The Battle of Sluys called the Battle of l'Ecluse, was a naval battle fought on 24 June 1340 between England and France. It took place in the roadstead of the port of Sluys, on a since silted-up inlet between Zeeland and West Flanders; the English fleet of 120–150 ships was led by Edward III of England and the 230-strong French fleet by the Breton knight Hugues Quiéret, Admiral of France, Nicolas Béhuchet, Constable of France. The battle was one of the opening engagements of the Hundred Years' War. Edward sailed from the River Orwell on 22 June and encountered the French blocking his way to Sluys harbour; the French bound their ships into three lines. The English fleet spent some time manoeuvring to gain the advantage of tide. During this delay the French ships were driven to the east of their starting positions and became entangled with each other. Béhuchet and Quiéret ordered the ships to be separated and the fleet attempted to move back to the west, against the wind and the tide. While the French were in this disorganised state the English attacked.
The English were able to manoeuvre against the French and defeat them in detail, capturing most of their ships. The French lost 16,000–20,000 men killed, against 400–600 for the English; the battle gave the English fleet naval supremacy in the English Channel. However, they were unable to take strategic advantage of this and their success interrupted French raids on English territories and shipping. Operationally the battle allowed the English army to land and to besiege the French town of Tournai, albeit unsuccessfully. Since the Norman Conquest of 1066, English monarchs had held titles and lands within France, the possession of which made them vassals of the kings of France. French monarchs systematically sought to check the growth of English power, stripping away lands as the opportunity arose. Over the centuries, English holdings in France had varied in size, but by 1337 only Gascony in south-western France and Ponthieu in northern France were left; the Gascons had customs. A large proportion of the red wine they produced was shipped to England in a profitable trade.
The tax raised from this trade provided the English king with much of his revenue. The Gascons preferred their relationship with a distant English king who left them alone, to one with a French king who would interfere in their affairs. Following a series of disagreements between Philip VI of France and Edward III of England, on 24 May 1337 Philip's Great Council in Paris agreed that the Duchy of Aquitaine Gascony, should be taken back into Philip's hands on the grounds that Edward was in breach of his obligations as a vassal; this marked the start of the Hundred Years' War, to last 116 years. At the beginning of the war the French had the advantage at sea. Galleys had long been used by the Mediterranean powers and the French adopted them for use in the English Channel. Being shallow-draught vessels propelled by banks of oars the galleys could penetrate shallow harbours and were manoeuvrable, making them effective for raiding and ship-to-ship combat in meeting engagements; the French galleys were supplemented by galleys hired from Monaco.
The French were able to disrupt English commercial shipping, principally the Gascon wine and the Flanders wool trades, as well as raiding the south and east coasts of England at will. Operating the galleys was a specialist activity and called for trained crews, who were also drawn from Genoa, Monaco and, to a lesser extent, other Mediterranean ports; the English did not have a purpose-built navy. Edward owned only three warships, they relied on requisitioning the merchant vessels of English traders. Cogs had a deep draught, a round hull and were propelled by a single large sail set on a mast amidships, they were converted into warships by the addition of wooden "castles" at the bow and stern and the erection of crow's nest platforms at the masthead. The cogs were able to carry many fighting men, their high freeboard made them superior to the oared vessels in close combat when they were fitted with the castles from which arrows or bolts could be fired or stones dropped on to enemy craft alongside.
By English common law, the crown was required to compensate the owners of ships impressed into service, but in practice he paid little and late, which caused shipowners to be reluctant to answer summonses to arms. In March 1338 the English town of Portsmouth was razed by French galleys. Five English ships carrying wool were captured off Walcheren in September after a fierce fight known as the Battle of Arnemuiden; the lost ships included two of Edward's three warships: the Christopher and the "great cog" Cog Edward. In October the major port of Southampton was burnt down; the following year it was the turn of Hastings. In 1339 there had been discontent among the Genoese mercenaries hired by the French, whose commander had not been passing on their pay. Believing the fault lay with their French paymasters a deputation sought an audience with the French King in August, he jailed them, causing the Genoese crews to return to the Mediterranean. When the mutinous sailors arrived back in Genoa they led an uprising which overthrew the ruling patricians.
The new regime was disinclined to enter into new contracts with the French. When several ship captains were persuaded to, they were bribed by English agents to renege. In January 1340 the English raided the port of Boulogne, where the majority of the French galley fleet was drawn up on the harbour beach and was inadequately guarded. Taking advantage of a m
You Will Be My Wife is a 1932 German comedy film directed by Carl Boese, Serge de Poligny and Heinz Hille and starring Alice Field, Roger Tréville and Lucien Baroux. It is the French-language version of UFA's The Cheeky Devil; the film's sets were designed by the art directors Willi Herbert Lippschitz. Alice Field as Alice Ménard Roger Tréville as Le jeune homme Lucien Baroux as Gustave Ménard Lucien Callamand as Le portier Paulette Dubost as Annette Jane Pierson as La mère de Loulou Janine Ronceray as Loulou Gazelle Pierre Sergeol as Henri Latour Dayna Oscherwitz & MaryEllen Higgins; the A to Z of French Cinema. Scarecrow Press, 2009. You Will Be My Wife on IMDb
Ferenc Aurél Pulszky de Cselfalva et Lubócz was a Hungarian politician and nobleman. After fleeing Hungary in 1849 and being condemned to death in his absence, he was able to resume his political career there in 1866 under an imperial amnesty, he was born at Eperjes, now Prešov in Slovakia. After studying law and philosophy at the high schools of his native town and Miskolc, he traveled abroad. England attracted him, his German-language book Aus dem Tagebuch eines in Grossbritannien reisenden Ungarns gained him membership of the Hungarian Academy. Elected to the Diet of Hungary of 1840, he was in 1848 appointed to a financial post in the Hungarian government, was transferred in a similar capacity to Vienna under Esterházy. However, he was suspected of intriguing with the revolutionists of that year and fled to Budapest, where he became an active member of the Committee of National Defence; when obliged to flee again after Hungary's defeat in the 1848–49 war of independence, he joined Lajos Kossuth in England and with him made a tour in the United States.
In collaboration with his wife, he wrote a narrative of this voyage entitled White, Black. He wrote a historical introduction to his wife's Memoirs of a Hungarian Lady. Pulszky was condemned to death in contumaciam by a council of war in his home country in 1852. In 1860 he went to Italy, took part in Giuseppe Garibaldi's ill-fated expedition to Rome, was interned as a prisoner of war in Naples. Pulszky's salon in a villa in S. Margherita a Montici, was the liveliest in town, he financed the newspaper "Il Progresso." His son, Giulio Francesco Pulszky died on November 19th, 1863, age 14, is buried at English Cemetery, Florence. His surviving children were Augustus, Charles and Garibaldi. Amnestied by the emperor of Austria in 1866, Pulszky re-entered public life, he was in 1867–1876 and again in 1884 a member of the newly reformed Diet or National Assembly, where he joined the party named after Ferenc Deák. In addition to his political activity, Pulszky was president of the literary section of the Hungarian Academy and director of the National Museum in Budapest, where he became distinguished for his archaeological researches.
He employed his influence to promote liberal views in his native country. He died in Budapest on September 9th, 1897. Pulszky was initiated in 1863 into Lodge Dante Alighieri in Turin and was soon raised to the 33rd grade of the Scottish Rite. After his return to Hungary he contributed to reestablishing Hungarian freemasonry, first as Master of the Lodge "Einigkeit in Vaterland/Egység a hazában” as first Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of St. John. After the establishment of the Symbolic Grand Lodge of Hungary he became its first Grand Master. In 1875, he supported Countess Helene Hadik Barkóczy's initiation into a Masonic lodge. Among his writings are Die Jacobiner in Ungarn and Életem és korom, many treatises on Hungarian questions in the publications of the Hungarian Academy. Laszló Lovassy József Madarász János György Szilágyi, "A Forty-Eighter's Vita Contemplativa: Ferenc Pulszky", The Hungarian Quarterly, 39:149 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed..
"Pulszky, Ferencz Aurel". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press; this work in turn cites: F. W. Newman, Reminiscences of Kossuth and Pulszky, 1888 Rines, George Edwin, ed.. "Pulszky, Franz Aurelius". Encyclopedia Americana. "Ferenc Pulszky". Hungarian Masonic Wiki. Retrieved 2013-01-14. Vári László. "Hadik-Barkóczy Ilona és a szabadkőművesek". Aetas. 27: 49–62. Vári, László. "The Curious Case of Helene Hadik-Barkóczy with the Freemasons". Www.academia.edu. Www.academia.edu. Retrieved January 19, 2019. Works by Francis Pulszky at Project Gutenberg