The Battle of Prestonpans known as the Battle of Gladsmuir, was fought on 21 September 1745, near Prestonpans, in East Lothian. Jacobite forces led by the Stuart exile Charles Edward Stuart defeated a government army under Sir John Cope, whose inexperienced troops broke in the face of a Highland charge; the battle was a huge boost to Jacobite morale. A mythologised version of the story entered art and legend. In the late 1730s, French statesmen grew concerned by the expansion of British commercial power but while most agreed the threat had to be dealt with few considered the Stuarts a useful tool in that process; those who did included Louis XV, who backed an invasion of England to restore the Stuarts in February 1744. But storms sank much of the screening force, the transports never left harbour. In March, he abandoned these declared war on Britain. Charles Stuart had travelled to France to join the proposed invasion, despite its failure, he continued to agitate for another attempt. With the bulk of British forces in Flanders and encouraged by the French victory at Fontenoy in April 1745, he sailed for Scotland in July 1745, gambling that once there the French would have to support him.
He landed at Eriskay in the Outer Hebrides on 23 July, accompanied only by the companions known as the Seven Men of Moidart. The most important of these was Donald Cameron of Lochiel, whose tenants provided a large proportion of the Jacobite force; the rebellion was formally launched at Glenfinnan on 19 August. Sir John Cope, government commander in Scotland, was a competent soldier with between 3,000 and 4,000 troops available, but many were inexperienced recruits, he was hampered by poor intelligence and advice from the Marquess of Tweeddale Secretary of State for Scotland, who underestimated the severity of the revolt. Once Charles' location was confirmed, Cope left his cavalry and artillery at Stirling under Thomas Fowke and marched on Corrieyairack Pass with his infantry; the pass was the primary access point between the Western Highlands and the Lowlands, its control would allow Cope to block the route into Eastern Scotland. Jacobite objectives remained unclear until early September, when Cope learned they were using the military road network to advance on Edinburgh.
Concluding that the only way to reach the city first was by sea, his troops were loaded onto ships at Aberdeen. They began disembarking at Dunbar on 17 September but once again he was too late. Cope was joined at Dunbar by the cavalry, who arrived in poor condition, he was determined to bring on a battle, feeling he had sufficient resources to deal with a Jacobite army numbering around 2,000 and though chiefly composed of fit and hardy men, badly armed. Hearing of Cope's landing, Charles ordered his forces to move north and intercept, the two armies making contact on the afternoon of 20 September, his forces were drawn up facing south, with a marshy area in front, park walls protecting their right and cannon behind the embankment of the Tranent waggonway, which crossed the battlefield. The court-martial set up in 1746 to review Cope's conduct agreed the ground was well chosen and the disposition of his troops appropriate; the effectiveness of his army was undermined by various factors, one being the poor quality of some senior officers, including James Gardiner whose regiment of dragoons fled in panic from a small party of Highlanders in the so-called'Coltbridge Canter' of 16 September.
In addition, much of Cope's infantry lacked experience. His gunners were so poorly trained that he sent a messenger to Edinburgh Castle asking for replacements. Charles wanted to attack but Murray argued their charge would be slowed by the marshy ground in front of Cope's centre, exposing the Highlanders to his superior firepower; this assessment was correct, but it was the first in a series of fierce arguments between the two that would fatally undermine the Jacobite leadership. Murray convinced the majority that only an attack against the open left flank of Cope's army stood any chance of success, Robert Anderson, a local farmer's son who knew the area well, told him of a route through the marshlands. At 4 a.m. the entire Jacobite force began moving three abreast along the Riggonhead defile, east of Cope's position. To prevent a surprise attack during the night, Cope kept fires burning in front of his position and posted no fewer than 200 dragoons and 300 infantry as pickets. A company of Loudon's Highlanders under Macpherson of Cluny had deserted a few days before.
Warned by his pickets of the Jacobite movement, Cope had enough time to wheel his army to face east and reposition his cannon. As the Highlanders began their charge, his artillerymen fled, leaving the guns to be fired by their officers; the two dragoon regiments o
Withersworldwide is an international law firm headquartered in London, United Kingdom, with offices in the United States, Europe and the Caribbean. Withers specializes in tax and estate planning, as well as litigation, family law, other legal issues facing high-net-worth individuals. Withers was founded in London, England in 1896. In 2002, Withers merged with the New Haven, Connecticut-based law firm Bergman, Horowitz & Reynolds to form Withers Bergman LLP in the United States and Withers LLP in the United Kingdom and the rest of the world. Withers has offices in London, Cambridge Geneva, Padua, Zürich, New York City, New Haven, Greenwich, CT, Hong Kong, British Virgin Islands, San Francisco, Los Angeles, Rancho Santa Fe, San Diego, Tokyo and Singapore. Withers has been recognized as one of the best law firms in the United States and United Kingdom by U. S. News & World Report and Legal 500. In addition, Withers ranked as one of The Sunday Times's 2012 Best Companies to Work For
Heinz Riegler is an Austrian born artist working between Australia and Europe. First emerging as a songwriter and performer in the late 1980s, Riegler has since expanded his output across multiple disciplines. Riegler works both as a solo artist and performer as well as frequent collaborator and contributor to a variety of projects, he was a founding mainstay of indie rockers, Not from There, which won won Best Alternative Release for their debut album, Sand on Seven, at the ARIA Music Awards of 1999. Riegler was twice short listed for the Grant McLennan Memorial Fellowship and is the co-founder of minus20degree, a biennial art and architecture festival located in the Austrian Alps. 1990s As founder, vocalist and principal songwriter of the ARIA Music Award - winning three-piece Not From There, his work reached critical acclaim as well as a global audience. The band released two albums in Sand On Seven, Latvian Lovers, along with numerous EP's and singles, performing from 1991 through to 2000.
2000s Riegler went on to collaborate with Lawrence English and Tam Patton in the Brisbane-based experimental/improv group I/O3. The group released two limited edition LPs, Powerhouse Sessions and A Picturesque View, Ignored on the Room40 label; as a member of I/O3, Riegler has collaborated with the likes of sound artists Mike Cooper, David Toop, Robin Rimbaud, Ben Frost and DJ Olive. Around the beginning of the decade Riegler contributed guitars to Lawrence English's Transit and Calm LPs as well as adding lyrics and vocals to Adam Franklin’s solo debut project Toshack Highway. Riegler formed the Brisbane-based group Nightstick in 2004 with Martin Lee. A short-lived project, the group toured Australia and released a self-titled EP on the Dot Dash label. Following some time out from musical endeavours, Riegler has since returned to work on material for a solo album as well as performing live. Riegler has curated an extensive season of improvised live scores for the Queensland Gallery of Modern Art.
The three-month season in late 2008, titled Out of The Shadows: German Expressionism And Beyond, saw Riegler hand-pick a selection of artists to perform live scores to silent films. During the season, Riegler took on a number of improvised performances in solo mode. Twice shortlisted for the Grant McLennan Memorial Fellowship in 2008 and 2009, Riegler began to perform new material live in concert around the same time. Containing audio recordings from the previous ten years, Riegler released a limited edition of 60 audio cassettes in 2009. Titled Survey #1, the cassette contained demo songs, excerpts from The Shadows: German Expressionism And Beyond instrumental works; the entire collection of 7inch vinyl was released as part of an exhibition at Brisbane's Doggett Street Studios gallery. To mark 10 years since Room40's release of A Picturesque View, Ignored LP in 2001, Riegler returned to perform with I/O3, David Toop and Scanner for the Open Frame Festival at London’s Cafe Oto. Riegler spent large parts of 2011 in his native Austria working on recording projects, as well as completing a single channel video piece titled Motion Portrait #1.
This work was named winner at MICA TonBild 2011 in Vienna, Austria in November 2011 and two years was selected for the inaugural Channels Festival and Ikono Festival, where it screened at the Australian Centre for the Moving Image in September 2013. At the end of 2011 Riegler returned to perform at London’s Cafe Oto as part of Lawrence English’s Lonely Women’s Club and released of a number of online single channel video vignettes titled ’60 Seconds in Flachau’ and'Keep that Heart Pumping'. Audio recordings made in Austria during an 80-day spell in an alpine mountain cabin were released titled Survey #2 on Room40’s new A Guide To Saints imprint in May 2012. An accompanying single channel video piece titled No Colour / No Sound, Part I was subsequently premiered on Australian music website Mess & Noise. A track titled ‘Morning’ formed the basis of the soundtrack to a Paul W Rankin short video piece titled BNE 6:07AM. Official Site
The Petrograd Soviet of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies was a city council of Petrograd, the capital of the Russian Empire. For brevity, it is called the Petrograd Soviet; the soviet was established in March 1917 after the February Revolution as a representative body of the city's workers and soldiers, while the city had its well established city council, the Saint Petersburg City Duma. During the revolutionary days, the council tried to extend its jurisdiction nationwide as a rival power center to the Provisional Government, creating what in Soviet historiography is known as the Dvoyevlastiye, its committees were key components during the Russian Revolution and some of them led the armed revolt of the October Revolution. Before 1914, Petrograd was known as Saint Petersburg, in 1905 the workers' soviet called the St Petersburg Soviet was created, but the main precursor to the 1917 Petrograd Soviet was the Central Workers' Group, founded in November 1915 by the Mensheviks to mediate between workers and the new Central Military-Industrial Committee in Petrograd.
The group became radical as World War I progressed and the economic situation worsened, encouraging street demonstrations and issuing revolutionary proclamations. On January 27, 1917 the entire leadership of the Central Workers' Group was arrested and taken to the Peter and Paul Fortress on the orders of Alexander Protopopov, the Minister of the Interior in Imperial Russia, they were freed by a crowd of disaffected soldiers on the morning of February 27, the beginning of the February Revolution, the chairman convened a meeting to organize and elect a Soviet of Workers' Deputies that day. That evening, between 300 people attended the meeting at the Tauride Palace. A provisional executive committee was chosen, named "Provisional Executive Committee of the Soviet of Workers' Deputies" and chaired by Nikolay Chkheidze, with Menshevik deputies.. Izvestia was chosen as the official newspaper of the group; the following day, February 28, was the plenary session. Non-representative voting and enthusiasm gave the Soviet 3,000 deputies in two weeks, of which the majority were soldiers.
The meetings were chaotic and unruly, little more than a stage for speechmakers. The party-based Ispolkom took charge of actual decision-making. Nikolay Chkheidze, March 12 – September 19, 1917 Leon Trotsky, 25 September 1917. – 26 October 1917 Grigory Zinoviev, December 13, 1917 – March 26, 1926 The members of the Executive Committee, called Ispolkom, came only from political groups, with every socialist party given three seats. This created an intellectual and radical head to the peasant-, worker-, soldier-dominated body; the Executive Committee meetings were more intense and as disorderly as the public meetings, were extremely long. On March 1, the Executive Committee resolved to remain outside any new State Duma; this allowed the group to criticize without responsibility, kept them away from any potential backlash. On March 2, the Soviet received the eight-point program of the Provisional Committee of the State Duma, appointed an oversight committee, issued a decidedly conditional statement of support.
Moreover, the Soviet undermined the Provisional Government by issuing its own orders, beginning with the seven-article Order No. 1. The Soviet was not opposed to the war – internal divisions produced a public ambivalence–but was worried about counterrevolutionary moves from the military, was determined to have garrison troops on its side. Petrograd Military Revolutionary Committee Committee on Revolutionary Defense The Petrograd Soviet developed into an alternate source of authority to the Provisional Government under Georgy Lvov and Alexander Kerensky; this created a situation described as dvoevlastie, in which the Petrograd Soviet competed for legitimacy with the Provisional Government until the October Revolution. The Ispolkom of the Petrograd Soviet publicly attacked the Provisional Government as bourgeois and boasted of its de facto power over de jure authority. A "shadow government" with a Contact Commission was created on March 8 to "inform... about the demands of the revolutionary people, to exert pressure on the government to dissatisfy all these demands, to exercise uninterrupted control over their implementation."
On March 19, the control extended into the military front lines with commissars appointed with Ministry of War support. In March 1917, the Petrograd Soviet was opposed to the workers, which protested its deliberations with strikes. On March 8, the Menshevik newspaper Rabochaia Gazeta claimed that the strikers were discrediting the soviet by disobeying it; the Ispolkom expanded to 19 members on April 8, nine representing the Soldiers' Section, ten the Workers' Section. All members were the majority Mensheviks or Socialist-Revolutionaries. After the first All-Russian Congress of Soviets, the Petrograd Soviet began adding representatives from other parts of Russia and the front lines, renaming itself
Runaway Nightmare is a 1982 American dark comedy thriller film written, directed by, starring Mike Cartel. It stars Al Valetta, Seeska Vandenberg, Georgia Durante, Jody Lee Olhava, follows two desert worm ranchers who find themselves caught between a female death cult and the mafia over precious stolen plutonium; the film developed a cult following and had a national theatrical re-release in 2014. Two Death Valley worm wranglers and Jason secretly watch strangers bury a coffin in an empty ravine; when the gravediggers leave and Jason uncover the shallow grave to find a beautiful woman marked with the name'Fate' unconscious in the box. After saving Fate's life, the worm ranchers get abducted by several female cultists who were searching for their vanished sister-member, Fate. At the cult commune and Jason finish a series of lunatical ordeals that earn them membership in the clan. Amiable Jason finds romance from the group while hostile Ralph is treated with contempt; the cult boss, Hesperia tells the men that Fate had been negotiating with a gunrunning cartel to help her sell something priceless on the world market for a fee, but was instead betrayed.
The cartel group buried Fate as a warning. Fate says the mysterious contraband is under guard at the cartel desert warehouse, that she knows intimately. Hesperia leads a break-in to steal back the platinum, using Jason as expendable decoys; the heist is successful but the outraged cartel follow the cult and attack the commune in a ferocious gun battle. Hesperia loads her Jason in a helicopter from the commune roof to the worm ranch. Ralph is left behind and brought back to the warehouse for a tortuous interrogation. At the moment before death, an explosion from a time bomb set earlier by Ralph saves him, while eliminating his tormentors. Fate meets Ralph after answering his phone call for help, she drives to the commune, gets Ralph to tell where he hid the mysterious platinum box casually shoots him. Unknown to Fate, Ralph still wears an armored vest from the earlier gunfight but plays dead as Fate drives away. At the commune, Fate finds the invaluable suitcase as Ralph opens it immediately. Fate breaks the lock and lifts out a metal box – but it moves on the table, glowing as it unseals.
Fate fights to shut the lid while burning light from the box ignites walls, floor into fire as the commune, with Fate, vaporizes. Ralph learns. With sly malice, Ralph puts the confused women to work on his worm ranch. While delighted with the arrangement and Jason see what seems to be another human burial down their hill; this time, the coffin's payload is far worse, but may be just what vampiric Ralph has needed all along. The unfinished second draft of Runaway Nightmare was rushed into production by Mike Cartel after having taken over direction of his ailing film project, Bitter Heritage in late 1978. With a 48-hour turnaround and pre-production, Runaway Nightmare began filming with the same Bitter Heritage crew and location set. For casting, Cartel asked actors Al Valetta and Georgia Durante from Bitter Heritage to join the production while Cartel's wife, Mari filled most of the actress roles with model/actress acquaintances from her days as a Jack LaLanne health spa manager and aerobics teacher.
After a horrific three-week schedule, Cartel was unsatisfied with the coverage and started shooting on weekends with a skeleton crew, cheap Friday-Monday rentals, scratch track sound, staged from his own home studio with movable sets and unpaid or deferment-paid actors while going without insurance or permits. Everything except lab and raw stock bills were bargained or bartered as filming labored for another two years, although there were weeks when nothing was filmed. Cartel saved money by doing his own dangerous stunts that included taking a shotgun blast to his chest while wearing a cheap bullet-resistant vest. Runaway Nightmare features three single songs that play during the film, including two written for the movie, "Hard to Find" and "Sunnin'", "If You Won't Say You Love Me," written by Cartel's mother and released by Imperial Records in 1955. Cartel spent another year in post-production until the project arrived in 1982 as an 8460-foot answer print. Contracted with one distributor, Cartel discovered Runaway Nightmare online as a home video, marketed by a different distributor where it was released as one of the first straight-to-video VHS.
After several years without fanfare,'underground' Runaway Nightmare developed a loyal cult following. A film restoration and distribution company, Vinegar Syndrome, approached Cartel in 2013 regarding his possible interest in a modern ‘director's cut’ release of Runaway Nightmare in several medias. In early June 2014, Runaway Nightmare arrived on DVD, Ultra HD Blu-ray, a retro-VHS version from Tyler Babtist's Videonomicon. An audio commentary came with the new release where Cartel could explain his singular production backstory, scene by scene with film historian/filmmaker Howard S. Berger, moderator Joe Rubin and polymath Mari Cartel; the next month, Runaway Nightmare premiered in its first 35 mm showing as a theatrical release, followed by a national cinema tour
George Madison Jones was a United States Army brigadier general most notable for leading the 503rd Parachute Infantry Regiment in World War II. Jones graduated from the United States Military Academy in 1935 and was commissioned into the infantry. After a number of infantry assignments he volunteered for parachute training just after the establishment of the Parachute School at Fort Benning, Georgia. After graduation, he was assigned to the Canal Zone, where he commanded the 501st Parachute Battalion, one of the original parachute units. At the outbreak of World War II, the battalion joined the 503rd Parachute Infantry Regiment, the only independent airborne regiment in the Pacific Theatre, to act as a strategic reserve for General MacArthur; the 503rd was sent to Australia, where Lieutenant Colonel Jones served as the Regimental Executive Officer to Colonel Kinsler, the Regimental Commanding Officer. From Australia and the 503rd went to New Guinea, where they made the first successful U. S. combat parachute assault in the war at Markham Valley in September 1943.
Upon Kinsler's suicide, Jones was promoted to colonel. After making a second combat jump on Noemfoor Island in July 1944 and leaving New Guinea, the 503rd participated in the invasion of the Philippine Islands and conducted an amphibious landing on Mindoro in December 1944. Jones was put in charge of "Rock Force" which liberated Corregidor Island by a combined parachute assault and amphibious landing in February 1945. Jones and his Regimental Combat Team moved on to Negros Island, where they fought Imperial Marines and other Japanese forces until well after October 1945, as a core of Japanese commanders refused to surrender. After the last Japanese units surrendered, the 503rd was disbanded and he took the Headquarters back to California, where the unit was deactivated and the colors cased. After World War II, Jones would serve in the U. S. Army for another 23 years. Notable positions included Chief of Staff of XVIII Airborne Corps, Operations Officer of IX Corps in Korea, he was the second Commandant of the Special Warfare School at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, where he is credited with transforming Special Forces from a concept to an effective fighting organization.
He subsequently commanded the 66th Military Intelligence Group in Germany, served as Deputy Commanding General of the 3rd Infantry Division, was Chief of Staff of the Fifth US Army. He served as Commander of the Yukon Command and Deputy Commander of US Army - Alaska before retiring with the rank of brigadier general in 1968. United States Military Academy Register of Graduates and Former Cadets, 1997 Edition, page 219. Matthew J. Konz, Major, U. S. Army: "Operational Employment of the Airborne Brigade Combat Team: The 503d Parachute InfantryRegiment as a Case Study," Monograph at the School of Advanced Military Studies, United States Army Command and General Staff College, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, 2009