Battle of Preveza

The Battle of Preveza was a naval battle that took place on 28 September 1538 near Preveza in northwestern Greece between an Ottoman fleet and that of a Christian alliance assembled by Pope Paul III in which the Ottoman fleet defeated the allies. It occurred in the same area in the Ionian Sea as the Battle of Actium, 31 BC, it was one of the three largest sea battles. In 1537, commanding a large Ottoman fleet, Hayreddin Barbarossa captured a number of Aegean and Ionian islands belonging to the Republic of Venice, namely Syros, Ios, Tinos, Karpathos and Naxos, thus annexing the Duchy of Naxos to the Ottoman Empire, he unsuccessfully besieged the Venetian stronghold of Corfu and ravaged the Spanish-held Calabrian coast in southern Italy. In the face of this threat, Pope Paul III succeeded in February 1538 in assembling a ’’Holy League’’, comprising the Papacy, the Republic of Genoa, the Republic of Venice and the Knights of Malta, to confront Barbarossa. Barbarossa's fleet that summer numbered 122 galliots.

That of the Holy League comprised 300 galleons. Andrea Doria, the Genoese admiral in the service of Emperor Charles V was in overall command; the Holy League assembled its fleet near the island of Corfu. The Papal fleet under Admiral Marco Grimani and the Venetian fleet under Vincenzo Capello arrived first. Andrea Doria joined them with the Spanish-Genoese fleet on 22 September 1538. Prior to Doria's arrival, Grimani attempted to land troops near the Fortress of Preveza, but he retreated to Corfu after suffering a number of casualties in the ensuing encounter with Ottoman forces. Barbarossa was still at the island of Kos in the Aegean Sea at that time, but he soon arrived at Preveza with the rest of the Ottoman fleet, after capturing the island of Kefalonia on the way. Sinan Reis, one of his lieutenants, suggested landing troops at Actium on the Gulf of Arta near Preveza, an idea that Barbarossa opposed, but which proved to be important in securing the Ottoman victory. With the Turks holding the fortress at Actium, they could support Barbarossa's fleet with artillery fire from there, while Doria had to keep his ships away from the coast.

A Christian landing to take Actium would have been needed to ensure success, but Doria was fearful of a defeat on land after the initial sortie by Grimani had been repelled. Two more attempts by the Holy League to land their forces, this time near the fortress of Preveza at the opposite shore facing Actium, were repulsed by the forces of Murat Reis on 25 and 26 September; as Doria's ships kept their distance from the coast, much concerned about adverse winds driving them onto a hostile shore, Barbarossa had the advantageous interior position. During the night of 27–28 September, Doria therefore sailed 30 miles south and, when the wind died down, anchored at Sessola near the island of Lefkada. During the night, he and his commanders decided that their best option was to stage an attack towards Lepanto and force Barbarossa to fight. At dawn, Doria was surprised to see that the Turks were coming towards his ships. Barbarossa had headed south as well. Turgut Reis was in the van with six large fustas, the left wing hugged the shore.

Not expecting such a daring offensive from the numerically inferior Ottoman fleet, it took Doria three hours to give the order to weigh anchor and ready for battle—pressed by Grimani and Capello. The two fleets engaged on 28 September 1538 in the Gulf of Arta, near Preveza; the lack of wind was not in Doria's favor. The huge Venetian flagship Galeone di Venezia with her massive guns was becalmed four miles from land and ten miles from Sessola. While the Christian ships struggled to come to her assistance, she was soon surrounded by enemy galleys and engaged in a furious battle that lasted hours and did much damage to the Ottoman galleys; when the wind rose, the Christian fleet approached the action, although Doria first executed a number of maneuvres designed to draw the Turks out to sea. Ferrante Gonzaga, the Viceroy of Sicily, was at the left wing of the combined fleet, while the Maltese Knights were at the right wing. Doria placed four of his fastest galleys under the command of his nephew Giovanni Andrea Doria, positioned in the center front, between Gonzaga and the Maltese Knights.

Doria's galleys formed a long line behind them, in front of the Papal and Venetian galleys of Grimani and Capello. In the rear were the Venetian galleons under the command of Alessandro Condalmiero and the Spanish-Portuguese-Genoese galleons under the command of Francesco Doria, together with the barques and support ships; the Ottoman fleet had a Y shaped configuration: Barbarossa, together with his son Hasan Reis, Sinan Reis, Cafer Reis and Şaban Reis, was at the center. The Turks swiftly engaged the Venetian and Maltese ships, but Doria hesitated to bring his center into action against Barbarossa, which led to much tactical maneuvering but little fighting. Barbarossa wanted to take advantage of the lack of wind which immobilized the Christian barques that accounted for most of the numerical difference between the two sides; these barques fell as easy prey to the Turks who boarded them from their more mobile galleys and galliots. Doria's efforts to trap the Ottoman ships between the cannon fire of his barques and galleys failed.

At the end of the day, the Turks had sunk 10 ships


Amefurikozō is a type of Japanese Yōkai. There is a depiction of this yōkai in Sekien Toriyama's collection of yōkai drawing the Konjaku Gazu Zoku Hyakki, they can be seen in the kibyōshi among other publications of the same era. In the "Konjaku Gazu Zoku Hyakki," it wears a Japanese umbrella with its central pole missing, it is depicted possessing a paper lantern. In the explanatory text, it says, "speaking of the rain god Ushi, there is the amefurikozō, who works as its jidō," stating that they are the jidō of the Chinese god of rain "Ushi."Since Ushi is an honorary title of the nobility, since jidō can be understood as jidō meaning "children," there is the interpretation that it is a yōkai depicted using a play on words "a child employed by an adult."In the kibyōshi of the Edo period, just like the popular kibyōshi character tōfu-kozō, they appear as yōkai that take on the role of servants. In the kibyōshi "Gozonji no Bakemono" by Jihinari Sakuragawa and illustrated by Utagawa Toyokuni published in Kansei 4, when a man walks on a rainy night, a one-eyed amefurikozō wearing a bamboo kasa would step up possessing something in both its hands.

Since they appear on rainy nights, since they possess something in both hands, there is the interpretation that they can be understood as tōfu-kozō who appears on rainy nights possessing tōfu. According to yōkai literature published after the Showa and Heisei eras, there are the theories that if you steal the umbrella from him and wear it, one would not be able to take it off, the theory that they make it shower and delight at seeing people get troubled. According to the explanation at Mizuki Shigeru Road in Sakaiminato, Tottori Prefecture, the amefurikozō would be the one with the role of adjusting rain, something, related to the work and life of all living things. In Norio Yamada's writing titled "Tōhoku Kaidan no Tabi," in the part titled "Amefurikozō," there is a story where at Sennin Pass in Kamihei District, Iwate Prefecture, a fox requested to an amefurikozō, "I shall be performing a fox's wedding, so please make the rain fall," and when the kozō waved a paper lantern that it has making the rain fall, during that time the fox's wedding was performed.

List of legendary creatures from Japan

The Casagrandes

The Casagrandes is an American animated comedy television series that premiered on Nickelodeon on October 14, 2019, is a spinoff of The Loud House. The series features the voices of Izabella Alvarez, Carlos PenaVega, Eugenio Derbez, Ken Jeong, Melissa Joan Hart, Leah Mei Gold, Lexi Sexton. Having moved to Great Lakes City back in The Loud House episode "The Loudest Mission: Relative Chaos," Ronnie Anne Santiago, her older brother Bobby, their mother Maria move in with their extended family called the Casagrandes consisting of the grandparents Hector and Rosa and uncle Frida and Carlos, their cousins Carlota, C. J. Carl, Carlitos, their pets Lalo and Sergio. Ronnie Anne meets new friends like Sid Chang, expresses more about her relatives, explores the endless possibilities in Great Lakes City. Bobby helps Hector run the mercado. Ronnie Anne Bobby Dr. Santiago Mr. Stanley Chang Mrs. Becca Chang Sid Chang Adelaide Chang On March 6, 2018, it was announced that Nickelodeon was developing a spinoff of The Loud House under the working title of Los Casagrandes.

On July 2, 2018, it was announced that Nickelodeon green-lit the comedy series with a 20-episode order. On February 14, 2019, it was announced that The Casagrandes Los Casagrandes, would premiere in October 2019. On May 7, 2019, it was announced that Eugenio Derbez, Ken Jeong, Melissa Joan Hart, Leah Mei Gold, Lexi Sexton joined the voice cast. Mike Rubiner serves as executive producer. On September 4, 2019, it was announced that the series would premiere on October 14, 2019; the series is produced by Nickelodeon. On February 19, 2020, it was announced that the series was renewed for a second season of 20 episodes which will premiere in fall 2020; the Casagrandes on IMDb