Torres Novas is a Portuguese municipality in the district of Santarém, in the Médio Tejo of the Centro region. The population of the municipality was approximately 36,717, with the city of Torres Novas has a about 15,000 inhabitants in an area that econompasses 270 square kilometres, during the primordial period before Roman occupation, there were various villae that were populated in the region. Vila Cardílio, a Luso-Roman settlement was occupied in the first or second century A. D, following the 12th century, the territory was known as Turris began to develop into its actual limits, with the expulsion of the Moors by forces loyal to 1148. The foundation of the municipality was attributed to the foral issued on 1 October 1190, the castle which had, by that time, been in ruins was reconstructed by King Fernando, to halt Castilian forces during the Iberian wars. During the Middle Ages, the territory grew demographically and economically, the lands of Torres Novas passed into the possessions of Queen Isabel of Aragon in 1304 (who was transferred into her title by King Denis.
Isabel of Avis was the donatário at the first half of the 15th century, receiving a new foral, in the following decade, John of Lancaster was given the title of the first Marquis of Torres Novas, along with the Duke of Aveiro. The monarch survived the attempted assassination, which, at the time of its nationalization, was domianted by Clara Transportes - S. A. R. L. The inauguration of the raillink between Torres Novas and Alcanena occurred in 1893, and was one of the most curious episode in the business, the municipality of Torres Novas, situated in the Médio Tejo subregion, with its neighbours Entroncamento, Abrantes, Ourém and Fátima. The union of Torres Novas, Lapas e Ribeira Branca concentrates the majority of the people of the municipality, the largest parish, with an area of 40 square kilometres, is the Torres Novas, and the smallest is the parish of Meia Via,4 square kilometres. The small size means that it is the largest by density, with 395 inhabitants per kilometre square, the present president of the municipality is Pedro Ferreira, elected by the Socialist Party.
Horta is twinned with, Renova – Fábrica de Papel do Almonda, SA, a well known paper company, is based in the municipality, as well as the Companhia de Torres Novas, the municipal holiday is Ascension Day. Notes Sources City of Torres Novas, archived from the original on 2007-01-19
Leiria is a city and a municipality in the Centro Region of Portugal. It is the capital of Leiria District, the population in 2011 was 126,879, in an area of 565.09 square kilometres. It is the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Leiria-Fátima, the region around Leiria has been inhabited for a long time, although its early history is obscure. The first evident inhabitants were the Turduli Oppidani, a Celtiberian tribe and this settlement was occupied by the Romans, who expanded it under the original Celtiberian name Collippo. The stones of the ancient Roman town were used in the Middle Ages to build much of Leiria, the name Leiria in Portuguese derives from leira meaning an area with small farming plots. It was occupied for a time by the Suebi in 414 until they were forced by the Romans to retreat to Galicia. Later the Moors occupied the area until it was captured by the first King of Portugal, Afonso Henriques in 1135, south of Leiria in that period was the so-called no-mans land, until regions further south were permanently taken and re-populated by the Christians.
In 1142 Afonso Henriques gave Leiria its first foral to stimulate the colonisation of the region, both Afonso I of Portugal and Sancho I rebuilt the walls and the Leiria Castle to avoid new enemy incursions. Most of the population lived inside the city walls. The oldest church of Leiria, the Church of Saint Peter, built in style in the last quarter of the 12th century. During the Middle Ages the importance of the increased. The first of the held in Leiria took place in 1245. In the early 14th century, King Dinis I restored the tower of the citadel of the castle. He built a residence in Leiria, and lived for long periods in the town. The King ordered the plantation of the famous Pine Forest of Leiria near the coast, the wood from this forest would be used to build the ships used in the Portuguese Navigations of the 15th and 16th centuries. In the late 14th century, King John I built a palace within the walls of the castle of Leiria. This palace, with elegant gothic galleries that offered views of the town.
John I sponsored the rebuilding in late gothic style of the old Church of Our Lady of the Rock, towards the end of the 15th century the town continued to grow, occupying the area from the castle hill down to the river Lis
Napoleon Bonaparte was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars. As Napoleon I, he was Emperor of the French from 1804 until 1814, Napoleon dominated European and global affairs for more than a decade while leading France against a series of coalitions in the Napoleonic Wars. He won most of these wars and the vast majority of his battles, one of the greatest commanders in history, his wars and campaigns are studied at military schools worldwide. Napoleons political and cultural legacy has ensured his status as one of the most celebrated and he was born Napoleone di Buonaparte in Corsica to a relatively modest family from the minor nobility. When the Revolution broke out in 1789, Napoleon was serving as an officer in the French army. Seizing the new opportunities presented by the Revolution, he rose through the ranks of the military. The Directory eventually gave him command of the Army of Italy after he suppressed a revolt against the government from royalist insurgents, in 1798, he led a military expedition to Egypt that served as a springboard to political power.
He engineered a coup in November 1799 and became First Consul of the Republic and his ambition and public approval inspired him to go further, and in 1804 he became the first Emperor of the French. Intractable differences with the British meant that the French were facing a Third Coalition by 1805, in 1806, the Fourth Coalition took up arms against him because Prussia became worried about growing French influence on the continent. Napoleon quickly defeated Prussia at the battles of Jena and Auerstedt, marched the Grand Army deep into Eastern Europe, France forced the defeated nations of the Fourth Coalition to sign the Treaties of Tilsit in July 1807, bringing an uneasy peace to the continent. Tilsit signified the high watermark of the French Empire, hoping to extend the Continental System and choke off British trade with the European mainland, Napoleon invaded Iberia and declared his brother Joseph the King of Spain in 1808. The Spanish and the Portuguese revolted with British support, the Peninsular War lasted six years, featured extensive guerrilla warfare, and ended in victory for the Allies.
The Continental System caused recurring diplomatic conflicts between France and its client states, especially Russia, unwilling to bear the economic consequences of reduced trade, the Russians routinely violated the Continental System and enticed Napoleon into another war. The French launched an invasion of Russia in the summer of 1812. The resulting campaign witnessed the collapse of the Grand Army, the destruction of Russian cities, in 1813, Prussia and Austria joined Russian forces in a Sixth Coalition against France. A lengthy military campaign culminated in a large Allied army defeating Napoleon at the Battle of Leipzig in October 1813, the Allies invaded France and captured Paris in the spring of 1814, forcing Napoleon to abdicate in April. He was exiled to the island of Elba near Rome and the Bourbons were restored to power, Napoleon escaped from Elba in February 1815 and took control of France once again. The Allies responded by forming a Seventh Coalition, which defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in June, the British exiled him to the remote island of Saint Helena in the South Atlantic, where he died six years at the age of 51
Jean Gabriel Marchand
Jean Gabriel Marchand, 1st Count Marchand went from being an attorney to a company commander in the army of the First French Republic in 1791. He fought almost exclusively in Italy throughout the French Revolutionary Wars and he participated in Napoleon Bonapartes celebrated 1796-1797 Italian campaign. In 1799, he was army commander Barthélemy Catherine Joubert when that general was killed at Novi. Promoted to general officer soon after, he transferred to the Rhine theater in 1800, at the start of the Napoleonic Wars in 1805, Marchand led a brigade in the Grande Armée at Haslach-Jungingen and Dürenstein. Promoted to lead a division in Marshal Michel Neys corps, he fought at Jena, leading an independent force, he defeated 3,000 Prussians late in the year. The following year he led his troops at Eylau, Guttstadt-Deppen, Napoleon bestowed honors and the rank of nobility upon him. In 1808 Marchand went to Spain where he fought in the Peninsular War, in Neys absence, he took command of the corps and suffered a humiliating defeat at Tamamés at the hands of a Spanish army.
He went with Marshal André Massénas abortive invasion of Portugal in 1810 and 1811 and fought at Ciudad Rodrigo, during the retreat he performed well in one rear guard action against the British and led his division at Fuentes de Onoro. In 1812 he commanded a division in Russia and he fought at the head of his division at Lützen and Leipzig in 1813. An Austrian division defeated his independent command near Geneva in 1814, during the Hundred Days he was tasked with stopping Napoleons march near Grenoble, but his troops went over to the ex-emperor. For this, he was tried by the Bourbons but acquitted. His surname is one of names inscribed under the Arc de Triomphe. Born in LAlbenc in the province of Dauphiné on 10 December 1765, Marchand became a lawyer and he joined the French army in 1791, leading a company of scouts in an Isère volunteer battalion. In the French Revolutionary Wars, he served in Italy during the years 1792-1799 and he fought first in Savoy, where he won notice, at the Siege of Toulon in 1793.
Marchand became an officer to General Jean-Baptiste Cervoni. At the Battle of Loano on 23 and 24 November 1795, he and they successfully stormed the fortification and ejected the Hungarian grenadiers who defended it. For this exploit, his army commander Barthélemy Louis Joseph Schérer named him chef de bataillon and he participated in the battles of Ceva and Caldiero in 1796. He transferred to the staff of General Barthélemy Catherine Joubert, in June of that year, while leading 300 carabiniers of the 3rd Light Infantry Regiment, he surprised a large camp of Austrians and captured 400 of them
Siege of Almeida (1810)
In the Siege of Almeida, the French corps of Marshal Michel Ney captured the border fortress from Brigadier General William Coxs Portuguese garrison. This action was fought in the summer of 1810 during the Peninsular War portion of the Napoleonic Wars, Almeida is located in eastern Portugal, near the border with Spain. Lying on an invasion route from Ciudad Rodrigo to Lisbon. The previous day the French forces had pushed back the British Portuguese army at the Battle of the Côa, the 50, 000-man British-Portuguese army of General Lord Wellington now held the far bank of the Coa. However, the banks were steep, with only two bridges, and the French 6th Corps guarded the crossings, so the British were unable to retake the crossings to relieve Almeida. Fresh from the successful Siege of Ciudad Rodrigo, the French army laid siege to Almeida on July 25,1810, brigadier-General William Cox commanded a 4, 000-man Portuguese garrison of three battalions of militia, from Arganil and Vizeu. Some regular British forces were present, including 1,200 men of the 24th Line Regiment.
The defences of Almeida were in repair and stronger than Ciudad Rodrigo which the French had recently taken. In particular, there were over 100 artillery pieces, of which 40 were 18-pounders or heavier, and most were in protected casemates. The siege was conducted by the 14,000 infantry,1,000 cavalry,1,000 artillerists and 100 cannon of the VI Corps under the command of Marshal Michel Ney, in addition, General Jean-Andoche Junot lay in reserve nearby with his VIII Corps. The French received siege supplies from Ciudad Rodrigo on August 15, the siege train was well supplied with guns, as well as the existing French ones, it included captured Spanish guns from Ciudad Rodrigo. By August 24, the French lines had eleven batteries in place, the Portuguese defenders had fired upon the French, with little effect. When the French bombardment opened on August 26 at 6 AM, several quarters of the town were set on fire. The governor was confident in withstanding the assault, until a shell made a freak hit.
The great magazine in the castle had been used through the day to supply the defenders, at around 7 PM, one French shell landed in the courtyard, igniting a gunpowder trail that led through the still open door, and set off a chain reaction into the magazine. The ensuing explosion killed 600 defenders and wounded 300 more, the castle that housed the gunpowder was razed and sections of the defenses were damaged, leaving a crater still visible today. Unable to reply to the French cannonade without gunpowder, Cox was forced to capitulate the following day with the survivors of the blast and 100 cannon, the French lost 58 killed and 320 wounded during the operation. The next action was the Battle of Bussaco, list of the largest artificial non-nuclear explosions Glover, The Peninsular War 1807-1814
First French Empire
The First French Empire, Note 1 was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century. Its name was a misnomer, as France already had colonies overseas and was short lived compared to the Colonial Empire, a series of wars, known collectively as the Napoleonic Wars, extended French influence over much of Western Europe and into Poland. The plot included Bonapartes brother Lucien, serving as speaker of the Council of Five Hundred, Roger Ducos, another Director, on 9 November 1799 and the following day, troops led by Bonaparte seized control. They dispersed the legislative councils, leaving a rump legislature to name Bonaparte, Sieyès, although Sieyès expected to dominate the new regime, the Consulate, he was outmaneuvered by Bonaparte, who drafted the Constitution of the Year VIII and secured his own election as First Consul. He thus became the most powerful person in France, a power that was increased by the Constitution of the Year X, the Battle of Marengo inaugurated the political idea that was to continue its development until Napoleons Moscow campaign.
Napoleon planned only to keep the Duchy of Milan for France, setting aside Austria, the Peace of Amiens, which cost him control of Egypt, was a temporary truce. He gradually extended his authority in Italy by annexing the Piedmont and by acquiring Genoa, Parma and Naples, he laid siege to the Roman state and initiated the Concordat of 1801 to control the material claims of the pope. Napoleon would have ruling elites from a fusion of the new bourgeoisie, on 12 May 1802, the French Tribunat voted unanimously, with exception of Carnot, in favour of the Life Consulship for the leader of France. This action was confirmed by the Corps Législatif, a general plebiscite followed thereafter resulting in 3,653,600 votes aye and 8,272 votes nay. On 2 August 1802, Napoleon Bonaparte was proclaimed Consul for life, pro-revolutionary sentiment swept through Germany aided by the Recess of 1803, which brought Bavaria, Württemberg and Baden to Frances side. The memories of imperial Rome were for a time, after Julius Caesar and Charlemagne.
The Treaty of Pressburg, signed on 26 December 1805, did little other than create a more unified Germany to threaten France. On the other hand, Napoleons creation of the Kingdom of Italy, the occupation of Ancona, to create satellite states, Napoleon installed his relatives as rulers of many European states. The Bonapartes began to marry into old European monarchies, gaining sovereignty over many nations, in addition to the vassal titles, Napoleons closest relatives were granted the title of French Prince and formed the Imperial House of France. Met with opposition, Napoleon would not tolerate any neutral power, Prussia had been offered the territory of Hanover to stay out of the Third Coalition. With the diplomatic situation changing, Napoleon offered Great Britain the province as part of a peace proposal and this, combined with growing tensions in Germany over French hegemony, Prussia responded by forming an alliance with Russia and sending troops into Bavaria on 1 October 1806. In this War of the Fourth Coalition, Napoleon destroyed the armies of Frederick William at Jena-Auerstedt, the Eylau and the Friedland against the Russians finally ruined Frederick the Greats formerly mighty kingdom, obliging Russia and Prussia to make peace with France at Tilsit.
The Treaties of Tilsit ended the war between Russia and the French Empire and began an alliance between the two empires that held power of much of the rest of Europe, the two empires secretly agreed to aid each other in disputes
Battle of Pombal
The Battle of Pombal was a sharp skirmish during Marshal Massénas retreat from the Lines of Torres Vedras, the first in a series of lauded rearguard actions fought by Michel Ney. At the Battle of Pombal, Ney turned to face the larger Anglo-Portuguese forces, unable to break the Lines of Torres Vedras, Ney was given charge of the rear-guard while the main body of the French army withdrew from Portugal. The rear-guard consisted of Mermets and Marchands divisions, when it became clear to Wellington that he had been deceived, the British-Portuguese left Torres Vedras and began a pursuit. The British caught up with Ney at the town of Pombal, a British advanced-guard much larger than that of the French, the latter consisting of only two battalions of the 6th Light Infantry, attacked the town of Pombal. The two French battalions were overwhelmed by numbers and, after a struggle, the French were forced out of Pombal. It was that Ney rushed in and spoke to the six th Light Infantry, “Chasseurs, ” he said, “you are losing your beautiful reputation, and you will dishonour yourselves forever if you do not drive the enemy out of Pombal.
Those who are brave, with me. ”With these words he galloped towards Pombal, the Anglo-Portuguese driven out, all the way to the river Arunca. Despite success, Ney promptly set fire to the town of Pombal, the next action would be the Battle of Redinha. General Picton was very impressed by Ney’s actions, as the former was able to observe the latter’s deceiving movements, historic Doubts as to the Execution of Marshal Ney 1895. Victoires, conquêtes, désastres, revers et guerres civiles des francais, volume 20
France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
Miranda do Corvo
Miranda do Corvo is a town and a municipality in the Portuguese district of Coimbra, with an area of 126.38 square kilometres and 2011 population of 13,098 inhabitants. The first reference to the region of Miranda do Corvo arrived at the end of the 10th century, the 10th century document that referenced these lands were associated with the Monastery of Lorvão in 998, that identified a military structure in Miranda do Corvo, that included tower. Today there is recognition that the settlement of Vila Nova occurred in pre-history, archaeological excavations around the Roman settlement of Eira Velha in Lamas unearthed the vestiges of the agricultural community important along Roman roadways. The oldest settlement, in Alto do Calvário, suggests a period dating to the Middle Ages, from dating of tombs. Its all-encompassing position and vantage resulted in its adopting of the name Miranda, the settlement was likely to have grown around the hilltop of Alto do Calvário. But, although important in the Mondego defensive line during the Christian reconquest of Coimbra, in 1116, the region was attacked by Almoravid raiders, but held back in Coimbra.
The castle of Miranda do Corvo was destroyed in the 12th century, resulting in the destruction of the walls, many deaths. The castle remained in ruin for sometime, although it is unclear at what point it was reconstructed, on 19 November 1136 Miranda received its first foral from D. Afonso Henriques, which was confirmed by King D. Afonso II. In 1383, there was a reference to João Afonso Teles opening the gates to King D. João I of Castille when he travelled to Lisbon contest the Master of Aviz, but along the centuries the ancient castle fell into ruin. The Livro das Posturas by the municipal council referred to the remains of the existing in May 1799. Other records showing the many stones were robbed from the castle, ironically it was remodelling of the bridge of Corvo, over the Ribeira do Alhêda that resulted in the deconstruction of the structure. During the third incursion by French forces, resulting from the Peninsular Wars, part of the battle of Casal Novo, which occurred on the morning of 14 March 1811, occurred in the parish of Lamas.
A scorched earth policy by French forces resulted in the death of many, destruction of property, and the incubation of epidemics following the battle in many of the parishes. The municipality is limited in the northeast by Vila Nova de Poiares, east by Lousã, southeast by Figueiró dos Vinhos, southwest by Penela, west by Condeixa-a-Nova, the region is crossed by the Rio Ceira, Rio Dueça and Rio Alheda. Miranda do Corvo is approximately 30 minutes from the city centre of Coimbra, a church was constructed on the hilltop that provides a view of the entire valley. The region is the location of the popular Trilhos dos Abutres trail run, DGOTDU, ed. Arquivo Histórico, DGOTDU - Direcção Geral do Ordenamento do Território Pimentel, Anteplano de Urbanização de Miranda do Corvo
Louis Henri Loison
Louis Henri Loison briefly joined the French Army in 1787 and after the French Revolution became a junior officer. Blessed with military talent and courage, he rose to general officer rank during the French Revolutionary Wars. He got into difficulties because of his fondness for plundering, in late 1795 he helped Napoleon Bonaparte crush a revolt against the government. After a hiatus, he returned in 1799 to fight in Switzerland where he earned another promotion, in 1800 he commanded a division under Napoleon in the Marengo Campaign. In 1805, Loison led a division in Napoleons Grande Armée during the Ulm Campaign and he saw much action in the Peninsular War including all three invasions of Portugal, though not always with distinction. In Portugal he earned a bad name for his harshness and the inhabitants called him Maneta or One-Hand, for a brief period, he commanded Michel Neys famous VI Corps. During the French invasion of Russia he assembled a reserve division and he served in the War of the Sixth Coalition before a harsh rebuke from the emperor effectively ended his military career.
Loison is one of the names inscribed under the Arc de Triomphe, born on 16 May 1771 in Damvillers, France in what became the department of Meuse, Loison briefly enlisted in a colonial battalion on 29 June 1787. However, he left the unit in September and when he returned on 25 January 1788, after the outbreak of the French Revolution, his father served as a Deputy in the Constituent Assembly. He was appointed sous-lieutenant in the Meuse Volunteer Battalion on 15 September 1791, several months later, he emerged as captain of hussars in the Légion du Nord. In May 1793, the Representative-on-mission of the Army of the North promoted him to adjutant general for bravery, on 16 October 1793 at the Battle of Wattignies, he accompanied the 3, 500-man column of Jacob Job Élie on the far right flank of the army. In the middle of the night, the outposts were attacked by the Austrians, Élie managed to rally his men but Johann Andreas Benjowskis Austrians launched an assault in a heavy fog at dawn. The second line panicked and fired into the backs of the first line, whereupon the infantry bolted again and they might have been butchered but for Loison who led the cavalry to the rescue and fought off the pursuit.
French losses were 400 soldiers and 12 artillery pieces while the Austrians lost 138 men in the clash, French historian Charles Mullié noted that while Loison was a talented soldier who exhibited extreme bravery, he had a dark side. Mullié suggested that Loison was an avid plunderer, notorious for the sacking and destruction of the Orval Abbey in the Grand Duchy of Luxemburg and other acts, Loison was arrested by agents of the government. However, he escaped trial when one of the commissioners allowed him to return to military service, on 26 August 1795 he was elevated in rank to general of brigade in the Army of Rhin-et-Moselle. When royalist sympathizers tried to overthrow the Directory on 13 Vendémiaire, after the revolt was put down, he served on the court convened to try the rebel leaders. He was unemployed for a few years re-entered military service in January 1799, serving under André Masséna and Claude Lecourbe, Loison commanded a brigade in numerous small actions in Switzerland