Battle of San Lorenzo

The Battle of San Lorenzo was fought on 3 February 1813 in San Lorenzo, Argentina part of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata. A Spanish royalist force under the command of Antonio Zabala was defeated by the Regiment of Mounted Grenadiers, under the command of José de San Martín; this battle was the baptism of fire for this military unit, for San Martín in the Spanish American wars of independence. Montevideo, a royalist stronghold during the Argentine War of Independence, was under siege by José Gervasio Artigas; those in the city raided population centres along the nearby rivers for supplies. San Martín, who shortly before had arrived in Buenos Aires and formed the regiment, followed the royalist ships to San Lorenzo; the area around San Lorenzo formed a large empty plain, so the regiment hid inside the San Carlos convent during the night and San Martín studied the battlefield and the enemy ships from the tower. The battle started at dawn, when the grenadiers made a surprise pincer movement to trap the enemy forces.

One column was led by San Martín, the other by Justo Germán Bermúdez. San Martín fell from his horse, was nearly killed, but Juan Bautista Cabral and Juan Bautista Baigorria intervened and saved him; the royalists continued to raid villages for some time afterwards. This battle was the only one; the city of San Lorenzo keeps historic memorials of the battle and it is referenced in the San Lorenzo march. Although Buenos Aires had suffered a difficult period in its war for independence, its prospects were improving by 1812. Though the defeats of Manuel Belgrano during the Paraguay campaign and Juan José Castelli in the first Upper Peru campaign had generated a political crisis, Belgrano's victory at Tucuman had given new hope to the revolution, which would be strengthened shortly afterwards with the victory at the Battle of Salta. Montevideo, capital of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata since the May Revolution, was under siege by both an army from Buenos Aires led by José Rondeau and a Uruguayan one led by José Gervasio Artigas.

The city, maintained its naval supremacy over Buenos Aires and their ships raided the coasts of the Paraná and Uruguay rivers to gather supplies, despite the siege. Montevideo organized a navy to destroy the gun batteries at Rosario and Diamante, two population centres along the Parana, but were prevented from doing so as Buenos Aires dismantled them knowing that they could not be defended; the royalist expeditionary navy that would raid San Lorenzo comprised eleven ships of varying sizes, two hundred and fifty soldiers and fifty sailors. They moved into the Paraná through the Paraná Guazú River, slowed down by headwinds; the Second Triumvirate promoted José de San Martín to colonel and instructed him to follow them with the Regiment of Mounted Grenadiers and stop the raids. San Martín was influenced by Napoleonic warfare and trained the regiment with the most recent military techniques used in the Napoleonic Wars. San Martín moved the regiment from Retiro to Rosario, nearing the river at San Pedro and San Nicolás.

He was following the Spanish ships and moved at night to avoid detection. San Martín had one hundred and twenty men for this action, reinforced at Rosario by a militia of seventy men under the command of Celedonio Escalada; those reinforcements included twenty-two rifleman, thirty cavalry, a small cannon and men armed with knives. Escalada had made other actions against the royalists before this battle. San Martín discovered that the royalists intended to pillage the San Carlos Convent and pressed the march to arrive there first. One-hundred royalists landed on San Lorenzo, but the only food available to them was some chickens and watermelons. Aware of the risk of pillage, the population had removed the cattle from the area before the royalists arrived. Escalada arrived in San Lorenzo before the bulk of the patriot army, but the dust trail from the path to Rosario revealed their presence. Escalada attacked them but their ship had a longer range than his cannon, keeping him at bay, he was forced to retire.

The Paraguayan disclosed the size of the royalist army and their plan of attacking the convent with a larger force, suspecting that the local money was kept in it. They did not attack the convent right away. Escalada relayed the news; the march from Retiro to the convent took only five days, thanks to the cadet Ángel Pacheco. Pacheco moved ahead of the prepared horses in advance at the relay positions; the whole army hid inside the convent. They were not allowed to light fires or speak during the night. San Martín studied the battlefield from the convent's tower, using a monocular; the battle was fought at the location of the modern city of San Lorenzo, Santa Fe, next to the Paraná River, at the point of its widest flow. The west bank of the river was tall and steep, forming a natural obstacle, ships could only land troops and materials on that side of the river using man-made paths cut into the side; the battlefield was near one of these paths, shaped like a ladder, after which the terrain was a big plain with scattered bushes.

The San Carlos Convent, the main nearby building, was a short distance away from the river. The location was not an easy place to defend without artillery, as the plains made surprise attacks difficult. Except for the convent itself, the terrain did not offer any natural barriers that the patriots could exploit; the flat terrain was ideal for cavalry manoeuvres, the distance between the church and


Macrobathra is a genus of moths in the family Cosmopterigidae. Most species are endemic to Australia. Macrobathra allocrana Turner, 1916 Macrobathra allophyla Macrobathra alternatella Macrobathra anacampta Meyrick, 1914 Macrobathra anemarcha Meyrick, 1886 Macrobathra anemodes Meyrick, 1886 Macrobathra aneurae Turner, 1932 Macrobathra anisodora Meyrick, 1924 Macrobathra antimeloda Meyrick, 1930 Macrobathra aphristis Meyrick, 1889 Macrobathra arneutis Macrobathra arrectella Macrobathra asemanta Lower, 1894 Macrobathra astrota Meyrick, 1914 Macrobathra auratella Viette, 1958 Macrobathra baliomitra Turner, 1932 Macrobathra basisticha Macrobathra bigerella Macrobathra brontodes Meyrick, 1886 Macrobathra callipetala Turner, 1932 Macrobathra callispila Turner, 1916 Macrobathra ceraunobola Meyrick, 1886 Macrobathra chryseostola Turner, 1932 Macrobathra chrysospila Meyrick, 1886 Macrobathra chrysotoxa Meyrick, 1886 Macrobathra cineralella Macrobathra constrictella Macrobathra crococephala Meyrick, 1936 Macrobathra crococosma Meyrick, 1922 Macrobathra dasyplaca Lower, 1894 Macrobathra decataea Meyrick, 1914 Macrobathra deltozona Macrobathra desmotoma Meyrick, 1886 Macrobathra diplochrysa Lower, 1894 Macrobathra dispila Turner, 1932 Macrobathra distincta Macrobathra drosera Lower, 1901 Macrobathra embroneta Turner, 1932 Macrobathra epimela Macrobathra equestris Macrobathra erythrocephala Macrobathra eudesma Lower, 1900 Macrobathra euryleuca Meyrick, 1886 Macrobathra euryxantha Meyrick, 1886 Macrobathra euspila Turner, 1932 Macrobathra fasciata Macrobathra flavidus F.

J. Qian & Y. Q. Liu, 1997 Macrobathra galenaea Meyrick, 1902 Macrobathra gastroleuca Lower, 1905 Macrobathra gentilis Macrobathra hamata Macrobathra hamaxitodes Meyrick, 1886 Macrobathra harmostis Meyrick, 1889 Macrobathra hedrastis Macrobathra heminephela Meyrick, 1886 Macrobathra hemitropa Meyrick, 1886 Macrobathra heterocera Lower, 1894 Macrobathra heterozona Meyrick, 1889 Macrobathra hexadyas Meyrick, 1906 Macrobathra homocosma Meyrick, 1902 Macrobathra honoratella Macrobathra humilis Macrobathra hyalistis Meyrick, 1889 Macrobathra isoscelana Lower, 1893 Macrobathra latipterophora H. H. Li & X. P. Wang, 2004 Macrobathra leucopeda Meyrick, 1886 Macrobathra leucozancla Turner, 1932 Macrobathra lychnophora Turner, 1932 Macrobathra melanargyra Meyrick, 1886 Macrobathra melanomitra Meyrick, 1886 Macrobathra melanota Meyrick, 1886 Macrobathra mesopora Meyrick, 1886 Macrobathra metallica Macrobathra micropis Lower, 1894 Macrobathra microspora Lower, 1900 Macrobathra monoclina Macrobathra monostadia Meyrick, 1886 Macrobathra myriophthalma Meyrick, 1886 Macrobathra myrocoma Macrobathra nephelomorpha Meyrick, 1886 Macrobathra neurocoma Macrobathra nimbifera Turner, 1932 Macrobathra niphadobola Meyrick, 1886 Macrobathra nomaea Macrobathra notomitra Macrobathra notozyga Meyrick, 1914 Macrobathra ochanota Macrobathra paracentra Lower, 1893 Macrobathra parthenistis Meyrick, 1889 Macrobathra peraeota Meyrick, 1921 Macrobathra petalitis Macrobathra phernaea Lower, 1899 Macrobathra philopsamma Lower, 1900 Macrobathra phryganina Turner, 1932 Macrobathra platychroa Lower, 1897 Macrobathra platyzona Turner, 1932 Macrobathra polypasta Turner, 1932 Macrobathra pompholyctis Meyrick, 1889 Macrobathra porphyrea Meyrick, 1886 Macrobathra proxena Meyrick, 1914 Macrobathra psathyrodes Turner, 1932 Macrobathra pyrodoxa Macrobathra quercea Moriuti, 1973 Macrobathra recrepans Meyrick, 1926 Macrobathra rhodospila Meyrick, 1886 Macrobathra rhythmodes Turner, 1916 Macrobathra rubicundella Macrobathra sarcoleuca Meyrick, 1915 Macrobathra sikoraella Macrobathra stenosema Turner, 1932 Macrobathra subharpalea Macrobathra superharpalea Macrobathra synacta Meyrick, 1920 Macrobathra synastra Meyrick, 1886 Macrobathra syncoma Lower, 1899 Macrobathra trimorpha Meyrick, 1889 Macrobathra trithyra Meyrick, 1886 Macrobathra vexillariata Lucas, 1901 Macrobathra vividella Macrobathra xanthoplaca Meyrick, 1902 Macrobathra xuthocoma Meyrick, 1886 Macrobathra xylopterella Macrobathra zonodesma Lower, 1900 Macrobathra centrophena Macrobathra cirrhodora Meyrick, 1915 Macrobathra definitiva Macrobathra lunacrescens Macrobathra monoxantha Li, H.-H.

& X.-P. Wang, 2004: A study of Macrobathra Meyrick from China. Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica 29: 147-152. Moriuti, S. 1973: A new genus and two new species of the Japanese Microlepidoptera. Tyô to Ga 23: 31-38. Full article:. Qian F.-j. & Y.-q. Liu, 1997: A new species of the oecophorids injurious to the cone and seed of China fir.. Scientia Silvae Sinicae 33: 66-68. Full article:. Natural History Museum Lepidoptera genus database

Eureka (University of Cambridge magazine)

Eureka is a journal published annually by The Archimedeans, the Mathematical Society of Cambridge University. It is one of the oldest recreational mathematics publications still in existence. Eureka includes many mathematical articles on a variety different topics – written by students and mathematicians from all over the world – as well as a short summary of the activities of the society, problem sets, puzzles and book reviews. Eureka has been published 65 times since 1939, authors include many famous mathematicians and scientists such as Paul Erdős, Martin Gardner, Douglas Hofstadter, G. H. Hardy, Béla Bollobás, John Conway, Stephen Hawking, Roger Penrose, popular maths writer Ian Stewart, Fields Medallist Timothy Gowers and Nobel Laureate Paul Dirac; the journal was distributed free of charge to all current members of the Archimedeans. Today, it is published electronically as well as in print. Eureka is edited by students from the University. Of the notable mathematical articles, there is an influential paper by Freeman Dyson where he defined the rank of a partition in an effort to prove combinatorially the partition congruences earlier discovered by Srinivasa Ramanujan.

In the article, Dyson made a series of conjectures that were all resolved. Eureka at the website of The Archimedeans