Brazil the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, its most populated city is São Paulo; the federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas. Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 kilometers, it borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile and covers 47.3% of the continent's land area. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats; this unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection.
Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system; the ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. Due to its rich culture and history, the country ranks thirteenth in the world by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Brazil is considered an advanced emerging economy. It has the ninth largest GDP in the world by nominal, eight and PPP measures, it is one of the world's major breadbaskets, being the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years. It is classified as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country, with the largest share of global wealth in Latin America. Brazil is a regional power and sometimes considered a great or a middle power in international affairs. On account of its international recognition and influence, the country is subsequently classified as an emerging power and a potential superpower by several analysts. Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Union of South American Nations, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, it is that the word "Brazil" comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast.
In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil given the etymology "red like an ember", formed from brasa and the suffix -il. As brazilwood produces a deep red dye, it was valued by the European textile industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil. Throughout the 16th century, massive amounts of brazilwood were harvested by indigenous peoples along the Brazilian coast, who sold the timber to European traders in return for assorted European consumer goods; the official Portuguese name of the land, in original Portuguese records, was the "Land of the Holy Cross", but European sailors and merchants called it the "Land of Brazil" because of the brazilwood trade. The popular appellation eclipsed and supplanted the official Portuguese name; some early sailors called it the "Land of Parrots". In the Guarani language, an official language of Paraguay, Brazil is called "Pindorama"; this was the name the indigenous population gave to the region, meaning "land of the palm trees".
Some of the earliest human remains found in the Americas, Luzia Woman, were found in the area of Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais and provide evidence of human habitation going back at least 11,000 years. The earliest pottery found in the Western Hemisphere was excavated in the Amazon basin of Brazil and radiocarbon dated to 8,000 years ago; the pottery was found near Santarém and provides evidence that the tropical forest region supported a complex prehistoric culture. The Marajoara culture flourished on Marajó in the Amazon delta from 800 CE to 1400 CE, developing sophisticated pottery, social stratification, large populations, mound building, complex social formations such as chiefdoms. Around the time of the Portuguese arrival, the territory of current day Brazil had an estimated indigenous population of 7 million people semi-nomadic who subsisted on hunting, fishing and migrant agriculture; the indigenous population of Brazil comprised several large indigenous ethnic groups. The Tupí people were subdivided into the Tupiniquins and Tupinambás, there were many subdivisions of the other gro
Manuel Ceferino Oribe y Viana was the 2nd Constitutional president of Uruguay. Manuel Oribe was the son of Captain Francisco Oribe and María Francisca Viana, a descendant of the first governor of Montevideo, José Joaquín de Viana. At the beginning of the revolution of independence in the Rio de la Plata he enlisted in the patriot ranks as a volunteer, his baptism of fire took place in the battle of Cerrito, on December 31, 1812, during the Second Siege of Montevideo, feat of arms that ended in a victory for the Patriots. He took part alongside José Gervasio Artigas' resistance against the Luso-Brazilian invasion in 1816. In late 1817, with Montevideo fallen into the hands of the Luso-Brazilians, Oribe moved to Buenos Aires along with his brother Ignacio and Colonel Rufino Bauza, taking with him the Freedmen Battalion and an artillery battalion; the historian Francisco Bauza, son of Rufino Bauza, in his "Historia de la dominación española en el Uruguay", argued that given the obsessive insistence of Artigas to name his favorite, Fructuoso Rivera, as military commander and the south of Río Negro to face the invasion, Rufino Bauza and Manuel Oribe would have come out against a situation that led to a violent exchange of words with Artigas, whose military situation was going out of hand.
The personal rivalry between Rivera and Oribe, which dates of such events, the young officer decided to abandon his boss. Carlos Federico Lecor, commander of the occupying forces, offered no hindrance to the passage of eastern officials in Buenos Aires though he could not attract them to your cause. Rivera and his people were in the service of the invader Lusitanians. In Buenos Aires, known by the certifying of stationery at the time, since 1819, along with other easterns as Santiago Vazquez and residents who were opposed to the Brazilian Portuguese occupation and Artigas, have built a secret Masonic society, called the Society of the Eastern Knights, who waited at least until 1821, Cisplatin Congress to undertake a return to the, since called Cisplatina Province and begin work to reverse the situation. Meanwhile, following the defeat of Artigas another section of the eastern elite had acceded to the occupants, accepting and in fact collaborating with the Portuguese; this is the only sector to be represented in Congress Cisplatin, 1821.
The occupation of the Banda Oriental and its transformation into "Cisplatina Province" by the Portuguese and Brazilian troops had resulted in additional fracture of the leading sectors, which has since lined up in two groups separated by the acceptance or rejection of that military presence: The group that included Montevideo-Fructuoso Rivera, pro Portuguese, named Club of the Baron, for its proximity to the invading commander Carlos Federico Lecor The exiles in Buenos Aires, where Oribe was located, a proponent of reintegration into the United Provinces of Río de la Plata as soon as possible. Those groups would become the Colorado and White party, he served as President of Uruguay between 1835 and 1838. Oribe was a big supporter of Juan Manuel de Rosas in Argentina. In 1838 he was forced to resign by Fructuoso Rivera but started a rebel army and began a long civil war which lasted until 1851. Oribe besieged the capital Montevideo for 8 long years. At last Oribe was defeated in 1851 with help from Brazil and Argentine rebels, led by Justo José de Urquiza, who were against Rosas.
In 1857, Oribe and his family narrowly survived a shipwreck. For this reason he presented a golden crown as a gift to the image of the Virgin of the Thirty-Three. Oribe’s supporters became known as the Nationals or Blancos, while his opponents became the Colorados; these remained the main political factions until a third –the Frente Amplio– emerged in the late 20th century. "Leader of the Blanco people". EL PAIS. 2013-04-19. Https://web.archive.org/web/20070713172949/http://www.bartleby.com/65/or/Oribe-Ma.html Columbia Encyclopedia article
Uruguay the Oriental Republic of Uruguay, is a country in the southeastern region of South America. It borders Argentina to its west and Brazil to its north and east, with the Río de la Plata to the south and the Atlantic Ocean to the southeast. Uruguay is home to an estimated 3.44 million people, of whom 1.8 million live in the metropolitan area of its capital and largest city, Montevideo. With an area of 176,000 square kilometres, Uruguay is geographically the second-smallest nation in South America, after Suriname. Uruguay was inhabited by the Charrúa people for 4,000 years before the Portuguese established Colonia del Sacramento in 1680. Montevideo was founded as a military stronghold by the Spanish in the early 18th century, signifying the competing claims over the region. Uruguay won its independence between 1811 and 1828, following a four-way struggle between Spain and Argentina and Brazil, it remained subject to foreign influence and intervention throughout the 19th century, with the military playing a recurring role in domestic politics.
A series of economic crises put an end to a democratic period that had begun in the early 20th century, culminating in a 1973 coup, which established a civic-military dictatorship. The military government persecuted leftists and political opponents, resulting in several deaths and numerous instances of torture by the military. Uruguay is today a democratic constitutional republic, with a president who serves as both head of state and head of government. Uruguay is ranked first in Latin America in democracy, low perception of corruption, e-government, is first in South America when it comes to press freedom, size of the middle class and prosperity. On a per-capita basis, Uruguay contributes more troops to United Nations peacekeeping missions than any other country, it tops the rank of absence of a unique position within South America. It ranks second in the region on economic freedom, income equality, per-capita income and inflows of FDI. Uruguay is the third-best country on the continent in terms of HDI, GDP growth and infrastructure.
It is regarded as a high-income country by the UN. Uruguay was ranked the third-best in the world in e-Participation in 2014. Uruguay is an important global exporter of combed wool, soybeans, frozen beef and milk. Nearly 95% of Uruguay's electricity comes from renewable energy hydroelectric facilities and wind parks. Uruguay is a founding member of the United Nations, OAS, Mercosur, UNASUR and NAM. Uruguay is regarded as one of the most advanced countries in Latin America, it ranks high on global measures of personal rights and inclusion issues. The Economist named Uruguay "country of the year" in 2013, acknowledging the policy of legalizing the production and consumption of cannabis; the name of the namesake river comes from the Spanish pronunciation of the regional Guarani word for it. There are several interpretations, including "bird-river"; the name could refer to a river snail called uruguá, plentiful in the water. In Spanish colonial times, for some time thereafter and some neighbouring territories were called the Cisplatina and Banda Oriental for a few years the "Eastern Province".
Since its independence, the country has been known as la República Oriental del Uruguay, which means "the eastern republic of the Uruguay ". However, it is translated either as the "Oriental Republic of Uruguay" or the "Eastern Republic of Uruguay"; the documented inhabitants of Uruguay before European colonization of the area were the Charrúa, a small tribe driven south by the Guarani of Paraguay. It is estimated that there were about 9,000 Charrúa and 6,000 Chaná and Guaraní at the time of contact with Europeans in the 1500s. Fructuoso Rivera - Uruguay's first president – organized the Charruas' genocide; the Portuguese were the first Europeans to enter the region of present-day Uruguay in 1512. The Spanish arrived in present-day Uruguay in 1516; the indigenous peoples' fierce resistance to conquest, combined with the absence of gold and silver, limited their settlement in the region during the 16th and 17th centuries. Uruguay became a zone of contention between the Spanish and Portuguese empires.
In 1603, the Spanish began to introduce cattle. The first permanent Spanish settlement was founded in 1624 at Soriano on the Río Negro. In 1669–71, the Portuguese built a fort at Colonia del Sacramento. Montevideo was founded by the Spanish in the early 18th century as a military stronghold in the country, its natural harbor soon developed into a commercial area competing with Río de la Plata's capital, Buenos Aires. Uruguay's early 19th century history was shaped by ongoing fights for dominance in the Platine region, between British, Spanish and other colonial forces. In 1806 and 1807, the British army attempted to seize Buenos Aires and Montevideo as part of the Napoleonic Wars. Montevideo was occupied by a British force from February to September 1807. In 1811, José Gervasio Artigas, who became Uruguay's national hero, launched a successful revolt against the Spanish authorities, defeating them on 18 May at the Battle of Las Piedras. In 1813, the new government in Buenos Aires convened a constituent assembly where Artigas emerged as a champ
A league is a unit of length. It was common in Europe and Latin America, but is no longer an official unit in any nation; the word meant the distance a person could walk in an hour. Since the Middle Ages, many values have been specified in several countries; the league was used in Ancient Rome, defined as 1 1⁄2 Roman miles. The origin is the leuga Gallica, the league of Gaul; the Argentine league is 5.572 km or 6,666 varas: 1 vara is 0.83 m. On land, the league is most defined as three miles, though the length of a mile could vary from place to place and depending on the era. At sea, a league is three nautical miles. English usage included many of the other leagues mentioned below; the French lieue – at different times – existed in several variants: 10,000, 12,000, 13,200 and 14,400 French feet, about 3.25 to 4.68 km. It was used along with the metric system for a while but is now long discontinued. Metric lieue was used in France from 1812 to 1840, 1 lieue = 4000 m; as used in Jules Verne's Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea, a league is four kilometres.
In some rural parts of Mexico, the league is still used in the original sense of the distance that can be covered on foot in an hour, so that a league along a good road on level ground is a greater distance than a league on a difficult path over rough terrain. In Portugal and other parts of the former Portuguese Empire, there were several units called league: Légua of 18 to a degree = 6,172.84 meters Légua of 20 to a degree = 5,555.56 meters Légua of 25 to a degree = 4,444.44 metersThe names of the several léguas referred to the number of units that made the length corresponding to an angle degree of a meridian arc. As a transitory measure, after Portugal adopted the metric system, the metric légua, of 5.0 km, was used. In Brazil, the légua is still used where it has been described as about 6.6 km. The legua or Spanish league was understood as equivalent to 3 millas; this varied depending on local standards for the pie and on the precision of measurement, but was equivalent to 4,180 meters before the legua was abolished by Philip II in 1568.
It remains in use in parts of Latin America, where its exact meaning varies. Legua nautica: Between 1400 and 1600 the Spanish nautical league was equal to four Roman miles of 4,842 feet, making it 19,368 feet; that seems pretty straightforward until one realizes that the accepted number of Spanish nautical leagues to a degree varied between 14 1/6 to 16 2/3 so in actual practice the length of a Spanish nautical league was 25,733 feet to 21,874 feet respectively. Legua de por grado: From the 15th century through the early 17th century, the Spanish league of the degree was based on four Arabic miles. Although most contemporary accounts used an Arabic mile of 6,444 feet, which gave a Spanish league of the degree of 25,776 feet others defined an Arabic mile as just 6,000 feet making a Spanish league of the degree 24,000 feet. Legua geographica or geográfica: Starting around 1630 the Spanish geographical league was used as the official nautical measurement and continued so through the 1840s, its use on Spanish charts did not become mandatory until 1718.
It was four millias in length. From 1630 to 1718 a millia was 5,564 feet, making a geographical league of four millias equal 22,256 feet, but from 1718 through the 1830s the millia was defined as the equivalent of just over 5,210 feet, giving a shorter geographical league of just over 20,842 feet. Legua marítima: From around 1840 through the early 20th century, a Spanish marine league equaled 18,263.52 feet, i.e. about 35 feet longer than our modern maritime league. In the early Hispanic settlements of New Mexico, Texas and Colorado, a league was a unit of area, defined as 25 million square varas or about 4,428.4 acres. This usage of league is referenced in the Texas Constitution. So defined, a league of land would encompass a square, one Spanish league on each side. A comparison of the different lengths for a "league", in different countries and at different times in history, is given in the table below. Miles are included in this list because of the linkage between the two units. Similar units: 1066.8 meters – verst, see Obsolete Russian units of measurement 3200 meters – kosh, used in North Bihar, India.
Medieval weights and measures for various definitions of the league. List of obsolete units of measurement Portuguese customary units Spanish customary units Seven-league boots Walking
Rocha is a department in the east of Uruguay. Its capital is the city of Rocha, it borders Maldonado Department to its west, Lavalleja Department to its northwest, Treinta y Tres Department to its north, while to its northeast Laguna Merín forms part of its border with Brazil and at the south end of the lake it borders the southernmost end of Brazil, with the city of Chuy "shared" between both countries, the border passing through its main commercial avenue. Rocha has natural beauties like Cabo Polonio, Santa Teresa National Park, it is well known for its beach resorts, like Punta del Diablo or La Esmeralda, which swell with visitors during the summer holidays. Inland, the primary economy of Rocha is based on large cattle ranches. On 7 July 1880, the department of Rocha was formed from territory that had belonged to the department of Maldonado since the first division of the Republic in departments in 1819. Rocha department features in Carlos Maria Dominguez's 2004 novel Casa de Papel; the narrator visits the ruins of a house of books ergo,'house of paper', built and destroyed by an obsessive book collector on the sand spit separating Rocha lagoon from the ocean.
As of the census of 2011, Rocha Department had a population of 46,071 households. Demographic data for Rocha Department in 2010: Population growth rate: -0.082% Birth Rate: 14.04 births/1,000 people Death Rate: 10.44 deaths/1,000 people Average age: 35.0 Life Expectancy at Birth: Total population: 75.82 years Male: 72.17 years Female: 79.43 years Average per household income: 19,978 pesos/month Urban per capita income: 8,635 pesos/month2010 Data Source: Population stated as per 2011 census. Population stated as per 2011 census. According to the 2011 census, Rocha department has an additional rural population of 4,146. List of populated places in Uruguay#Rocha Department Official site of the Department of Rocha - About the Department INE map of Rocha Department Tourism in Uruguay, Rocha Nuestra Terra, Colección Los Departamentos, Vol.10 "Rocha"
Bento Gonçalves da Silva
Bento Gonçalves, was an army officer, politician and rebel leader of the Empire of Brazil. He was the first President of the Riograndense Republic and is considered by many to be one of the most important figures in the history of Rio Grande do Sul. Although a staunch monarchist, Gonçalves led the rebel forces in the Ragamuffin War. Radicals within the rebel ranks forced the rebellion to become republican, something that Gonçalves opposed. Still though he fought against the Empire, Gonçalves and his troops celebrated the birthday of the young Emperor Dom Pedro II. After the conflict ended with the victory of the Empire, Gonçalves paid his respect to Pedro II by kissing his hand during the latter's trip to Rio Grande do Sul in December 1845, his main companions in arms during the rebellion were Antônio de Souza Neto and Giuseppe Garibaldi
United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata
The United Provinces of the Río de la Plata, earlier known as the United Provinces of South America, a union of provinces in the Río de la Plata region of South America, emerged from the May Revolution in 1810 and the Argentine War of Independence of 1810–1818. It comprised most of the former Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata dependencies and had Buenos Aires as its capital, it is best known in Spanish-language literature as Provincias Unidas del Río de la Plata, this being the most common name in use for the country until the enactment of the 1826 Constitution. The Argentine National Anthem refers to the state as "the United Provinces of the South"; the Constitution of Argentina recognises Provincias Unidas del Río de la Plata as one of the official names of the country, referred to as "Argentine Nation" in modern legislation. The United Provinces of South America were bordered on the south by the sparsely populated territories of the Pampas and Patagonia, home to the Mapuche and Puelche peoples.
To the north, the Gran Chaco was populated by the Guaycuru nations. To the northwest, across the Upper Peru, lay the Spanish Viceroyalty of Perú. Across the Andes, to the west, was the Spanish-controlled Captaincy General of Chile. To the northeast was Colonial Brazil, a part of the Portuguese Empire the Empire of Brazil in 1821; the change from the Viceroyalty into the United Provinces was not a change of governors, but a revolutionary process that would replace the absolutist monarchy with a republic. The main influences in this were the Enlightenment in Spain, promoting new ideas, the Peninsular War that left Spain without a legitimate king after the Abdications of Bayonne; the concept of separation of powers became a tool to prevent despotism. The new political situation generated great political conflict between the cities for two reasons. First, the vacatio regis removed the sovereignty from the King of Spain, but there was no clear view about who and how would be able to claim such sovereignty.
Some people thought that it passed to other offices of the Spanish monarchy, while others held the notion of the retroversion of the sovereignty to the people: sovereignty returned to the people, who had now the right to self-governance. The vertical organization of the absolutist monarchy was compromised as well. Patriots thought that all cities, both in Spain and in the Americas, had the right to self-government, whereas Royalists assigned that right only to cities in European Spain, holding that the Americas should stay subject to the new government that Spain would provide; the other source of conflict was the nature of the new governments, which declared themselves to be provisional during the King's absence but were making strong changes in the political organization. Unlike the First Republic of Venezuela, which declared independence early on, the United Provinces were faced with the inconsistency of acting like an independent state without having declared such independence; the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata were established through a lengthy process that started in May 1810, when the citizens and militias of Buenos Aires, the capital city of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, ousted the Spanish Viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros in the May Revolution.
Although there was not a formal declaration of independence at the time, the government that emerged from the revolution declared loyalty to the deposed king Ferdinand VII, in fact it attempted to reorganise the social and economic structures of the Viceroyalty. As it faced immediate resistance in some quarters, the revolution soon turned to be a War of Independence. In the midst of the war of independence, during the entire 1810-1831 period there were serious conflicts among ever-changing factions regarding the organization of the state and the political aims of the revolutionary governments; these conflicts involved coups d'état, politically motivated trials and imprisonments and developed into an outright civil war. Since the revolution, there were serious conflicts among diverging views regarding the political organization of the provinces. While some advocated a strong and executive central government with little accountability to the regional interests, a position at first favored by the "enlightened" revolutionary and independentist elements, others sought to integrate representatives from the provinces in a larger deliberative assembly.
As the latter position gained the upper hand, the Primera Junta grew to incorporate delegates from the provinces in 1811. However, as it became evident that such an arrangement was not effective enough to lead the war efforts, a triumvirate assumed executive powers while the assembly retained some controlling functions; the Liga Federal, or Liga de los Pueblos Libres, was an alliance of provinces in what is now Argentina and Uruguay, organised under democratic federalist ideals advocated by its leader, José Gervasio Artigas. The government of the United Provinces of South America felt threatened by the growing appeal of the Liga Federal, so they did nothing to repel the incoming Portuguese invasion of Misiones Orientales and the Banda Oriental, the stronghold of Artigas. Brazilian General Carlos Frederico Lecor, thanks to their numerical and material superiority, defea