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Battle of Rancagua

The Battle of Rancagua known in Chile as the Disaster of Rancagua occurred on October 1, 1814, to October 2, 1814, when the Spanish Army under the command of Mariano Osorio defeated the rebel Chilean forces led by Bernardo O’Higgins. This put an end to the Chilean Patria Vieja and it was the decisive step of the Spanish military Reconquest of Chile; when Spain heard about the Patriot revolt in Chile, they sent an army of Spanish soldiers and royalists to defeat the rebellion. When O'Higgins heard about the besieged army in Rancagua, he went with his army of 1,000 patriots, to reinforce Juan Carrera's army in Rancagua. Outnumbered and with enough supplies, O'Higgins did not retreat and sealed the fate of his army; the battle occurred on the morning of October 1814, outside the town of Rancagua. The Chilean forces had occupied the town prior to this confrontation and were surrounded by Osorio’s forces who advanced towards the town; the reason for occupying the town was its strategic importance in the defense of the Chilean capital, Santiago.

The battle was fierce and the Spanish had an elite force of soldiers known as “Talaveras” who were veterans from the Napoleonic Wars in Europe. As the fighting continued onward to the evening, the Spanish forces decided to set fire to the town. With casualties growing, the Chilean forces requested reinforcements from the capital city of Santiago, 87 Kilometers north of Rancagua; the request failed, which forced the Chilean army to disperse and flee to the countryside and wilderness. After this victory, the Spanish army continued on to Santiago, crushed the Chilean Government and instituted their brutal Reconquista of Chile. After the Battle of Rancagua, the Spanish captured Santiago within a few days, which marked the beginning of the Reconquista of South America; this battle became a stain on Chile's national memory as it was a time when the nation was lost and the people feared that their struggle for independence was in vain. The people fled elsewhere in South America as refugees to escape the violence the Spanish would have meted out to the rebels.

Chilean War of Independence

Pasqualati House

The Pasqualati House, notable for being a residence of Ludwig van Beethoven, is located in the 1st district of Vienna's Inner City, on the corner of Mölker Bastei 8 and Schreyvogelgasse 16, in an exposed position on the ramp of the former town fortifications. The building, completed in 1797 and home to the composer on two occasions, houses a Beethoven museum in an apartment neighbouring the one he occupied; the house was built in 1797 by Peter Mollner for Empress Maria Theresa's personal physician, Johann Baptist Freiherr von Pasqualati und Osterberg, by joining two smaller residences and augmenting these to produce the present stately apartment block. One of the older buildings housed a stonemason's workshop, while the other numbered among its tenants Count Leander Anguissola, imperial chief engineer, Johann Jakob Marinoni, a court mathematician, who together published a plan of Vienna while holding teaching posts at the Military Engineering Academy, under whose auspices they gave lectures in the house.

In 1770 the composers Florian Gassmann and Antonio Salieri lived in the same building. Baron Pasqualati became a patron of Beethoven, whom he allowed to live in his house for a total of eight years. Between 1804 and 1815, Beethoven twice took up residence in the present building, with some of his most important works, including the Fifth and Sixth Symphonies, Für Elise, the Archduke Trio and his only opera, being composed at the Pasqualati House. Bettina Brentano visited Beethoven there during his second stay and described the meeting in her book Goethes Briefwechsel mit einem Kinde. Between 1991 and c. 2000, the musicological series Vom Pasqualati Haus was published from the building. From 1947, the Adalbert Stifter Museum was located in three rooms of the Pasqualati House."... owned up to its tainted past, noting that the Nazis had evicted the Jewish family that lived there to create the museum, some were killed in Auschwitz." The building is a block corner house in the classicist style. At the corner is the Pasqualati coat of arms.

The rectangular portal with builder's inscription leads into a driveway and a courtyard with wrought iron lantern and fountain. The spiral staircase, made from Kaisersteinbruch stone, still has its original wrought-iron railings and lattice doors. Roof truss and cellar vault date from the period of original construction. In the basement are to be found remains of the city fortifications. A plaque commemorates Ludwig van Beethoven. An apartment on the 4th floor hosts a memorial designed in 1997 by Elsa Prochazka. On display are the portrait of Beethoven by Joseph Willibrord Mähler from 1804/05 and the 1814 portrait of Count Andrey Razumovsky by Johann Baptist von Lampi the Elder. Items from Beethoven's possessions, several facsimiles and illustrations from the life and work of the composer, as well as two audio stations with Beethoven's music complete the exhibit. Since Beethoven's actual flat in the north section of the fourth floor has a tenant, the next-door flat is on show as the Beethoven museum.

The Pasqualati House memorial belongs to the Vienna Museum

Gustav Scholz

Gustav Wilhelm Hermann "Bubi" Scholz was a German boxer. He was popularly called Bubi. In the 1950s and early 1960s he won the German National Boxing Championship and European Boxing Championship several times. After his retirement in 1964, he acted in several TV series. Scholz married twice, was imprisoned for three years on charges of murdering his first wife, he developed dementia and was diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease in his life. He died at the age of 70 due to cardiac arrest. Gustav Wilhelm Hermann Scholz was born to a housewife in Berlin. In 1944 he began an apprenticeship as a mechanic, after the end of the Second World War he was trained as chef. In 1947, Scholz attended a boxing school in Berlin. On 8 October 1948, he was a last-minute replacement for a professional match against Werner Eichler, though he had not competed as an amateur, he won the fight. Eicher was injured so badly that he had to postpone his wedding, scheduled to be held the next day. Scholz logged his first defeat on 10 March 1958 against Charles Humez.

On 19 May 1951, Scholz won a points victory against defending champion Walter Schneider and became the German champion in the welterweight category for the first time. He defended his title against Charles Oechsle and Leo Starosch in 1952. At the end of 1952, Scholz put his championship title in the welterweight division and stepped down from the middleweight category. In 1954 he appeared in Madison Square Garden in his first U. S. match. In 1955 he was diagnosed with tuberculosis, which forced him to take a one and a half year sabbatical. After recovering from his illness, he won a knockout match against defending champion Peter Müller in a 29 June 1957 German middleweight championship, he defended the title with another knockout victory in May 1958 against Max Resch. On 4 October 1958, he defeated Charles Humez in Berlin's Olympiastadion by technical knockout in the 12th round, thus won the European Championship in the middleweight division. Humez announced his retirement on 18 January 1989. Scholz defended both titles against Hans Werner Wohlers and against Peter Müller.

He defended his European title against Andre Drille in December 1959. In the same year, he published the book Ring Free with memories of the beginnings of his career. In 1961 Scholz moved to the light heavyweight division. In this class, he lost a fight against Harold Johnson for the championship on 23 June 1962, but on 4 April 1964, he won the European light heavyweight championship against defending champion Giulio Rinaldi. After that, Scholz finished his boxing career. Between 1948 and 1964 Scholz had a total of 96 fights, his success as a boxer earned him great popularity in Germany in the 1950s and 1960s when he was compared to Max Schmeling, the most prominent boxing star of Germany. His success in boxing brought him a short-lived career in the entertainment industry, he appeared in 1960 as Boxer Breitenbach in the television production The Champion Boxer. That same year, he played the role of Ralf Moebius in Paul Martin's musical comedy Marina. In the Music Film Hit Parade 1961 by Franz Marischka, he was known as Ralf Hegener.

In 1959 and 1962 he collaborated with the Werner Müller orchestra and the vocal group The 3 Travellers at Telefunken and Metronomes, released three music singles. Following his career as a professional boxer, Scholz opened the advertising agency Zühlke and Scholz in Berlin, trying to build on his popularity as an athlete. In 1971 he was seen in a supporting role. In 1977 he made a guest appearance as a boxing coach in the 20th episode of the TV comedy series Odds and Ends. In 1980 he published his autobiography, The Way Out of Nowhere, but received negative publicity in those years due to his drinking habits. On the evening of 22 July 1984, Scholz shot his 49-year-old wife Helga, whom he had married in 1955, in their Berlin villa, he was arrested the following day. Helga was buried two weeks in the presence of 1,000 people. Scholz claimed the shooting was an accident and that the "shot had been loosened during the cleaning of the gun". On 1 February 1985, the court sentenced him to custodial arrest for three years on the charge of manslaughter and violation of the Arms Act of Germany.

The case was the subject of an episode of the documentary series "The Major Criminal Cases" in 2012. Scholz was released in August 1987. In October 1993, Scholz married Sabine Arndt. During 1997-98, he suffered several strokes, developed dementia, he tried to commit suicide twice. He had been diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease, he died of cardiac arrest on 21 August 2000 at a nursing home in Hoppegarten. He was buried in the Woodland Cemetery in Berlin, his widow Sabine married actor Klaus Jürgen Wussow in 2004. In August 2008, at the request of Sabine, Scholz's body was reburied at the Berlin Cemetery highway. In 1997-98, director Roland Suso Richter filmed The Bubi Scholz Story for television from a screenplay by Uwe Timm, with Benno Fürmann in the role of young Scholz and Götz George playing the adult Scholz. Scholz himself could not attend the premiere of the film in May 1998 due to his poor health; this was Fürmann's breakthrough starring and he received the German TV Award as Best Actor in a telefilm, for the role of Scholz.

Ring Free. Recorded by Harvey T. Rowe. Copress-Verlag, Munich 1959; the Road Out of Nowhere. Krüger, Frankfurt am Main 1980