The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.
The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index.
It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government
France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
Siege of Astorga
The Siege of Astorga was an attempt by French forces to capture Astorga, Spain in a campaign of the Peninsular War. Astorga was located on the flank of the French invasion of Spain and Portugal, for several weeks no attack took place, as neither side had artillery enough to fight well. Shortly after the French guns arrived, however, a hole was made in the wall, the French overpowered the Spanish garrison inside and took the city on April 20,1810, with a loss of 160 men. Astorga is located in the province of León, in northwest Spain, because of its location, it sat on the flank of the French army as they advanced into Spain, and invaded Portugal. The city was built into a hill, part of the Manzanal mountains, the French had already been defeated once trying to take the city, in September 1809, after which General La Romana repaired the walls of the city and built up its defenses. The French forces, part of André Massénas army, were led by Jean-Andoche Junot, Junot arrived at Astorga on March 21 with Napoleons 8th corps, consisting of 12,000 men, including 1,200 cavalry forces.
Junots forces included the Irish Legion, they had joined earlier that month, Astorga would be the first action for the Second Battalion of the Legion. Junot placed Bertrand Clausels division in the position Loison had held, with Solignac in support, junots troops came to assist Loison, but brought no siege guns with them, It took Junot weeks to gather enough artillery to assault the town. In the mean time, the French forces dug trenches to besiege the town, the English and Spanish troops under Wellington had the same troubles when they recaptured the city in 1812. The garrison in Astorga had no guns, for several weeks there was a standoff. During these weeks, Santocildes emptied the town of 3,000 of its residents and stocked up on supplies for the siege, the Spanish could expect no hope from Wellingtons forces, which remained in Portugal. Until the siege guns arrived, there was no action except nuisance fire from what little artillery Junot had, junots 18 siege guns arrived on April 15 from Valladolid, and by the 20th, the wall of the city was breached.
The French stormed the city the next evening, their first attack was repulsed at the cost of 300 men and those of the storming company who were not killed holed up just inside the wall and held the position for the night. The next morning, Santocildes surrendered as the French were preparing for another attack, Santocildes was almost out of ammunition when he surrendered, he had fewer than 30 rounds of ammunition left per man, and only 8 rounds of artillery. He gave the French 2,500 prisoners and the city and his garrison lost only 51 dead and 109 wounded. Most of the French casualties came in the assault on the breach
A musket is a muzzle-loaded, smoothbore firearm, fired from the shoulder. Muskets were designed for use by infantry, a soldier armed with a musket had the designation musketman or musketeer. The musket replaced the arquebus, and was in turn replaced by the rifle. By the end of the 17th century, a version of the musket had edged out the arquebus, and the addition of the bayonet edged out the pike. In the 18th century, improvements in ammunition and firing methods allowed rifling to be practical for use. In the 19th century, rifled muskets became common, combining the advantages of rifles, about the time of the introduction of cartridge and multiple rounds of ammunition just a few years later, muskets fell out of fashion. Musket calibers generally ranged from 0.50 to 0.90 in, rifled muskets of the mid-19th century, like the Springfield Model 1861, were significantly more accurate, with the ability to hit a man sized target at a distance of 500 yards or more. However, in the Italian War of 1859, French forces were able to defeat the longer range of Austrian rifle muskets by aggressive skirmishing and rapid bayonet assaults during close quarters combat.
According to the Etymology Dictionary, firearms were often named after animals, and the word derived from the French word mousquette. An alternative theory is that derives from the 16th century French mousquet, -ette, from the Italian moscetto, -etta, the Italian moscetto is a diminutive of mosca, a fly. Hand cannons arrived in Europe from Asia sometime in the early 14th century and they were more commonly used by the early 15th century, particularly in the Hussite wars. It is possible that the noise was at least as important as the missile and these were very short ranged and difficult to load and fire. Hand cannons had a handle, or no handle at all. A wooden stock was added, allowing the weapon to be easily held. The hand cannon evolved into the arquebus by the mid 15th century, the matchlock mechanism was a simple solution to this problem, and placed the match in a clamp on the end of a lever. When a trigger was pulled, the lever would rotate and allowed the match to come in contact with the touch hole, the first European usage of firearms in large ratios was in Hungary under king Matthias Corvinus.
Every third soldier in the Black Army of Hungary had an arquebus, gradual advances in the empirical understanding of the corning of gunpowder made possible a more powerful explosive. The cost of gunpowder gradually fell, by the 16th century the handheld firearm became commonplace, replacing the crossbow and longbow in all advanced armies, and known as the arquebus
1st Infantry Division (United Kingdom)
The 1st Infantry Division was a regular army infantry division of the British Army with a very long history. The division was present at the Peninsular War, the Crimean War, the First World War, General Officer, Lieutenant General Sir John Hope Maitlands Brigade, Major General Maitland 1/1st Foot Guards 3/1st Foot Guards 1 coy. 5/60th Foot Stopfords Brigade, Major General Stopford 1st Bn, Coldstream Foot Guards 1/3rd Foot Guards 1 coy. 5/60th Foot Hinubers Brigade, Major General von Hinuber 1st Line Bn, kings German Legion 2nd Line Bn. KGL Aylmers Brigade, Major General Lord Aylmer 1/37th Foot 2/62nd Foot 76th Foot 77th Foot 85th Foot Napoleon Bonapartes returned during the Congress of Vienna. 1st Division was involved in the Waterloo Campaign seeing its first action at the Battle of Quatre Bras at the Battle of Waterloo, on the extreme right was the chateau and orchard of Hougoumont which was defended by the Divisions 2nd Brigade. The initial attack was by Maréchal de Camp Bauduins 1st Brigade of the 5th Division emptied the wood and park, the British guns were distracted into an artillery duel with French guns and this allowed a second attack by General de Brigade Baron Soyes 2nd Brigade of the 6th Division.
They managed a small breach on the side but could not exploit it. An attack by elements of the 1st Brigade of the 6th Division on the side was more successful. This attack lead to one of the most famous skirmishes in the Battle of Waterloo — Sous-Lieutenant Legros, wielding an axe, a desperate fight ensued between the invading French soldiers and the defending Guards. All of the French who entered, apart from a young boy, were killed in a desperate hand-to-hand fight. The French attack in the vicinity of the farm were repulsed by the arrival of the 2nd Coldstream Guards. Fighting continued around Hougoumont all afternoon with its surroundings heavily invested with French light infantry, most of the conflict took place on the Crimean Peninsula, with additional actions occurring in western Turkey, and the Baltic Sea region. The Crimean War is sometimes considered to be the first modern conflict, the Division which now consisted of the Guards Brigade and the Highland Brigade, was involved in the Battle of Alma, which is considered to be the first battle of the Crimean war.
They were next in action during the Battle of Balaclava, The battle started with a successful Russian attack on Ottoman positions and this led to the Russians breaking through into the valley of Balaklava, where British forces were encamped. The Russian advance was intended to disrupt the British base and attack British positions near Sevastopol from the rear, an initial Russian advance south of the southern line of hills was repulsed by the British. A large attacking force of Russian cavalry advanced over the ridgeline, one of these columns drove south towards the town of Balaklava itself, threatening the main supply of the entire British army. That drive was repulsed by the muskets of the 93rd Regiment and this action became known in history as The Thin Red Line, this battle was well known for the Charge of the Light Brigade. They were involved in the Battle of Inkerman. J
Foraging is searching for wild food resources. It affects an animals fitness because it plays an important role in an ability to survive. Foraging theory is a branch of ecology that studies the foraging behavior of animals in response to the environment where the animal lives. Behavioral ecologists use economic models to understand foraging, many of these models are a type of optimality model, thus foraging theory is discussed in terms of optimizing a payoff from a foraging decision. The payoff for many of these models is the amount of energy an animal receives per unit time, more specifically, foraging theory predicts that the decisions that maximize energy per unit time and thus deliver the highest payoff will be selected for and persist. Behavioral ecologists first tackled this topic in the 1960s and 1970s and their goal was to quantify and formalize a set of models to test their null hypothesis that animals forage randomly. Learning is defined as a change or modification of a behavior based on a previous experience.
Since an animals environment is changing, the ability to adjust foraging behavior is essential for maximization of fitness. Studies in social insects have shown there is a significant correlation between learning and foraging performance. In nonhuman primates, young individuals learn foraging behavior from their peers and elders by watching other group members forage and learning from other members of the group ensure that the younger members of the group learn what is safe to eat and become proficient foragers. One measure of learning is foraging innovation—an animal consuming new food, foraging innovation is considered learning because it involves behavioral plasticity on the animals part. The animal recognizes the need to come up with a new foraging strategy, forebrain size has been associated with learning behavior. Animals with larger sizes are expected to learn better. A higher ability to innovate has been linked to larger sizes in North American. In this study, bird orders that contained individuals with larger forebrain sizes displayed a higher amount of foraging innovation, examples of innovations recorded in birds include following tractors and eating frogs or other insects killed by it and using swaying trees to catch their prey.
Another measure of learning is learning, which refers to an individuals ability to associate the time of an event with the place of that event. This type of learning has been documented in the behaviors of individuals of the stingless bee species Trigona fulviventris. Foraging behavior can be influenced by genetics, honey bee foraging activity occurs both inside and outside the hive for either pollen or nectar
Lieutenant-General Sir Thomas Picton GCB, a Welsh officer of the British Army, fought in a number of campaigns for Britain in the Napoleonic Wars. According to the historian Alessandro Barbero, Picton was respected for his courage, the Duke of Wellington called him a rough foul-mouthed devil as ever lived, but found him capable. Picton came to public attention initially for his cruelty during his governorship of Trinidad. Though he was convicted, the conviction was overturned and he is chiefly remembered for his exploits under Wellington in the Iberian Peninsular War of 1807–1814, during which he fought in many engagements, displaying great bravery and persistence. He was killed in 1815 fighting at the Battle of Waterloo and he was the most senior officer to die at Waterloo. Thomas Picton was the seventh of twelve children of Thomas Picton of Poyston, Wales and he was born in Haverfordwest, Pembrokeshire on 24 August 1758. In 1771 he obtained a commission in the 12th Regiment of Foot. The regiment was stationed at Gibraltar, where he remained until he was made captain in the 75th in January 1778.
The regiment was disbanded five years later, and Picton quelled a mutiny amongst the men by his personal action and courage. Shortly afterwards he was promoted major in the 58th foot, under Sir Ralph Abercromby, who succeeded Vaughan in 1795, he was present at the capture of Saint Lucia and that of St Vincent. After the reduction of Trinidad in 1797, Abercromby made Picton governor of the island, for the next 5 years he held the island with a garrison he considered inadequate against the threats of internal unrest and of reconquest by the Spanish. He ensured order by vigorous action, viewed variously as rough-and-ready justice or as arbitrary brutality, in October 1801 he was gazetted brigadier-general. By then, reports of arbitrariness and brutality associated with his governorship had led to a demand at home for his removal. Furthermore, Trinidad no longer faced any external threat, the Pitt ministry had fallen, in 1802, William Fullarton was appointed as the Senior Member of a commission to govern the island, Samuel Hood became the second member, and Picton himself the junior.
Fullarton had a different background from Picton. He came from a wealthy and long-established Scots land-owning family and was a Whig MP, a Fellow of the Royal Society, a landlord. He had been a diplomat, before raising a regiment in the course of the American War of Independence of which he naturally became the Colonel. He ended that war in India commanding an army of 14,000 men in operations against Tippu Sultan
Lines of Torres Vedras
The Lines of Torres Vedras were lines of forts built in secrecy to defend Lisbon during the Peninsular War. He used a report of Colonel Vincent, ordered by Junot in 1807, historian John Grehan suggested that the study by Major Neves Costa influenced Wellingtons decision to construct the lines, but in fact the plans pre-dated Costas study. He was inspired by the Martello Towers along the English Channel coast, the work began on several of the main defensive works in November 1809. The work received a boost after the loss to the French of the fortress at the Siege of Almeida in August, the works were sufficiently complete when the French troops arrived in October to make them stop and fall back. Even after the French had retreated from Portugal, construction of the lines continued, the work was supervised by Fletcher, assisted by Major John Thomas Jones, and 11 other British officers, four Portuguese Army engineers, and two KGL officers. The cost was around £100,000, one of the least expensive, the country from Torres Vedras to Lisbon resembles nothing so much as a gigantic mountain-torrent instantaneously converted into solid earth.
The tardiness of Massénas movements, had enabled him to strengthen the first line sufficiently to warrant his holding it in permanence. The additional defences included 23 redoubts mounting 96 guns, besides a flotilla of gunboats to guard the flank on the Tagus. The second section extended from Arruda to the west of Monte Agraço, the third section stretched from the west of Monte Agraço for nearly eight miles to the gorge of the river Zizandre, a little to south of Torres Vedras. This was by nature very advantageous ground, but from want of time had no further strengthened than by two redoubts which commanded the road from Sobral de Monte Agraço to Montachique. Here, were concentrated the 1st, 4th, and 6th divisions, under the eye of Wellington himself, the lines were divided up into districts by Wellington in letter dated 6 October 1810, From Torres Vedras to the sea. HQ at Torres Vedras From Sobral de Monte Agraço to the valley of Calhandrix, HQ at Sobral de Monte Agraço From Alhandra to the valley of Calhandrix.
HQ at Alhandra From the banks of the Tagus, near Alverca, to the Pass of Bucellas, HQ at Bucellas From the Pass of Freixal, near Bucellas, inclusive, to the right of the Pass of Mafra. HQ at Montachique From the Pass of Mafra to the sea, HQ at Mafra Each district was allocated one Captain and one Lieutenant of Engineers. Lastly, the Marquis of la Romana with great generosity brought 8,000 Spaniards of his division likewise within the lines about Mafra. Altogether, Wellington had some 60,000 regular troops whom he could depend upon, both lines extended more than 80 km. The first line had 534 artillery pieces, 2) Military roads to cover the rear of the lines and allowing an extraordinary mobility of forces. It allowed for the supply of combat supplies to be provided by the Royal Waggon Train, in September 1810, the field army had some 66,598 regular soldiers
7th Infantry Division (United Kingdom)
The 7th Division was re-activated during the 2nd Boer War. Its composition in May and June 1900 was as follows, General Officer Commanding and it played a crucial part in the stabilization of the front during the First Battle of Ypres, preventing a German breakthrough, although at a high cost in terms of casualties. The 7th Division fought in most of the battles on the Western Front through to 1917 before being sent to the Italian Front for the remainder of the war. At the battle of Loos in late 1915, the division’s General Officer Commanding, a number of battalions swapped to the brigade from other 7th Division brigades during the transition. When O’Connor was formally appointed on 4 October 1938, the division had not yet fully formed. The Times noted on 19 October 1938 that, “There will be enough infantry to give, already on duty are the 14th, 16th, 17th and 19th Brigades, the brigade from India, and one made up from home and Malta. Soon there will be added units of a mounted brigade, 7th Division HQ moved to Mersa Matruh on 4 September, taking over all troops in the area except The Armoured Division.
The Division was redesignated the 6th Infantry Division on 3 November 1939, List of British divisions in World War I List of British divisions in World War II British Army Order of Battle L. S. Amery, The Times History of the War in South Africa 1899-1902, Sampson Low, Marston,6 Vols 1900–09 Maj. A. F. H. F. com
Sir Harry Smith, 1st Baronet
Lieutenant General Sir Henry George Wakelyn Smith, 1st Baronet GCB, known as Sir Harry Smith, was a notable English soldier and military commander in the British Army of the early 19th century. A veteran of the Napoleonic Wars, he is particularly remembered for his role in the Battle of Aliwal in 1846. He was born in Whittlesey, the son of a surgeon, a chapel in the towns St Marys church was restored in his memory in 1862, and a local community college bears his name, Sir Harry Smith Community College. Harry Smith—for throughout life he adopted the familiar form of his Christian name—was educated privately and was commissioned on 8 May 1805. His first active service was in South America in 1806 during the British invasions of the Río de la Plata and he distinguished himself at the Battle of Montevideo in 1807, but first came to real prominence during the Peninsular War. Smith served throughout these campaigns with the 95th Rifles in which he served from 1808 through to the end of the war at the Battle of Toulouse in 1814, in 1810 he was appointed to ADC to Colonel Beckwith.
Early in 1812 on 28 February he was promoted Captain, having already the previous March joined the 2nd brigade Light Division as major to the Major-Generals staff. The latter, Juana Maria de Los Dolores de León, had but recently emerged from a convent and she accompanied him throughout the rest of the war. Returning to Europe he was a major at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. During the occupation of France he was sent to be Mayor of Cambray in Picardy, with the restoration of peace in France he returned to divisional ADC at Glasgow for Major-General Reynell, GOC Western District of Scotland. Smith impressed Reynell, who helped his appointment as ADC to the Governor of Nova Scotia, Smith was promoted Major in the army by the end of 1826, but remained unattached to a regimental posting, and was still unattached when raised to Lieutenant-colonel in July 1830. In 1828 Smith was ordered to the Cape of Good Hope and he was in command of a division under Sir Hugh Gough at the battles of Mudki and Ferozeshah, where he conspicuously distinguished himself, but was insufficiently supported by the commander-in-chief.
After the second of these actions Sir Harry Smith was appointed to an independent command, at the battle of Sobraon on 10 February he again commanded a division under Gough. Sir Harry was at the time created a baronet. He was promoted to major-general on 9 November 1846, in 1847 he returned to South Africa as Governor of Cape Colony and high commissioner, with the local rank of lieutenant-general, to grapple with the difficulties he had foreseen eleven years before. He took command of an expedition to deal with the disaffected Boers in the Orange River Sovereignty and it has been asserted that the half-mad Smiths seizure of the entire region of British Kaffraria in 1848 was launched and carried out entirely on his own initiative. Piers Brendon described Smith, placing his foot on the neck of the Xhosan ruler and proclaiming, I am your Paramount Chief, and his reputation now is of someone who behaved autocratically and oppressively towards the Xhosa, and did a great deal of harm. It is said he insisted chiefs kiss his feet, for example and his wife Juana gave her name to Ladysmith in KwaZulu-Natal as well as Ladismith in the Western Cape province