văii, Schela Cladovei; the city's population is 92,617, up from 18,628 in 1900. It is situated in western Oltenia, at the edge of the Topolnița depression, 220 km south-east of Timişoara, 113 km west of Craiova and 353 km west of Bucharest; the region's climate gives Severin warm summers and mild winters, meaning the city is home to magnolia trees, Caucasian nut trees, ginkgo biloba as well as the almond trees, lilacs and chestnut trees more common throughout Europe. The climate in the region can be classified as a "sub-Mediterranean climate"; the city was linked by historians with the Roman Emperor Severus. The name of Turnu refers to a tower on the north bank of the Danube built by the Byzantines. Thus, the name of the city would mean "Northern Tower". Another possibility is that Severin's name was taken in memory of Severinus of Noricum, the patron saint of the medieval colony Turnu a suffragane of the Diocese of Kalocsa..
The first written document, mentioning the city 1,870 years earlier, was commemorated in 1992. The city was called Drobeta by the Romans; the tower which supplied the Turnu part of the city's name stood on a small hill surrounded by a deep moat. Near Turnu Severin are the remains of the largest in the Empire. Here, the Danube is about 1,200 metres broad. Built in only three years by the famous architect Apollodorus of Damascus, the bridge was considered the most daring work in the Roman world; the bridge was built on 20 pillars of stone blocks, was 1135 m long, 14.55 m wide and 18.60 m high. Each bridge head had its own portal monument, whose remains can still be seen on both sides of the Danube. Oaks from 200 hectares of forest were used for the wooden parts of the construction; the bridge was composed of twenty arches supported by stone pillars. Only two of them are still visible at low water. Drobeta became, from a strategic perspective, a town at the crossing of land and water roads which led to the north and south of the Danube.
It became the first urban center in the region and the third of Dacia after Sarmizegetusa and Apullum. During the reign of Emperor Hadrian, the settlement was declared a city in 121 AD. At this point the population had reached 14,000. During the reign of Septimius Severus, the city was raised to the rank of a colony, which gave its residents equal rights with citizens of Rome; as a colony, Drobeta was a thriving city with temples, a basilica, a theater, a forum, a port and guilds of craftsmen. In the middle of the 3rd century, Drobeta covered an area of 60 hectares and had a population of 40,000 inhabitants. After the retreat of the Roman administration from Dacia in the 4th century, the city was preserved under Roman occupation as a bridge head on the north bank of the Danube until the 6th century. Destroyed by Huns in the 5th century, it was rebuilt by Justinian I; the fortress of Severin was built by the Kingdom of Hungary under Ladislaus I as strategical point against the Second Bulgarian Empire.
Along with the forming of the Vallachian Voivodeships, the Severin fortress was a reason for a war over a period of several generations between Oltenian Voievodes and Hungarians. The war ended with the Battle of Posada. Romanians fought the Ottoman Empire, which threatened the area of the Danube. In this context, castles on the banks of the river, the area from Iron Gates to Calafat, began to be restored; when the Hungarians attacked Oltenia and conquered Severin's fortress, Andrew II of Hungary organized the Banate of Severin. The first Ban of Severin, was mentioned in 1233; this year may be taken as the date of birth of a new castle over the ruins of Drobeta, under the name Severin. It was a basis for the Banate of Terra Zeurino. Severin's name was taken in memory of Severinus of Noricum, the patron saint of the medieval colony Turnu a suffragane of the Diocese of Kalocsa. In 1247, the Hungarian Kingdom brought the Knights of St. John to the country, giving them Severin as a residence, where they built the medieval castle of Severin.
Inside the strong fort a Gothic church was erected. This was the headquarters of the Catholic episcopate of Severin, there until 1502; the knights withdrew in 1259, while the fortress remained in the range of the cannons of Turks and Tatars who wanted to cross the Danube. The Hungarians still wanted to attack Oltenia. Severin fortress was the most important strategic redoubt on the Danube, its conquest meant to gain an important bridgehead in the region. Romanian Voivodes have fought for this powerful fortress, conquering it or claiming it from time to time. Litovoi and Basarab I died at this fortress, which humiliated Carol Robert of Anjou at Posada in 1330. Mircea the Elder established Bănia Severinului and, in 1406, concluded a treaty of alliance with Sigismund of Hungary right in Severin. After the death of Mircea, Sigismund freed the Severin Fortress occupied by the Turks, made some concessions to the monasteries of Vo
Neagu Bunea Djuvara was a Romanian historian, philosopher, journalist and diplomat. A native of Bucharest, he was descended from an aristocratic Aromanian family, his father, Marcel, a graduate of the Technical University of Berlin and a captain in the Romanian Royal Army's Engineer Corps, died of Spanish flu in 1918. Djuvara's uncles Trandafir and Alexandru Djuvara were notable public figures. Djuvara was born during World War I, he attended lycée in Nice and graduated in Letters and Law from the University of Paris. Djuvara stated that, at the time, his political sympathies veered towards the far right: he became a supporter of the Romanian fascist movement, the Iron Guard, took part in the February 1934 riot against the French Radical-Socialist government of Édouard Daladier. During World War II, he returned to Romania, where he fathered a daughter, he joined the Romanian Armed Forces and was stationed in Ploiești under the Iron Guard's National Legionary government. Following the establishment of Ion Antonescu's dictatorship and the start of Operation Barbarossa, as an officer cadet, he fought on the Eastern Front, saw action in Bassarabia and Transnistria, before being wounded in the arm during the Battle of Odessa.
He stated that he gave up his interest in the far right after a 1943 dialog with fellow diplomat Victor Rădulescu-Pogoneanu, who convinced Djuvara to become "a supporter of parliamentary democracy". Subsequently, Djuvara decided to apply for office in the diplomatic corps, won the competition, was sent by Foreign Minister Mihai Antonescu as a diplomatic courier to Sweden, on the day Ion Antonescu was toppled by a coup d'état and Romania pulled out of the Axis Powers to join the Allies. In this capacity, he was instructed to communicate to the Romanian Ambassador in Stockholm, Frederic Nanu, that he was to ask the Soviet representative Alexandra Kollontai whether earlier terms advanced by Joseph Stalin in regard to peace with Romania were still valid. Speaking in retrospect, he argued against claims made by Nanu, according to which Ion Antonescu had thus indicated his willingness to step down and hand leadership of Romania to King Mihai I. According to Djuvara, the last Soviet offer for Antonescu made only minor concessions – the entire country was to be occupied by the Red Army, with the exception of a random western county, 15 days were given to the Romanian government to reach an armistice with Nazi Germany.
Furthermore, Djuvara indicated, "Neither I nor Nanu were mandated to sign any document, to launch into any peace process". Appointed Legation Secretary in Stockholm by the Constantin Sănătescu executive, Djuvara was dismissed by the new Romanian Communist Party officials upon Ana Pauker's appointment as Foreign Minister. Having been implicated in absentia in the series of show trials inaugurated in the wake of Communist Romania by the Tămădău Affair, accused of being a spy, he decided to remain abroad, he left for Paris and was subsequently involved in advocacy of anti-communist political causes and the rallying of exiled intellectuals. Employed by the International Refugee Organization, Djuvara became involved with the body of Romanian exiles, the Romanian National Committee, helped organize American-assisted drops of voluntary paratroopers in support of the Romanian anti-communist resistance, he renounced his position by 1951, subsequently worked for the exile magazine Casa Românească. In 1961, he settled in Niger, serving as an adviser for the country's Foreign Ministry, was a professor of International Law and Economic History at the University of Niamey.
Djuvara was an acquaintance of President Hamani Diori, notably accompanied him on official duty to Addis Ababa, attending the opening session of the Organisation of African Unity. Having begun to further his studies of Philosophy in Paris, he received a Sorbonne doctorat d'État in the Philosophy of history, he was awarded a diploma in Philology from INALCO. After 1984, he returned to Europe, resuming his activities with Casa Românească and other Romanian cultural institutions in exile. Djuvara was an active contributor to Radio Free Europe, divided his time between Paris and Munich. Djuvara returned to his native country soon after the Romanian Revolution of 1989. Between 1991 and 1998, he was an associate professor at the University of Bucharest. During the early 1990s, he was a noted critic of Romanian political developments, of the Mineriad and the National Salvation Front government, he joined the National Liberal Party, expressed his concern that President Traian Băsescu was unable to complete planned reforms in the wake of R
Oltenia is a historical province and geographical region of Romania in western Wallachia. It is situated between the Danube, the Southern Carpathians and the Olt river. Inhabited by Dacians, Oltenia was incorporated in the Roman Empire. In 129, during Hadrian's rule, it formed Dacia Inferior, one of the two divisions of the province, it was colonized with veterans of the Roman legions. The Romans withdrew their administration south of the Danube at the end of the 3rd century and Oltenia was ruled by the foederati Germanic Goths. In the late 4th century Oltenia came under the rule of the Taifals before invasion by the Huns. From 681, with some interruptions, it was part of the Bulgarian Empire. In 1233, the Kingdom of Hungary formed the Banate of Severin in the western part of the region that would persist until the 1526 Battle of Mohács. Around 1247 a polity emerged in Oltenia under the rule of Litovoi; the rise of the mediaeval state of Wallachia followed in the 14th century, the voivode was represented in Oltenia by a ban - "the Great Ban of Craiova".
This came to be considered the greatest office in Wallachian hierarchy, one, held most by members of the Craiovești family, from the late 15th century to about 1550. The title would continue to exist up until 1831. During the 15th century, Wallachia had to accept the Ottoman suzerainty and to pay an annual tribute to keep its autonomy as a vassal. From the Craiovești family, many bans cooperated with the Turks. However, many rulers, including the Oltenian-born Michael the Brave, fought against the Ottomans, giving Wallachia brief periods of independence. After 1716, the Ottomans decided to cease choosing the voivodes from among the Wallachian boyars, to appoint foreign governors; as the governors were Orthodox Greeks living in Phanar, this period is known as the Phanariote regime. Two years in 1718 under the terms of the Treaty of Passarowitz, Oltenia was split from Wallachia and annexed by the Habsburg Monarchy. Under the occupation, Oltenia was the only part of the Danubian Principalities to experience Enlightened absolutism and Austrian administration, although these were met by considerable and mounting opposition from conservative boyars.
While welcomed at first as liberators, the Austrians disenchanted the inhabitants by imposing rigid administrative, fiscal and political reforms which were meant to centralize and integrate the territory. In 1761, the residence of Bans was moved to Bucharest, in a move towards centralism, it remained there until the death of the last Ban, Barbu Văcărescu, in 1832. In 1821, Oltenia and Gorj County were at the center of Tudor Vladimirescu's uprising. Vladimirescu gathered his Pandurs in Padeș and relied on a grid of fortified monasteries such as Tismana and Strehaia; the traditional heraldic symbol of Oltenia understood to represent Banat, is part of the coat of arms of Romania: on gules field, an or lion rampant, facing dexter, holding a sword, standing over an or bridge and stylised waves. Oltenia is part of the Sud - Vest development region, it includes the counties: Gorj Doljand parts of the counties: Mehedinți Vâlcea Olt Teleorman Oltenia's main city and seat for a majority of the late Middle Ages is Craiova.
The first medieval seat of Oltenia was Turnu Severin, anciently called Drobeta, in the Banate of Severin. That city is located near the site of Trajan's Bridge, built by Apollodorus of Damascus for Emperor Trajan in his conquest of the region. Vlad Georgescu, Istoria ideilor politice românești, Munich, 1987 Neagu Djuvara, Între Orient și Occident. Țările române la începutul epocii moderne, Bucharest, 1995 Constantin C. Giurescu, Istoria Bucureștilor. Din cele mai vechi timpuri pînă în zilele noastre, Ed. Pentru Literatură, Bucharest, 1966, p. 93 Șerban Papacostea, Oltenia sub stăpânirea austriacă, Bucharest, 1971, p. 59 Ingrao, Charles. The Peace of Passarowitz, 1718. West Lafayette: Purdue University Press