The River Forth is a major river, 47 km long, whose drainage basin covers much of Stirlingshire in Scotland's Central Belt. The Gaelic name is Abhainn Dubh, meaning "black river", in the upper reach above Stirling. Below the tidal reach, its name is Uisge For; the Forth rises in a mountainous area 30 km west of Stirling. Ben Lomond's eastern slopes drain into the Duchray Water which meets with Avondhu River coming from Loch Ard; the confluence of these two streams is the nominal start of the River Forth. From there it flows eastward, through Aberfoyle, joining with the Kelty Water, about 5 km further downstream; the flat expanse of the Carse of Stirling follows including Flanders Moss. It is joined by the River Teith just west of the M9, the next tributary being the Allan Water just east of that motorway. From there it meanders into the ancient port of Stirling. At Stirling the river widens, becomes tidal, it is here that the last ford of the river exists. From Stirling, the Forth flows east accepting the Bannock Burn from the south before passing the town of Fallin.
Two towns of Clackmannanshire are passed: firstly Cambus followed by Alloa. Upon reaching Airth on the south shore and Kincardine on the north, the river begins to widen and becomes the Firth of Forth; the banks have many settlements including Aberfoyle, Stirling, Cambus, Alloa, South Alloa, Dunmore and Kincardine. Beyond this the brackish water is considered the Firth of Forth. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries Stirling harbour was a busy port, with goods coming into Scotland and being exported to Europe. Links with the Hansa towns were strong, Stirling had a close relationship with Bruges in Belgium and Veere in the Netherlands. After 1707 much of the trade shifted to the port of Glasgow, as trade with America became the new focus. During the First and Second World Wars, Stirling harbour thrived again as a gateway for supplies of tea to Scotland. Trade returned after the wars but the few agricultural merchants based at Stirling found such shipping uncompetitive due to high shore dues levied by the harbour’s owners.
Today Stirling's harbour is not used but there are plans to redevelop it. Upstream of Stirling, the river is crossed in numerous places. After its confluence with the Teith and Allan, the river is sufficiently wide that a significant bridge is required. A bridge has existed at Stirling since at least the 13th century, until the opening of the road crossing at Kincardine in 1936, Stirling remained the easternmost road crossing; the Alloa Swing Bridge, a railway bridge between Alloa on the north shore and Throsk on the south opened in 1885 and was closed in 1970. Only the metal piers remain; the Clackmannanshire Bridge just upstream of the Kincardine Bridge opened on 19 November 2008. Much further downstream joining North Queensferry and South Queensferry is the famous Forth Bridge opened in 1890, the Forth Road Bridge which opened in 1964. In 2011 construction began on the Queensferry Crossing, to the west of the Forth Road Bridge, which opened on 4 September 2017. Two islands known as inches form part of the meandering estuarine waters downstream from Stirling.
Tullibody Inch near Cambus and Alloa Inch near Alloa are both small and uninhabited. River Forth, a silent black and white short film - includes scenes of animals being herded through the streets. Britain's Lost Routes with Griff Rhys Jones Episode 3 shows the difficulties cattle drovers might have encountered at Frew, shows aerial shots and taking cows across the Auld Brig. Sruth gu Sal - a look at the Forth river Episode 1 -25 mins 400 kV Forth Crossing List of rivers of Scotland Rivers and Fisheries Trusts of Scotland Forth, the name of one of the sea areas of the British Shipping Forecast. Scottish Parliament: Forth Crossing Bill Committee Report, March 2010 River Forth Crossing: House of Commons debates 18 May 2009 British Waterways: River Forth Gazetteer for Scotland: River Forth SCRAN image: Steam dredger, River forth, late 19th Century Stirling Council: River Forth Forth Ports PLC Scottish Environment Protection Agency: River level data for River Forth Forth Estuary Forum, a Scottish Charity Forth District Salmon Fishery Board River Forth Fisheries Trust Forth Bridges Visitor Centre Trust FYCA Alloa Swing Bridge RIVER FORTH FORTH - POWERHOUSE FOR INDUSTRY
Battle of Bannockburn
The Battle of Bannockburn on 23 and 24 June 1314 was a Scottish victory by King of Scots Robert the Bruce against the army of King Edward II of England in the First War of Scottish Independence. Though it did not bring overall victory in the war, which would go on for 14 more years, it was a landmark in Scottish history. King Edward invaded Scotland after Bruce demanded in 1313 that all supporters still loyal to ousted Scottish king John Balliol acknowledge Bruce as their king or lose their lands. Stirling Castle, a Scots royal fortress occupied by the English, was under siege by the Scottish army. King Edward assembled a formidable force of soldiers from England and Wales to relieve it — the largest army to invade Scotland; this attempt failed. The Scottish army was divided into three divisions of schiltrons commanded by Bruce, his brother Edward Bruce, his nephew, the Earl of Moray. After Robert Bruce killed Sir Henry de Bohun on the first day of the battle, the English were forced to withdraw for the night.
Sir Alexander Seton, a Scottish noble serving in Edward's army, defected to the Scottish side and informed them of the English camp's position and low morale. Robert Bruce decided to launch a full-scale attack on the English forces and to use his schiltrons again as offensive units, a strategy his predecessor William Wallace had not done; the English army was defeated in a pitched battle which resulted in the death of several prominent commanders, including the Earl of Gloucester and Sir Robert Clifford, capture of many others. The victory against the English at Bannockburn is the most celebrated in Scottish history, for centuries the battle has been commemorated in verse and art; the National Trust for Scotland operates the Bannockburn Visitor Centre. Though the exact location for the battle is uncertain, a modern monument was erected in a field above a possible site of the battlefield, where the warring parties are believed to have camped, alongside a statue of Robert Bruce designed by Pilkington Jackson.
The monument, the associated visitor centre, is one of the most popular tourist attractions in the area. The Wars of Scottish Independence between England and Scotland began in 1296 and the English were successful under the command of Edward I, having won victories at the Battle of Dunbar and at the Capture of Berwick; the removal of John Balliol from the Scottish throne contributed to the English success. The Scots had been victorious in defeating the English at the Battle of Stirling Bridge in 1297; this was countered, however, by Edward I's victory at the Battle of Falkirk. By 1304, Scotland had been conquered, but in 1306 Robert the Bruce seized the Scottish throne and the war was reopened. After the death of Edward I, his son Edward II of England came to the throne in 1307 but was incapable of providing the determined leadership his father had shown, the English position soon became more difficult. In 1313, Bruce demanded the allegiance of all remaining Balliol supporters, under threat of losing their lands, as well as the surrender of the English forces encircling Stirling Castle.
The castle was one of the most important castles held by the English, as it commanded the route north into the Scottish Highlands. It was besieged in 1314 by Robert the Bruce's younger brother, Edward Bruce, an agreement was made that if the castle was not relieved by mid-summer it would be surrendered to the Scots; the English could not prepared and equipped a substantial campaign. It is known that Edward II requested 2,000 armoured cavalry and 25,000 infantry, many of whom were armed with longbows, from England and Ireland; the Scottish army numbered around 6,000 men, including no more than 500 mounted forces. Unlike the English, the Scottish cavalry was unequipped for charging enemy lines and suitable only for skirmishing and reconnaissance; the Scottish infantry was armed with axes and pikes, included only a few bowmen. The precise numerical advantage of the English forces relative to the Scottish forces is unknown, but modern researchers estimate that the Scottish faced English forces one-and-a-half to two or three times their size.
Edward II and his advisors were aware of the places the Scots were to challenge them and sent orders for their troops to prepare for an enemy established in boggy ground near the River Forth, near Stirling. The English appear to have advanced in four divisions, whereas the Scots were in three divisions known as'schiltrons', which were strong defensive squares of men bristling with pikes. Thomas Randolph, 1st Earl of Moray, commanded the Scottish vanguard, stationed about a mile south of Stirling, near the church of St. Ninian, while the king commanded the rearguard at the entrance to the New Park, his brother Edward led the third division. According to Barbour, there was a fourth division nominally under the youthful Walter the Steward, but under the command of Sir James Douglas; the Scottish archers used yew-stave longbows and, though these were not weaker than or inferior to English longbows, there were fewer Scottish archers only 500. These archers played little part in the battle. There is first-hand evidence in a poem, written just after the battle by the captured Carmelite friar Robert Baston, that one or both sides employed slingers and crossbowmen.
The exact site of the Battle of Bannockburn has been debated for many years, but mos
Kingdom of Scotland
The Kingdom of Scotland was a sovereign state in northwest Europe traditionally said to have been founded in 843. Its territories expanded and shrank, but it came to occupy the northern third of the island of Great Britain, sharing a land border to the south with the Kingdom of England, it suffered many invasions by the English, but under Robert I it fought a successful War of Independence and remained an independent state throughout the late Middle Ages. In 1603, James VI of Scotland became King of England, joining Scotland with England in a personal union. In 1707, the two kingdoms were united to form the Kingdom of Great Britain under the terms of the Acts of Union. Following the annexation of the Northern Isles from the Kingdom of Norway in 1472 and final capture of the Royal Burgh of Berwick by the Kingdom of England in 1482, the territory of the Kingdom of Scotland corresponded to that of modern-day Scotland, bounded by the North Sea to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, the North Channel and Irish Sea to the southwest.
The Crown was the most important element of government. The Scottish monarchy in the Middle Ages was a itinerant institution, before Edinburgh developed as a capital city in the second half of the 15th century; the Crown remained at the centre of political life and in the 16th century emerged as a major centre of display and artistic patronage, until it was dissolved with the Union of Crowns in 1603. The Scottish Crown adopted the conventional offices of western European monarchical states of the time and developed a Privy Council and great offices of state. Parliament emerged as a major legal institution, gaining an oversight of taxation and policy, but was never as central to the national life. In the early period, the kings of the Scots depended on the great lords—the mormaers and toísechs—but from the reign of David I, sheriffdoms were introduced, which allowed more direct control and limited the power of the major lordships. In the 17th century, the creation of Justices of Peace and Commissioners of Supply helped to increase the effectiveness of local government.
The continued existence of courts baron and the introduction of kirk sessions helped consolidate the power of local lairds. Scots law was reformed and codified in the 16th and 17th centuries. Under James IV the legal functions of the council were rationalised, with Court of Session meeting daily in Edinburgh. In 1532, the College of Justice was founded, leading to the training and professionalisation of lawyers. David I is the first Scottish king known to have produced his own coinage. At the union of the Crowns in 1603 the Pound Scots was fixed at only one-twelfth the value of the English pound; the Bank of Scotland issued pound notes from 1704. Scottish currency was abolished by the Act of Union, however to the present day, Scotland retains unique banknotes. Geographically, Scotland is divided between the Lowlands; the Highlands had a short growing season, further shortened during the Little Ice Age. From Scotland's foundation to the inception of the Black Death, the population had grown to a million.
It expanded in the first half of the 16th century, reaching 1.2 million by the 1690s. Significant languages in the medieval kingdom included Gaelic, Old English and French. Christianity was introduced into Scotland from the 6th century. In the Norman period the Scottish church underwent a series of changes that led to new monastic orders and organisation. During the 16th century, Scotland underwent a Protestant Reformation that created a predominately Calvinist national kirk. There were a series of religious controversies that resulted in persecutions; the Scottish Crown developed naval forces at various points in its history, but relied on privateers and fought a guerre de course. Land forces centred around the large common army, but adopted European innovations from the 16th century. From the 5th century AD, north Britain was divided into a series of petty kingdoms. Of these, the four most important were those of the Picts in the north-east, the Scots of Dál Riata in the west, the Britons of Strathclyde in the south-west and the Anglian kingdom of Bernicia in the south-east, stretching into modern northern England.
In AD 793, ferocious Viking raids began on monasteries such as those at Iona and Lindisfarne, creating fear and confusion across the kingdoms of north Britain. Orkney and the Western Isles fell to the Norsemen; these threats may have speeded up a long-term process of gaelicisation of the Pictish kingdoms, which adopted Gaelic language and customs. There was a merger of the Gaelic and Pictish kingdoms, although historians debate whether it was a Pictish takeover of Dál Riata, or the other way round; this culminated in the rise of Cínaed mac Ailpín as "king of the Picts" in the 840s, which brought to power the House of Alpin. When he died as king of the combined kingdom in 900 one of his successors, Domnall II, was the first man to be called rí Alban; the term Scotia would be used to describe the heartland of these kings, north of the River Forth, the entire area controlled by its kings would be referred to as Scotland. The long reign of Donald's successor Causantín is regarded as the key to formation of the Kingdom of Alba/Scotland, he was la
Andrew Moray known as Andrew de Moray, Andrew of Moray, or Andrew Murray, an esquire, was prominent in the Scottish Wars of Independence. He led the rising in north Scotland in the summer of 1297 against the occupation by King Edward I of England regaining control of the area for King John Balliol, he subsequently merged his forces with those led by William Wallace and jointly led the combined army to victory at the Battle of Stirling Bridge. Moray was mortally wounded in the fighting, dying at an unknown date and place that year. Andrew Moray was born late in the second half of the 13th century; the date and place of his birth, whether he had any siblings, are unknown. Andrew's father was Sir Andrew Moray of Petty, Justiciar of Scotia, a younger son of Walter Moray of Petty—Justiciar of Lothian —and his wife, the heiress of Bothwell, a member of the Olifard family. Andrew's mother was the fourth daughter of John Comyn of Badenoch, who died c.1273, her name was not recorded. The Morays of Petty were a wealthy and politically influential baronial family whose power base was located in the province of Moray in northeastern Scotland.
They traced their origins to Freskin, a man believed to have Flemish origins. He was granted lands in the Laich of Moray during the 12th-century reign of King David I of Scotland, where he built a motte-and-bailey castle at Duffus on the northern shore of Loch Spynie; the province of Moray long resisted incorporation into the Scots kingdom, defeating several royal armies in this struggle. Amongst the kings thwarted by the men of Moray was King Dub, killed when his army was defeated at Forres in 967. Moray was problematic for the Canmore kings of Scotland, it was the heartland of the MacWilliams and MacHeths. Resistance to royal rule lingered into the 12th century. In 1130 a rebellion was led by Mormaer Óengus of Moray. King David responded to the rebellion by ‘planting’ of Flemish and other Anglo-Norman loyalists in the area. One such man was Freskin. Rebels were forced from their lands. In the aftermath of Óengus's defeat at the Battle of Stracathro, the province of Moray was taken under royal control.
It remained in the king's hands until 1312 when Robert the Bruce granted the earldom of Moray to his nephew, Thomas Randolph. Although King David and his successors sought to impose their authority on Moray, resistance continued. King Malcolm IV, David's grandson and successor and expelled the local populace; the Chronicle of Holyrood records that in 1163: "King Malcolm transferred men of Moray". It was not until 1229, when William Comyn of Buchan, led a royal army into Moray and brutally, pacified the province for King Alexander II; the final, most unmerciful, action in the mac Malcolm kings' long campaign against the rival royal dynasty was perpetrated against the infant in whom its claim resided: the three-year-old girl was publicly murdered by King Alexander's men, having read a proclamation, smashed her head against the market-cross in the burgh of Forfar. Moray now accepted the rule of the mac Malcolm kings of Scots. At the outbreak of the Anglo-Scottish Wars of the late 13th century the Moray family was well established in northern and southern Scotland.
Sir Andrew Moray, the head of the Petty branch of the family, held extensive lands in the province of Moray, including the lordship of Petty, controlled from Hallhill manor on the southern bank of the Moray Firth, the lordship of Avoch in the Black Isle, controlled from Avoch Castle situated to the east of Inverness and overlooking the Moray Firth, the lordship of Boharm, controlled from Gauldwell castle. Amongst Sir Andrew's estates at Petty were lands at Alturile and Croy, at Boharm were lands at Arndilly and Botriphnie. Andrew Moray the younger was heir to these castles; this wealth was accompanied by significant political influence. Sir Andrew acted from 1289 as the king's chief law-officer in northern Scotland and may have been co-opted to the guardianship following in the aftermath of the premature death of King Alexander III. Sir Andrew's personal connections went to the top of the most powerful family in Scottish society. In the 1280s he married his second wife - Andrew's stepmother - Euphemia Comyn, the sister of John Comyn, Lord of Badenoch, nephew of King John Balliol and one of the most politically influential men in Scotland.
The Morays of Petty possessed connections to the Douglases of Douglasdale. The influence of the Moray family was not confined to northeastern Scotland. Sir William Moray of Bothwell, Sir Andrew's elder brother, held extensive lands in Lanarkshire and at Lilleford in Lincolnshire. Sir William, known as le riche due to his extensive personal wealth, was constructing Bothwell Castle overlooking the River Clyde, its design was influenced by the latest trends to be found in continental Europe in castle construction and was intended as an unequivocal statement of his power and influence. Moray the younger was heir to his uncle's wealth; the Morays of Petty possessed influence in the Scottish medieval church. A forebear of Andrew Moray named Andrew, had been bishop of Moray early in the 13th century and was responsible for the transfer of the seat of the bishopric to Elgin in 1224 and the establishment of the town’s fine cathedral; the Morays continued to possess links with the church. A yo
Kingdom of England
The Kingdom of England was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from 927, when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 927, the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms were united by Æthelstan. In 1016, the kingdom became part of the North Sea Empire of Cnut the Great, a personal union between England and Norway; the Norman conquest of England in 1066 led to the transfer of the English capital city and chief royal residence from the Anglo-Saxon one at Winchester to Westminster, the City of London established itself as England's largest and principal commercial centre. Histories of the kingdom of England from the Norman conquest of 1066 conventionally distinguish periods named after successive ruling dynasties: Norman 1066–1154, Plantagenet 1154–1485, Tudor 1485–1603 and Stuart 1603–1714. Dynastically, all English monarchs after 1066 claim descent from the Normans; the completion of the conquest of Wales by Edward I in 1284 put Wales under the control of the English crown.
Edward III transformed the Kingdom of England into one of the most formidable military powers in Europe. From the 1340s the kings of England laid claim to the crown of France, but after the Hundred Years' War and the outbreak of the Wars of the Roses in 1455, the English were no longer in any position to pursue their French claims and lost all their land on the continent, except for Calais. After the turmoils of the Wars of the Roses, the Tudor dynasty ruled during the English Renaissance and again extended English monarchical power beyond England proper, achieving the full union of England and the Principality of Wales in 1542. Henry VIII oversaw the English Reformation, his daughter Elizabeth I the Elizabethan Religious Settlement, meanwhile establishing England as a great power and laying the foundations of the British Empire by claiming possessions in the New World. From the accession of James VI and I in 1603, the Stuart dynasty ruled England in personal union with Scotland and Ireland.
Under the Stuarts, the kingdom plunged into civil war, which culminated in the execution of Charles I in 1649. The monarchy returned in 1660, but the Civil War had established the precedent that an English monarch cannot govern without the consent of Parliament; this concept became established as part of the Glorious Revolution of 1688. From this time the kingdom of England, as well as its successor state the United Kingdom, functioned in effect as a constitutional monarchy. On 1 May 1707, under the terms of the Acts of Union 1707, the kingdoms of England and Scotland united to form the Kingdom of Great Britain; the Anglo-Saxons referred to themselves as the Engle or the Angelcynn names of the Angles. They called their land Engla land, meaning "land of the English", by Æthelweard Latinized Anglia, from an original Anglia vetus, the purported homeland of the Angles; the name Engla land became England by haplology during the Middle English period. The Latin name was Anglorum terra, the Old French and Anglo-Norman one Angleterre.
By the 14th century, England was used in reference to the entire island of Great Britain. The standard title for monarchs from Æthelstan until John was Rex Anglorum. Canute the Great, a Dane, was the first to call himself "King of England". In the Norman period Rex Anglorum remained standard, with occasional use of Rex Anglie. From John's reign onwards all other titles were eschewed in favour of Regina Anglie. In 1604 James I, who had inherited the English throne the previous year, adopted the title King of Great Britain; the English and Scottish parliaments, did not recognise this title until the Acts of Union of 1707. The kingdom of England emerged from the gradual unification of the early medieval Anglo-Saxon kingdoms known as the Heptarchy: East Anglia, Northumbria, Essex and Wessex; the Viking invasions of the 9th century upset the balance of power between the English kingdoms, native Anglo-Saxon life in general. The English lands were unified in the 10th century in a reconquest completed by King Æthelstan in 927 CE.
During the Heptarchy, the most powerful king among the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms might become acknowledged as Bretwalda, a high king over the other kings. The decline of Mercia allowed Wessex to become more powerful, it absorbed the kingdoms of Kent and Sussex in 825. The kings of Wessex became dominant over the other kingdoms of England during the 9th century. In 827, Northumbria submitted to Egbert of Wessex at Dore making Egbert the first king to reign over a united England. In 886, Alfred the Great retook London, which he regarded as a turning point in his reign; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle says that "all of the English people not subject to the Danes submitted themselves to King Alfred." Asser added that "Alfred, king of the Anglo-Saxons, restored the city of London splendidly... and made it habitable once more." Alfred's "restoration"
Battle of Falkirk
The Battle of Falkirk, which took place on 22 July 1298, was one of the major battles in the First War of Scottish Independence. Led by King Edward I of England, the English army defeated the Scots, led by William Wallace. Shortly after the battle Wallace resigned as Guardian of Scotland. King Edward learned of the defeat of his northern army at the Battle of Stirling Bridge. After concluding a truce with the French king, Philip the Fair in October 1297, he returned to England on 14 March 1298 to continue the ongoing organising of an army for his second invasion of Scotland, in preparation since late 1297; as a preliminary step he moved the centre of government to York, where it was to remain for the next six years. A council-of-war was held in the city in April to finalise the details of the invasion; the Scottish magnates were all summoned to attend, when none appeared they were all declared to be traitors. Edward ordered his army to assemble at Roxburgh on 25 June; the force counted ca 2,000 men-at-arms and about 12,000 infantry receiving wages, after the manner of medieval armies there would have been many more serving without pay either as a statement of personal independence, forgiveness of debts to the crown, criminal pardons or just for adventure, including 10,900 Welshmen armed with the longbow.
Edward advanced into central Scotland and Wallace's army shadowed the English, intending to avoid battle until shortages of supplies and money forced Edward to withdraw, at which point the Scots would harass his retreat. Edward's own supply fleet was delayed by bad weather, when the army reached central Scotland it was both tired and hungry; the Welsh infantry in particular were badly demoralised. While the army was encamped at Temple Liston, near Edinburgh, they erupted in a drunken riot, broken up by the English cavalry, who killed 80 Welshmen. Edward faced the prospect of the kind of ignominious retreat that became a regular feature of his son's campaigns in the succeeding reign; as he was on the point of falling back on Edinburgh he received intelligence that Wallace had taken up position in the wood of Callendar near Falkirk, only thirteen miles away, ready to pursue the retreating English. Edward was delighted: As God lives... they need not pursue me. The Scots army, again made up chiefly of spearmen as at Stirling, was arranged in four great armoured'hedgehogs' known as schiltrons.
The long spears pointed outwards at various heights gave these formations a formidable and impenetrable appearance. The gaps between the schiltrons were filled with archers and to the rear there was a small troop of men-at-arms, provided by magnates. On Tuesday 22 July, the English cavalry, divided into four battalions caught sight of their elusive enemy; the left was commanded by the Earls of Norfolk and Lincoln. The right was under the command of Antony Bek, Bishop of Durham, while the King commanded the centre, still a little distance to the rear of the vanguard. Once in sight of the enemy and his colleagues began an immediate attack, but on encountering a small marsh to the front of the Scots position, made a long detour to the west before being able to make contact with the right of Wallace's army. Bek tried to hold back his own battalion to give the King time to get into position but he was overruled by his impatient knights, who were anxious to join their comrades on the left in an immediate attack.
In a disorganised pell-mell the cavalry closed on the Scots, on the right and left. The Scots bowmen commanded by Sir John Stewart of Bonkill, the younger brother of the High Steward of Scotland, stood their ground and were destroyed, but the schiltrons held firm, with the knights making little impression on the dense forest of long spears, a small number of riders being killed under their horses. King Edward arrived in time to witness the discomfiture of his cavalry and restored discipline; the knights were ordered to withdraw and Edward prepared to employ the tactics that the Earl of Warwick had used to defeat the Welsh spearmen at the Battle of Maes Moydog in 1295. The Scottish light cavalry charged the English heavy cavalry, but were outnumbered and destroyed. Edward's longbowmen were brought into place and overcame the inexperienced force of badly armed Scottish archers; the schiltrons were an easy target. The hail of arrows was supplemented by slingshot. Unable to retreat or attack, the battle was lost for the Scots as soon as the first arrows began to fall, the arrows came at a pace of up to 14 arrows per minute per long bowmen.
The English cavalry waited, this time observing the King's command, until the Scots ranks were thin enough to allow them to penetrate the Scottish formation and cause whatever damage they could. The English footsoldiers, advancing during the English barrage on the Scottish formations, closed the distance and the schiltrons started to break and scatter. A great many Scots were killed, including son of the Earl of Fife; the survivors, Wallace included, escaped as best they could into the nearby forest of Torwood where their pursuers could not safely follow. Casualties among the Scottish leaders were not heavy, but did include Wallace's second-in-command Sir John de Graham, Sir John Stewart of Bonkill, Macduff of Fife; the Falkirk Roll is a collection of the arms of the English bannerets and noblemen present at the battle of Falkirk. It is the oldest known English occasional roll of arms, contains 111 names and blazoned shields. Following are a collection of modern illustrations of the Falkirk Rol
Stirling is a city in central Scotland, 26 miles north-east of Glasgow and 37 miles north-west of the Scottish capital, Edinburgh. The market town, surrounded by rich farmland, grew up connecting the royal citadel, the medieval old town with its merchants and tradesmen, the bridge and the port. Located on the River Forth, Stirling is the administrative centre for the Stirling council area, is traditionally the county town of Stirlingshire. Proverbially it is the strategically important "Gateway to the Highlands", it has been said that "Stirling, like a huge brooch clasps Highlands and Lowlands together". "he who holds Stirling, holds Scotland" is quoted. Stirling's key position as the lowest bridging point of the River Forth before it broadens towards the Firth of Forth, made it a focal point for travel north or south; when Stirling was temporarily under Anglo-Saxon sway, according to a 9th-century legend, it was attacked by Danish invaders. The sound of a wolf roused a sentry, who alerted his garrison, which forced a Viking retreat.
This led to the wolf being adopted as a symbol of the town. The area is today known as Wolfcraig. Today the wolf appears with a goshawk on the council's coat of arms along with the chosen motto: "Steadfast as the Rock". Once the capital of Scotland, Stirling is visually dominated by Stirling Castle. Stirling has a medieval parish church, the Church of the Holy Rude, where, on 29 July 1567, the infant James VI was anointed King of Scots by the Bishop of Orkney with the service concluding after a sermon by John Knox; the poet King grew up in Stirling. He was also crowned King of England and Ireland on 25 July 1603, bringing closer the countries of the United Kingdom. Modern Stirling is a centre for local government, higher education, tourism and industry; the mid-2012 census estimate for the population of the city is 36,440. One of the principal royal strongholds of the Kingdom of Scotland, Stirling was created a royal burgh by King David I in 1130. In 2002, as part of Queen Elizabeth's Golden Jubilee, Stirling was granted city status.
The origin of the name Stirling is uncertain, but folk etymology suggests that it originates in either a Scots or Gaelic term meaning the place of battle, struggle or strife. Other sources suggest that it originates in a Brythonic name meaning "dwelling place of Melyn", with the first element being connected to Middle Welsh ystre-, "a dwelling"; the name may have been a hydronym, connected to Brittonic *lïnn, "lake, pool". It is supposed that Stirling is the fortress of Iuddeu or Urbs Giudi where Oswiu of Northumbria was besieged by Penda of Mercia in 655, as recorded in Bede and contemporary annals. A stone cist, found in Coneypark Nursery in 1879, is Stirling's oldest catalogued artefact. Bones from the cist were radiocarbon dated and found to be over four millennia old, originating within the date range 2152 to 2021 BC. Nicknamed Torbrex Tam, the man, whose bones were discovered by workmen, died while still in his twenties. Other Bronze Age finds near the city come from the area around Cambusbarron.
It had been thought that the Randolphfield standing stones were more than 3000 years old but recent radiocarbon dating suggests they may date from the time of Bruce. The earliest known structures on Gillies Hill were built by Iron Age people over 2000 years ago. Two structures are known: what is called Wallstale Dun on the southern end of Touchadam Craig, Gillies Hill fort on the northwest end of the craig. South of the city, the King's Park prehistoric carvings can still be found. Whether the ancient Maeatae or Manaw Gododdin tribes settled in Stirling is not clear; the castle rock has been strategically significant since at least the Roman occupation of Britain, due to its defensible crag and tail hill: the bedrock on which Stirling Castle was built. However, if the Romans were on the current castle site they didn't leave more than a coin or two. Stirling enjoys a unique position on the border between the Lowlands and Highlands, its other notable geographic feature is its proximity to the lowest site of subjugation of the River Forth.
Control of the bridge brought military advantage in times of unrest and. Unsurprisingly excise men were installed in a covered booth in the centre of the bridge to collect tax from any entering the royal burgh with goods. Stirling remained the river's lowest reliable crossing point until the construction of the Alloa Swing Bridge between Throsk and Alloa in 1885; the city has two Latin mottoes, which appeared on the earliest burgh seal of which an impression of 1296 is on record. The first alludes to the story as recorded by Boece who relates that in 855 Scotland was invaded by two Northumbrian princes and Ella, they united their forces with the Cumbrian Britons. Having secured Stirling castle, they built the first stone bridge over the ForthOn the top they raised a crucifix with the inscription: "Anglos, a Scotis separat, crux ista remotis. Bellenden translated this loosely as "I am free marche, as passengers may ken, To Scottis, to Britonis, to Inglismen." It may be the stone cross was a tripoint for the three kingdom's marches.
"Angles and Scots here demarked, By this cross kept apart. Brits and Sco