The Battle of Saint-Mihiel was a major World War I battle fought from 12–15 September 1918, involving the American Expeditionary Forces and 110,000 French troops under the command of General John J. Pershing of the United States against German positions; the U. S. Army Air Service played a significant role in this action; this battle marked the first use of the terms "D-Day" and "H-Hour" by the Americans. The attack at the Saint-Mihiel salient was part of a plan by Pershing in which he hoped that the Americans would break through the German lines and capture the fortified city of Metz, it was the first and only offensive launched by the United States Army in World War I, the attack caught the Germans in the process of retreating. This meant that their artillery was out of place and the American attack, coming up against disorganized German forces, proved more successful than expected; the Saint-Mihiel attack established the stature of the U. S. Army in the eyes of the French and British forces, again demonstrated the critical role of artillery during World War I and the difficulty of supplying such massive armies while they were on the move.
The U. S. attack faltered as food supplies were left behind on the muddy roads. The attack on Metz was not realized, as the Supreme Allied Commander Ferdinand Foch ordered the American troops to march towards Sedan and Mézières, which would lead to the Meuse-Argonne Offensive. Saint-Mihiel is a town in the Meuse department in northeastern France. After the end of the 1870–71 Franco-Prussian War, the town was no longer considered important strategically, France did not develop military installations; this changed early in World War I. In 1914, the German command wished to take the Verdun fortifications, which formed a strong point in the French lines. A first attempt, at Bois-le-Pretre, despite violent fighting. During two more attempts, German troops took Saint-Mihiel and the fort at Camp des Romains, but they were stopped at Fort de Troyon to the south of Verdun. During the course of the war, the front did not change much in this area. Saint-Mihiel formed a salient inside the French lines, blocking communications between Nancy and Verdun.
The area near St. Mihiel suffered much fighting: The Crête des Éparges: February–April 1915. At the Bois d'Ailly and the Tranchée de la Soif: isolated behind German lines, Commander d'André's men fought three days without food or water before surrendering in May 1915. At Bois Brûlé, the French suffered many casualties when German conquered a redoubt in December 1914, it was here that the sub-officer Jacques Péricard pronounced the famous words: "Debout les morts!" on 8 April 1915. The forêt d'Apremont, the Tête à vache trenches, Calonne trenches…In spite of French attacks, the German forces were able to retain this strategic location until the last months of the war. General John Pershing thought that a successful Allied attack in the region of St. Mihiel and Verdun would have a significant effect on the German army. General Pershing was aware that the area's terrain setting first dictated that the restricted rail and road communications into Verdun be cleared, that a continuation of the attack to capture the Germany railroad center at Metz would be devastating to the Germans.
For this, he placed his confidence in a young First Infantry Division Major, George Marshall, to move troops and supplies throughout the battle. After these goals were accomplished, the Americans could launch offensives into Germany proper; the American First Army had been taken over the sector of the Allied line. Pershing had to persuade Marshall Foch to permit an American attack on the salient; the weather corps of Corps I Operation Order stated: "Visibility: Heavy driving wind and rain during parts of day and night. Roads: Very muddy." This would pose a challenge to the Americans. In some parts of the road, the men were knee-deep in mud and water. After five days of rain, the ground was nearly impassable to both the American tanks and infantry. Many of the tanks were wrecked by water leaking into their engines, while others got stuck in mud flows; some of the infantrymen developed early stages of trench foot before the trenches were dug. Prior to the American operation, the Germans installed many in-depth series of trenches, wire obstacles, machine-gun nests.
The battlefields' terrain included the nearby premises of three villages: Vigneulles and Hannonville-sous-les-Cotes. Their capture would accelerate the envelopment of the German divisions near St. Mihiel; the American forces planned to breach the trenches and advance along the enemy's logistical road network. The Germans knew many details about the Allied offensive campaign coming against them. One Swiss newspaper had published the date and duration of the preparatory barrage. However, the German Army stationed in the area of St. Mihiel lacked sufficient manpower and effective leadership to launch a counter-attack of its own against the Allies. With Allied offensives to the north, the Germans decided to pull out of the St. Mihiel Salient and consolidate their forces near the Hindenburg Line; the order to evacuate the area was given on 8 September. The Allied forces discovered the information on a written order to Army Group Gallwitz. Although the AEF was new to the French theater of war, it trained hard for nearly a year in preparation for fighting against the Germa
Rasht District or Nohiyai Rasht called Gharm District, is an eastern district in the Region of Republican Subordination in Tajikistan. It lies between Vahdat district on the and Jirgatol district on the east, its capital is Gharm. The population of Rasht district are known as Gharmis; the district is divided administratively into jamoats. They are as follows. During the 1920s Rasht was a hotbed for the Basmachi, the anti-Soviet resistance in Central Asia. In 1929 Basmachi commander Faizal Maksum crossed from Afghanistan into Tajikistan and captured the city Gharm, only to be expelled by Soviet forces. In the 1920s, during the reorganization of borders in Central Asia, a Gharm Oblast was created out of the old Qarategin and Darvaz, districts of Bukhara; the Garm Oblast consisted of much of the Qarategin Valley, as well as the district of Kalai-Khumb. During the 1950s much of the population of Gharm was forcibly relocated by the government to western Tajikistan; this population of people was known as the Gharmis.
In 1955 the Garm oblast was abolished and the land was redistributed to the Gorno-Badakshan Autonomous Oblast and the Regions under Republican Subordination Oblast. The Gharmis continued to have a distinct clan identity in Tajikistan and when the Civil War in Tajikistan broke out in the newly independent country in 1992 many Gharmis sided with the Islamic opposition. During the war many Gharmis were targeted for massacres; the town of Gharm was controlled by the opposition during the part of the civil war in Tajikistan. In 1998 four members of the United Nations Mission of Observers in Tajikistan were murdered by armed men allied with the United Tajik Opposition; these victims were Yutaka Akino, a noted Japanese scholar of Central Asian history, Major Ryszard Szewczyk from Poland. In July 2007 Rasht District suffered a devastating earthquake
This is a list of listed buildings in the parish of Panbride in Angus, Scotland. The scheme for classifying buildings in Scotland is: Category A: "buildings of national or international importance, either architectural or historic. Category B: "buildings of regional or more than local importance. Category C: "buildings of local importance. Of these, 8 per cent were Category A, 50 per cent were Category B, with the rest listed at Category C. List of listed buildings in Angus All entries and coordinates are based on data from Historic Scotland; this data falls under the Open Government Licence
Port Elizabeth railway station is a railway station, located in Port Elizabeth, South Africa. In 1873, Prime Minister John Molteno of the Cape Colony commenced work on connecting Port Elizabeth to the developing national railway network, resulting in the station complex being located in the historic central district, near the harbour; the prosperity which followed the construction of railways to the interior earned for the port the designation of "the Liverpool of South Africa." Passenger services operating from the station include: Metrorail - operates frequent commuter trains to Uitenhage and the surrounding suburbs during weekdays, with a reduced service over weekends Shosholoza Meyl - operates daily inter-city trains to Johannesburg and Bloemfontein. You can get to Cape Town, Kimberley and Durban, to East London, to Mthatha or to Grahamstown Premier Classe - operates twice-weekly luxury trains to Cape Town via George and Oudtshoorn; the Apple Express narrow-gauge tourist train to Avontuur operates from the separate station in Humewood Road near King's Beach.
Josep Colom is a Spanish classical pianist. Colom was born in Spain, in the difficult years of the Spanish post-war, he began piano lessons in Barcelona with his aunt Rosa Colom, moved to Paris to study at the École Normale de Musique. His many awards include First Prize at the Paloma O'Shea Santander International Piano Competition and First Prize at the Jaén and Épinal International Competitions. Since his debut at the Théâtre des Champs Elysées in Paris in 1979, he has toured the five continents giving recitals and concerts with orchestras and performing chamber music with a wide variety of ensembles and artists, he made his first recordings in 1982 with the complete Sonatas of Manuel Blasco de Nebra, for which he was awarded the Spanish Ministry of Culture Prize. In 1989 he recorded the complete works of Manuel de Falla, an album that Fanfare magazine hailed as the best version of Falla's works, he has recorded the complete works of Frederic Mompou, the complete concertos and variations of Johannes Brahms, as well as works by Fauré, Debussy and Brahms in collaboration with the pianist Carmen Deleito.
Mr Colom has served as jury of many important piano competitions, including the Paloma O'Shea International Piano Competition and the International Chopin Piano Competition in Warsaw. In 1998 the Spanish Ministry of Culture awarded him the Premio Nacional de Música. Since 2010 he teaches in Valencia at the Musikeon Postgraduate Programs, gives masterclass in Spain and France, among others. Colom's Bio at the Musikeon website Colom’s Bio at the Festival Ibérico de Música
James "Mingo" Lewis is an American jazz percussionist and drummer who played with Santana, Al Di Meola, The Tubes. Lewis plays congas, timbales, drums, bells, güiro, Syndrum, tambourine and assorted percussion. Lewis is credited with composition of one song on each of the first three Di Meola albums: "The Wizard" on Land of the Midnight Sun, "Flight Over Rio" on Elegant Gypsy, "Chasin' The Voodoo" on Casino. For The Tubes album Now Lewis wrote "God-Bird-Change", which he reprised on Di Meola's Electric Rendezvous Flight Never Ending Carlos Santana - Caravanserai Carlos Santana & Buddy Miles! Live! Return To Forever - Hymn of the Seventh Galaxy Carlos Santana and John McLaughlin - Love Devotion Surrender Billy Joel - Turnstiles Todd Rundgren - Nearly Human XTC - Skylarking Land of the Midnight Sun Elegant Gypsy Casino Splendido Hotel Electric Rendezvous Now What Do You Want from Live Remote Control