Battle of Princeton

The Battle of Princeton was a battle of the American Revolutionary War, fought near Princeton, New Jersey on January 3, 1777, ending in a small victory for the Colonials. General Lord Cornwallis had left 1,400 British troops under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Charles Mawhood in Princeton. Following a surprise attack at Trenton early in the morning of December 26, 1776, General George Washington of the Continental Army decided to attack the British in New Jersey before entering the winter quarters. On December 30, he crossed the Delaware River back into New Jersey, his troops followed on January 3, 1777. Washington advanced to Princeton by a back road, where he pushed back a smaller British force but had to retreat before Cornwallis arrived with reinforcements; the battles of Trenton and Princeton were a boost to the morale of the patriot cause, leading many recruits to join the Continental Army in the spring. After defeating the Hessians at the Battle of Trenton on the morning of December 26, 1776, Washington withdrew back to Pennsylvania.

He subsequently decided to attack the British forces before going into winter quarters. On December 29, he led his army back into Trenton. On the night of January 2, 1777, Washington repulsed a British attack at the Battle of the Assunpink Creek; that night, he evacuated his position, circled around General Cornwallis' army, went to attack the British garrison at Princeton. On January 3, Brigadier General Hugh Mercer of the Continental Army clashed with two regiments under the command of Mawhood. Mercer and his troops were overrun, Mercer was mortally wounded. Washington sent a brigade of militia under Brigadier General John Cadwalader to help them; the militia, on seeing the flight of Mercer's men began to flee. Washington rallied the fleeing militia, he led the attack on Mawhood's troops, driving them back. Mawhood gave the order to retreat, most of the troops tried to flee to Cornwallis in Trenton. In Princeton, Brigadier General John Sullivan encouraged some British troops who had taken refuge in Nassau Hall to surrender, ending the battle.

After the battle, Washington moved his army to Morristown, with their third defeat in 10 days, the British evacuated southern New Jersey. The battle was the last major action of Washington's winter New Jersey campaign. On the night of December 25–26, 1776, General George Washington, Commander-in-chief of the Continental Army, led 2,400 men across the Delaware River. After a nine-mile march, they seized the town of Trenton on the morning of December 26, killing or wounding over 100 Hessians and capturing 900 more. Soon after capturing the town, Washington led the army back across the Delaware into Pennsylvania. On December 29, Washington once again led the army across the river and established a defensive position at Trenton. On December 31, Washington appealed to his men, whose enlistments expired at the end of the year, "Stay for just six more weeks for an extra bounty of ten dollars." His appeal worked, most of the men agreed to stay. That day, Washington learned that Congress had voted to give him wide-ranging powers for six months that are described as dictatorial.

In response to the loss at Trenton, General Cornwallis left New York City and reassembled a British force of more than 9,000 at Princeton to oppose Washington. Leaving 1,200 men under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Mawhood at Princeton, Cornwallis left Princeton on January 2 in command of 8,000 men to attack Washington's army of 6,000 troops. Washington sent troops to skirmish with the approaching British to delay their advance, it was nightfall by the time the British reached Trenton. After three failed attempts to cross the bridge over the Assunpink Creek, beyond which were the primary American defenses, Cornwallis called off the attack until the next day. During the night, Washington called a council of war and asked his officers whether they should stand and fight, attempt to cross the river somewhere, or take the back roads to attack Princeton. Although the idea had occurred to Washington, he learned from Arthur St. Clair and John Cadwalader that his plan to attack Princeton was indeed possible.

Two intelligence collection efforts, both of which came to fruition at the end of December 1776, supported such a surprise attack. After consulting with his officers, they agreed. Washington ordered that the excess baggage be taken to Burlington where it could be sent to Pennsylvania; the ground had frozen. By midnight, the plan was complete, with the baggage on its way to Burlington and the guns wrapped in heavy cloth to stifle noise and prevent the British from learning of the evacuation. Washington left 500 men behind with two cannon to patrol, keep the fires burning, to work with picks and shovels to make the British think that they were digging in. Before dawn, these men were to join up with the main army. By 2:00 am, the entire army was in motion along Quaker Bridge Road through what is now Hamilton Township; the men were ordered to march with silence. Along the way, a rumor was spread that they were surrounded, some frightened militiamen fled for Philadelphia; the march was difficult, as some of the route ran through thick woods and it was icy, causing horses to slip and men to break through ice on ponds.

As dawn came, the army approached. The road the army took followed Stony Brook for a mile farther until it intersected the Post Road from Trenton to Princeton. However, off to the right of this road, there was an unused road which crossed the farmland of Thomas Clark; the road was not visible from the Post Road and ran through cleared l


Linusorbs are small biologically active cyclic peptides synthesized in flaxseed from two ribosome-derived precursors. The name is derived from Linum usitatissimum orbitide; the molecules are stable, not digested and stiff. The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry Nomenclature for Natural Products supports the use of taxonomic names for the development of compound trivial names, while UniProt utilizes standard organism names as well as organism mnemonics in the naming of proteins. Linusorb product name according to Shim et al.. Linkage Occurs between amino acid 1 and amino acid “#” through the α-amino group that a N-C cyclization of the core peptide; the en dash is placed in square brackets. Modifications The notation utilizes a prefix code of 4 characters. Specifies the position and type of modified amino acid in the peptide; each modified amino acid is identified by its position in the core peptide sequence using abbreviations found in UniProt and IUPAC. A comma separates multiple post-translational modifications.

Taxonomic name abbreviation -linus The first three letters of the genus name and first two letters of the species name are used to identify the origin of the orbitide. Based on the list of species maintained by UniProt. Common suffix Short for orbitide. Amino acid residue numbering Residue numbering begins at the N-terminal-most amino acid residue of the orbitide, based on DNA sequence. Notation for any post-translational modifications start with the lowest number and proceed to the highest number. Where multiple identical modifications are present, they are grouped together as illustrated for Met groups in,-linusorb A1; this more descriptive name for CLG reflects the complexity of and appropriately naming this compound as it contains the chiral amino acid methionine S-oxide. What was recognized as CLG is four distinct compounds. New full names for all “cyclolinopeptide” variants are suggested in Table 1. Notes aProposed orbitide name:, linkage occurs between amino acid 1 and amino acid “#” through the α-amino group that a N-C cyclization of the core peptide.

Use the en dash as in ranges and place the square brackets. Two diastereomers are designated as Rs. Identical amino acids substituents are grouped. BName used in first literature description. CThe methionine residues of amino acid sequences are highlighted in Figure 1. Abbreviations of the methionine residues are MetO for methionine S-oxide and MetO2 for methionine S,S-dioxide. DAFSQ01016651.1. EAFSQ01011783.1 and AFSQ01009065.1. FAFSQ01016651.1


Normaliz is a free computer algebra system developed by Winfried Bruns, Robert Koch, Bogdam Ichim and Christof Soeger. It is published under the GNU General Public License version 2. Normaliz computes lattice points in rational polyhedra, or, in other terms, solves linear diophantine systems of equations and congruences. Special tasks are the computation of lattice points in bounded rational polytopes and Hilbert bases of rational cones. Normaliz computes enumerative data, such as multiplicities and Hilbert series; the kernel of Normaliz is a templated C++ class library. For multivariate polynomial arithmetic it uses CoCoALib. Normaliz has interfaces to several general computer algebra systems: CoCoA, GAP, Macaulay2 and Singular, it can be used interactively via its Python interface PyNormaliz. Its use in SageMath is in preparation. Jesús A. De_Loera cites Normaliz among his favorite programs for computing Hilbert basis. Comparison of computer algebra systems Official website Publications and examples of Normaliz applications