Action of 30 September 1780
The Action of 30 September 1780 was a minor naval engagement off the Bermudas, where HMS Pearl captured the L'Espérance, a French frigate of 32 guns launched in 1779. HMS Pearl under the command of George Montagu was sent out to North America, on 30 September 1780, soon encountered a frigate off the Bermudas; as Pearl closed Montagu cleared for action and engaged close for two hours maintained a running fight for a further two hours and more when the frigate struck. The prize turned out to be the French frigate L'Espérance of about 850 tons of thirty two guns consisting of twelve and six pounders, nearly 200 men and with a valuable cargo heading from Cape Francois to Bordeaux. L'Espérance lost 20 killed and 24 wounded as well as the crew & marines captured, while Pearl's losses were six killed and ten wounded; the captured French frigate was renamed HMS Clinton. BibliographyAllen, Joseph. Battles of the British Navy, Volume 1. Bohn's illustrated library. ASIN B009ZMMQ56. Clowes, William Laird; the Royal Navy: v. 4: A History - From the Earliest Times to 1900.
Chatham Publishing. ISBN 978-1861760128
Kingdom of Great Britain
The Kingdom of Great Britain called Great Britain, was a sovereign state in western Europe from 1 May 1707 to 31 December 1800. The state came into being following the Treaty of Union in 1706, ratified by the Acts of Union 1707, which united the kingdoms of England and Scotland to form a single kingdom encompassing the whole island of Great Britain and its outlying islands, with the exception of the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands; the unitary state was governed by a single parliament and government, based in Westminster. The former kingdoms had been in personal union since James VI of Scotland became King of England and King of Ireland in 1603 following the death of Elizabeth I, bringing about the "Union of the Crowns". After the accession of George I to the throne of Great Britain in 1714, the kingdom was in a personal union with the Electorate of Hanover; the early years of the unified kingdom were marked by Jacobite risings which ended in defeat for the Stuart cause at Culloden in 1746.
In 1763, victory in the Seven Years' War led to the dominance of the British Empire, to become the foremost global power for over a century and grew to become the largest empire in history. The Kingdom of Great Britain was replaced by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on 1 January 1801 with the Acts of Union 1800; the name Britain descends from the Latin name for the island of Great Britain, Britannia or Brittānia, the land of the Britons via the Old French Bretaigne and Middle English Bretayne, Breteyne. The term Great Britain was first used in 1474; the use of the word "Great" before "Britain" originates in the French language, which uses Bretagne for both Britain and Brittany. French therefore distinguishes between the two by calling Britain la Grande Bretagne, a distinction, transferred into English; the Treaty of Union and the subsequent Acts of Union state that England and Scotland were to be "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain", as such "Great Britain" was the official name of the state, as well as being used in titles such as "Parliament of Great Britain".
Both the Acts and the Treaty describe the country as "One Kingdom" and a "United Kingdom", which has led some much publications into the error of treating the "United Kingdom" as a name before it came into being in 1801. The websites of the Scottish Parliament, the BBC, others, including the Historical Association, refer to the state created on 1 May 1707 as the United Kingdom of Great Britain; the term United Kingdom was sometimes used during the 18th century to describe the state, but was not its name. The kingdoms of England and Scotland, both in existence from the 9th century, were separate states until 1707. However, they had come into a personal union in 1603, when James VI of Scotland became king of England under the name of James I; this Union of the Crowns under the House of Stuart meant that the whole of the island of Great Britain was now ruled by a single monarch, who by virtue of holding the English crown ruled over the Kingdom of Ireland. Each of the three kingdoms maintained laws.
Various smaller islands were in the king's domain, including the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands. This disposition changed when the Acts of Union 1707 came into force, with a single unified Crown of Great Britain and a single unified parliament. Ireland remained formally separate, with its own parliament, until the Acts of Union 1800; the Union of 1707 provided for a Protestant-only succession to the throne in accordance with the English Act of Settlement of 1701. The Act of Settlement required that the heir to the English throne be a descendant of the Electress Sophia of Hanover and not be a Catholic. Legislative power was vested in the Parliament of Great Britain, which replaced both the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. In practice it was a continuation of the English parliament, sitting at the same location in Westminster, expanded to include representation from Scotland; as with the former Parliament of England and the modern Parliament of the United Kingdom, the Parliament of Great Britain was formally constituted of three elements: the House of Commons, the House of Lords, the Crown.
The right of the English peerage to sit in the House of Lords remained unchanged, while the disproportionately large Scottish peerage was permitted to send only 16 representative peers, elected from amongst their number for the life of each parliament. The members of the former English House of Commons continued as members of the British House of Commons, but as a reflection of the relative tax bases of the two countries the number of Scottish representatives was reduced to 45. Newly created peers in the Peerage of Great Britain were given the automatic right to sit in the Lords. Despite the end of a separate parliament for Scotland, it retained its own laws and system of courts, As its own established Presbyterian Church, control over its own schools; the social structure was hierarchical, the same elite remain in control after 1707. Scotland continued to have its own excellent universities, with the strong intellectual community in Edinburgh, The Scottish Enlightenment had a major impact on British and European thinking.
As a result of Poynings' Law of 1495, the Parliament of Ireland was subordinate to the Parliament of England, after 1707 to the Parliament of Great Britain. The Westminster parliament's Declaratory Act 1719 (also called the Dependency of Ireland
Battle off Barbados
The Battle off Barbados was fought in March 1778 during the American Revolutionary War. While escorting a fleet of American ships in the West Indies, the frigate USS Randolph was attacked by the British ship-of-the-line HMS Yarmouth; the following action resulted in America's most costly naval defeat, in terms of human lives, until the sinking of USS Arizona in 1941. Captain Nicholas Biddle commanded the thirty-six-gun USS Randolph, having received orders from John Rutledge to break the enemy blockade of Charleston, South Carolina where a large number of merchantmen were trapped. After breaking the blockade Biddle was to sail into the South Atlantic. Four other armed ships accompanied the Randolph in this mission: the General Moultrie, the Notre Dame, the Fair American and the Polly. However, after sailing out to meet the British off Charleston on February 14, the enemy was nowhere in sight, so the American fleet headed for the West Indies where Biddle would raid commerce. On February 16, the fleet burned a British ship, dis-masted by a privateer, on March 4, the Polly captured a small schooner, added to the fleet as a tender.
Three days after that, at about 5:30 pm, on March 7, 1778, the Americans were sailing off the eastern coast of Barbados when lookouts spotted a large ship to the windward. Captain Biddle assumed the vessel to be a man-o-war so he directed most of his ships to continue on while he remained behind with the Randolph and the eighteen-gun ship General Moultrie to engage the oncoming vessel; the enemy ship turned out to be the sixty-four-gun HMS Yarmouth under the command of Captain Nicholas Vincent. After a few hours of maneuvering, at about 9:00 pm, the Americans raised their colors and opened fire on the Yarmouth with a broadside; the British, in turn and opened fire. This bloody battle raged on for twenty minutes. Captain Biddle continued to fight, it is thought that the shots that wounded him came from the General Moultrie, which accidentally struck the Randolph. The Americans seemed to be on the verge of victory when a spark entered the Randolph's powder magazine, causing a large explosion that destroyed the frigate in an instant.
The USS Randolph sank with a loss of 301 men and only four survivors. Captain Biddle died ten days due to the wounds he sustained. According to Captain Hall of the Notre Dame and his men damaged the Yarmouth in the first twelve to fifteen minutes, while the American ships were still unharmed; the Yarmouth lost her bowsprit and her topmasts, a portion of which fell down and damaged the poop deck. Another portion of the topmasts fell into the top-gallant sails and onto the cap. Five British sailors were killed and another twelve men received wounds. After sinking the Randolph, Captain Vincent attempted to pursue the other American ships, to no avail, as they dispersed in separate ways. Damage to the Yarmouth's sail gave the Americans the advantage to slip away; the four surviving Americans were not captured until five days later. The four survivors were found clinging to wreckage and had survived by sucking rain water out of a blanket; the death of Captain Biddle was considered a severe blow to the Continental Navy.
Biddle was well regarded as a professional sailor and a strong leader. This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. Allen, Dardner W.. A naval history of the American Revolution, Volume 1. Houghton Mifflin Company. Maclay, Edgar S.. A History of the United States Navy, from 1775 to 1898. D. Appleton and Co
Kingdom of France
The Kingdom of France was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe. It was one of the most powerful states in Europe and a great power since the Late Middle Ages and the Hundred Years' War, it was an early colonial power, with possessions around the world. France originated as West Francia, the western half of the Carolingian Empire, with the Treaty of Verdun. A branch of the Carolingian dynasty continued to rule until 987, when Hugh Capet was elected king and founded the Capetian dynasty; the territory remained known as Francia and its ruler as rex Francorum well into the High Middle Ages. The first king calling himself Roi de France was Philip II, in 1190. France continued to be ruled by the Capetians and their cadet lines—the Valois and Bourbon—until the monarchy was overthrown in 1792 during the French Revolution. France in the Middle Ages was a feudal monarchy. In Brittany and Catalonia the authority of the French king was felt. Lorraine and Provence were states of the Holy Roman Empire and not yet a part of France.
West Frankish kings were elected by the secular and ecclesiastic magnates, but the regular coronation of the eldest son of the reigning king during his father's lifetime established the principle of male primogeniture, which became codified in the Salic law. During the Late Middle Ages, the Kings of England laid claim to the French throne, resulting in a series of conflicts known as the Hundred Years' War. Subsequently, France sought to extend its influence into Italy, but was defeated by Spain in the ensuing Italian Wars. France in the early modern era was centralised. Religiously France became divided between the Catholic majority and a Protestant minority, the Huguenots, which led to a series of civil wars, the Wars of Religion. France laid claim to large stretches of North America, known collectively as New France. Wars with Great Britain led to the loss of much of this territory by 1763. French intervention in the American Revolutionary War helped secure the independence of the new United States of America but was costly and achieved little for France.
The Kingdom of France adopted a written constitution in 1791, but the Kingdom was abolished a year and replaced with the First French Republic. The monarchy was restored by the other great powers in 1814 and lasted until the French Revolution of 1848. During the years of the elderly Charlemagne's rule, the Vikings made advances along the northern and western perimeters of the Kingdom of the Franks. After Charlemagne's death in 814 his heirs were incapable of maintaining political unity and the empire began to crumble; the Treaty of Verdun of 843 divided the Carolingian Empire into three parts, with Charles the Bald ruling over West Francia, the nucleus of what would develop into the kingdom of France. Charles the Bald was crowned King of Lotharingia after the death of Lothair II in 869, but in the Treaty of Meerssen was forced to cede much of Lotharingia to his brothers, retaining the Rhone and Meuse basins but leaving the Rhineland with Aachen and Trier in East Francia. Viking advances were allowed to increase, their dreaded longships were sailing up the Loire and Seine rivers and other inland waterways, wreaking havoc and spreading terror.
During the reign of Charles the Simple, Normans under Rollo from Norway, were settled in an area on either side of the River Seine, downstream from Paris, to become Normandy. The Carolingians were to share the fate of their predecessors: after an intermittent power struggle between the two dynasties, the accession in 987 of Hugh Capet, Duke of France and Count of Paris, established the Capetian dynasty on the throne. With its offshoots, the houses of Valois and Bourbon, it was to rule France for more than 800 years; the old order left the new dynasty in immediate control of little beyond the middle Seine and adjacent territories, while powerful territorial lords such as the 10th- and 11th-century counts of Blois accumulated large domains of their own through marriage and through private arrangements with lesser nobles for protection and support. The area around the lower Seine became a source of particular concern when Duke William took possession of the kingdom of England by the Norman Conquest of 1066, making himself and his heirs the King's equal outside France.
Henry II inherited the Duchy of Normandy and the County of Anjou, married France's newly divorced ex-queen, Eleanor of Aquitaine, who ruled much of southwest France, in 1152. After defeating a revolt led by Eleanor and three of their four sons, Henry had Eleanor imprisoned, made the Duke of Brittany his vassal, in effect ruled the western half of France as a greater power than the French throne. However, disputes among Henry's descendants over the division of his French territories, coupled with John of England's lengthy quarrel with Philip II, allowed Philip II to recover influence over most of this territory. After the French victory at the Battle of Bouvines in 1214, the English monarchs maintained power only in southwestern Duchy of Guyenne; the death of Charles IV of France in 1328 without male heirs ended the main Capetian line. Under Salic law the crown could not pass through a woman (Philip IV's daughter
Capture of Grenada (1779)
The Capture of Grenada was an amphibious expedition in July 1779 during the Anglo-French War. Charles Hector, comte D'Estaing led French forces against the British-held West Indies island of Grenada; the French forces landed on July 2 and the assault occurred on the night of July 3–4. The French forces assaulted the British fortifications on Hospital Hill, overlooking the island's capital, Saint George's; the British cannons were turned against Fort George. British Governor Lord Macartney opened negotiations to surrender. Admiral d'Estaing controversially rejected Macartney's terms of capitulation, instead insisting on him adopting the harsher terms he had written. Macartney rejected those terms. D'Estaing thereafter permitted his forces to loot the town, Macartney was sent to France as a prisoner of war. On July 5, French forces re-embarked when word arrived that a British fleet under Admiral John Byron was approaching; the two fleets battled the next day. The French damaged several British ships.
Under the terms of the Treaty of Paris, France returned Grenada to British control at the end of the war. Following the entry of France into the American War of Independence as an American ally in early 1778, French Admiral the comte D'Estaing arrived in the West Indies in early December 1778 commanding a fleet of twelve ships of the line and a number of smaller vessels. At about the same time a British fleet under Admiral William Hotham arrived, augmenting the West Indies fleet of Admiral Samuel Barrington; the British captured French-held St. Lucia, despite d'Estaing's attempt at relief; the British used St. Lucia to monitor the French on Martinique; the British fleet was further reinforced in January 1779 by ten ships of the line under Admiral John Byron, who assumed command of the British Leeward Islands station. Throughout the first half of 1779, both fleets received additional reinforcements, after which the French fleet was superior to that of the British. Byron departed St. Lucia on June 6 in order to provide escort services to British merchant ships gathering at St. Kitts for a convoy to Europe, leaving d'Estaing free to act.
D'Estaing and the French governor-general at Martinique, the marquis de Bouillé, seized the opportunity to begin a series of operations against nearby British possessions. Their first target, the isle of Saint Vincent, fell on June 18, d'Estaing turned his attention to other islands, he had hoped to capture Barbados, a key British possession, but after making no progress against the prevailing easterly trade winds, he turned his attention instead to Grenada. Grenada was one of Britain's richest colonies, producing significant quantities of sugar on its plantations. Lord Macartney, the British governor, had been alerted to the possibility of a French attack, he made repeated requests for support to Admiral Byron and the British commander at St. Kitts, but was told that Saint Vincent was the principal French interest. However, Byron stated. Macartney had at his disposal 101 soldiers drawn from the 48th Regiment of Foot and 24 artillery men, he had over 400 militia and volunteers, but did not consider these forces dependable because one third of them were of French extraction.
He ordered the construction of significant fortifications on Hospital Hill, a prominence overlooking the island capital St. George's; the steep hillsides were fortified by stone walls, the hilltop had a palisade surrounding a series of entrenchments. The French fleet anchored off the Grenada coast just north of St. George's on July 2; the troops that d'Estaing landed that day consisted of the 1,400-man Irish Dillon Regiment and 700 troops drawn from the regiments Champagne, Foix and Hainault. With the arrival of the French, Macartney ordered his forces to withdraw behind the fortifications of Hospital Hill. D'Estaing spent July 3 reconnoitering the British position. Concerned that Byron might appear at any time, he decided to launch an attack on Hospital Hill, he first sent a parley flag to Macartney demanding his surrender. D'Estaing's plan of attack called for three columns to attack the back side of the fortifications with bayonets, while a small fourth detachment made a demonstration from a location where the British might more reasonably expect an attack, in other words a decoy or distraction.
On the evening of July 3 these formations moved out. The columns, each numbering 300 men, were led by Arthur Dillon, his brother Édouard, the comte de Noailles. Arthur Dillon's column was accompanied by an advance guard of 180 under the comte de Durat, the demonstration force numbered just 200. At 4:00 am on the 4th the demonstration force opened fire, while the other three columns charged up Hospital Hill; the British defenders most fled down the hill to the apparent safety of Fort George. The British, in their haste to leave the premises, neglected to spike some of the cannons, they abandoned many valuables, brought up on the heights for safekeeping. The French used. Realizing the situation was hopeless, Macartney raised the white flag; the French took about 700 prisoners, claimed casualties of 36 killed and 71 wounded. British reports, claimed the French casualties numbered closer to 300; the French claimed as prizes 30 merchant ships anchored in the harbor. Admiral d'Estaing rejected Macartney's proposed terms of capitulations, countering with a list of articles that he had drafted.
Macartney found d'Estaing's proposed articles "not unpr
Barbados is an island country in the Lesser Antilles of the West Indies, in the Caribbean region of North America. It is 34 kilometres in length and up to 23 km in width, covering an area of 432 km2, it is situated in the western area of the North Atlantic and 100 km east of the Windward Islands and the Caribbean Sea. It is about 168 km east of both the countries of Saint Lucia and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and 400 km north-east of Trinidad and Tobago. Barbados is outside the principal Atlantic hurricane belt, its capital and largest city is Bridgetown. Inhabited by Kalinago people since the 13th century, prior to that by other Amerindians, Barbados was visited by Spanish navigators in the late 15th century and claimed for the Spanish Crown, it first appeared in a Spanish map in 1511. The Portuguese claimed the island in 1536, but abandoned it, with their only remnants being an introduction of wild hogs for a good supply of meat whenever the island was visited. An English ship, the Olive Blossom, arrived in Barbados in 1625.
In 1627, the first permanent settlers arrived from England, it became an English and British colony. As a wealthy sugar colony, it became an English centre of the African slave trade until that trade was outlawed in 1807, with final emancipation of slaves in Barbados occurring over a period of years from 1833. On 30 November 1966, Barbados became an independent state and Commonwealth realm with Elizabeth II as its queen, it has a population of 287,010 people, predominantly of African descent. Despite being classified as an Atlantic island, Barbados is considered to be a part of the Caribbean, where it is ranked as a leading tourist destination. Forty percent of the tourists come from the UK, with the US and Canada making up the next large groups of visitors to the island; the name "Barbados" is from either the Portuguese term Os Barbados or the Spanish equivalent, Los Barbados, both meaning "the bearded ones". It is unclear whether "bearded" refers to the long, hanging roots of the bearded fig-tree, indigenous to the island, or to the bearded Caribs who once inhabited the island, or, more fancifully, to a visual impression of a beard formed by the sea foam that sprays over the outlying reefs.
In 1519, a map produced by the Genoese mapmaker Visconte Maggiolo showed and named Barbados in its correct position. Furthermore, the island of Barbuda in the Leewards is similar in name and was once named "Las Barbudas" by the Spanish, it is uncertain. One lesser-known source points to earlier revealed works predating contemporary sources indicating it could have been the Spanish. Many if not most believe the Portuguese, en route to Brazil, were the first Europeans to come upon the island; the original name for Barbados in the Pre-Columbian era was Ichirouganaim, according to accounts by descendants of the indigenous Arawakan-speaking tribes in other regional areas, with possible translations including "Red land with white teeth" or "Redstone island with teeth outside" or "Teeth". Colloquially, Barbadians refer to their home island as "Bim" or other nicknames associated with Barbados, including "Bimshire"; the origin is uncertain. The National Cultural Foundation of Barbados says that "Bim" was a word used by slaves, that it derives from the Igbo term bém from bé mụ́ meaning'my home, kind', the Igbo phoneme in the Igbo orthography is close to.
The name could have arisen due to the large percentage of enslaved Igbo people from modern-day southeastern Nigeria arriving in Barbados in the 18th century. The words'Bim' and'Bimshire' are recorded in the Oxford English Dictionary and Chambers Twentieth Century Dictionaries. Another possible source for'Bim' is reported to be in the Agricultural Reporter of 25 April 1868, where the Rev. N. Greenidge suggested the listing of Bimshire as a county of England. Expressly named were "Wiltshire, Hampshire and Bimshire". Lastly, in the Daily Argosy of 1652, there is a reference to Bim as a possible corruption of'Byam', the name of a Royalist leader against the Parliamentarians; that source suggested the followers of Byam became known as'Bims' and that this became a word for all Barbadians. Amerindian settlement of Barbados dates to about the 4th to 7th centuries AD, by a group known as the Saladoid-Barrancoid; the Arawaks from South America became dominant around 800 AD, maintained that status until around 1200.
In the 13th century, the Kalinago arrived from South America. The Spanish and Portuguese claimed Barbados from the late 16th to the 17th centuries; the Arawaks are believed to have fled to neighbouring islands. Apart from displacing the Caribs, the Spanish and Portuguese made little impact and left the island uninhabited; some Arawaks continue to live in Barbados. In the early years the majority of the labour was provided by European indentured servants English and Scottish, with enslaved Africans and enslaved Amerindian providing little of the workforce. During the Cromwellian era this included a large number of prisoners-of-war and people who were illicitly kidnapped, who were forcibly transported to the island and sold as servants; these last two groups were predominately Irish, as several thousand were infamously rounded up by Engli
Action of 18 October 1782
The Action of 18 October 1782 was a minor naval engagement of the Anglo-French War, in which the French 74-gun ship of the line Scipion, accompanied by a frigate, was chased by two Royal Navy ships of the line, HMS London and Torbay. Outmanoeuvring her larger opponents, Scipion obtained a favourable position that allowed her to rake HMS London, causing severe damage and escaping; the British resumed the chase, Scipion struck a rock in Samaná Bay, becoming a total loss. Allen, Joseph. Battles of the British Navy. London: Henry Bohn. pp. 349–350