The Battle of Thermopylae was fought between an alliance of Greek city-states, led by King Leonidas I of Sparta, the Achaemenid Empire of Xerxes I over the course of three days, during the second Persian invasion of Greece. It took place with the naval battle at Artemisium, in August or September 480 BC, at the narrow coastal pass of Thermopylae; the Persian invasion was a delayed response to the defeat of the first Persian invasion of Greece, ended by the Athenian victory at the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC. By 480 BC Xerxes had amassed a massive army and navy, set out to conquer all of Greece; the Athenian politician and general Themistocles had proposed that the allied Greeks block the advance of the Persian army at the pass of Thermopylae, block the Persian navy at the Straits of Artemisium. A Greek force of 7,000 men marched north to block the pass in the middle of 480 BC; the Persian army, alleged by the ancient sources to have numbered over one million, but today considered to have been much smaller arrived at the pass in late August or early September.
The vastly outnumbered Greeks held off the Persians for seven days before the rear-guard was annihilated in one of history's most famous last stands. During two full days of battle, the small force led by Leonidas blocked the only road by which the massive Persian army could pass. After the second day, a local resident named Ephialtes betrayed the Greeks by revealing a small path used by shepherds, it led the Persians behind the Greek lines. Leonidas, aware that his force was being outflanked, dismissed the bulk of the Greek army and remained to guard their retreat with 300 Spartans and 700 Thespians, fighting to the death. Others reportedly remained, including up to 900 helots and 400 Thebans. Themistocles was in command of the Greek Navy at Artemisium when he received news that the Persians had taken the pass at Thermopylae. Since the Greek strategy required both Thermopylae and Artemisium to be held, given their losses, it was decided to withdraw to Salamis; the Persians overran Boeotia and captured the evacuated Athens.
The Greek fleet—seeking a decisive victory over the Persian armada—attacked and defeated the invaders at the Battle of Salamis in late 480 BC. Wary of being trapped in Europe, Xerxes withdrew with much of his army to Asia, leaving Mardonius to attempt to complete the conquest of Greece. However, the following year saw a Greek army decisively defeat the Persians at the Battle of Plataea, thereby ending the Persian invasion. Both ancient and modern writers have used the Battle of Thermopylae as an example of the power of a patriotic army defending its native soil; the performance of the defenders is used as an example of the advantages of training and good use of terrain as force multipliers and has become a symbol of courage against overwhelming odds. The primary source for the Greco-Persian Wars is the Greek historian Herodotus; the Sicilian historian Diodorus Siculus, writing in the 1st century BC in his Bibliotheca historica provides an account of the Greco-Persian wars derived from the earlier Greek historian Ephorus.
This account is consistent with Herodotus'. The Greco-Persian Wars are described in less detail by a number of other ancient historians including Plutarch, Ctesias of Cnidus, are referred to by other authors, as in Aeschylus in The Persians. Archaeological evidence, such as the Serpent Column supports some of Herodotus' specific claims. George B. Grundy was the first modern historian to do a thorough topographical survey of the narrow pass at Thermopylae, to the extent that modern accounts of the battle differ from Herodotus' they follow Grundy's. For example, the military strategist Sir Basil Henry Liddell Hart defers to Grundy. Grundy explored Plataea and wrote a treatise on that battle. On the Battle of Thermopylae itself, two principal sources, Herodotus' and Simonides' accounts, survive. In fact, Herodotus' account of the battle, in Book VII of his Histories, is such an important source that Paul Cartledge wrote: "we either write a history of Thermopylae with, or not at all". Surviving is an epitome of the account of Ctesias, by the eighth-century Byzantine Photias, though this is "almost worse than useless", missing key events in the battle such as the betrayal of Ephialtes, the account of Diodorus Siculus in his Universal History.
Diodorus' account seems to have been based on that of Ephorus and contains one significant deviation from Herodotus' account: a supposed night attack against the Persian camp, of which modern scholars have tended to be skeptical. The Greek city-states of Athens and Eretria had aided the unsuccessful Ionian Revolt against the Persian Empire of Darius I in 499–494 BC; the Persian Empire was still young and prone to revolts amongst its subject peoples. Darius, was a usurper and had spent considerable time extinguishing revolts against his rule; the Ionian revolt threatened the integrity of his empire, Darius thus vowed to punish those involved the Athenians, "since he was sure that would not go unpunished for their rebellion". Darius saw the opportunity to expand his empire into the fractious world of Ancient Greece. A preliminary expedition under Mardonius in 492 BC, to secure the land approaches to Greece, re-conquered Thrace and forced Macedon to become a client kingdom of Persia's. Darius sent emissaries to all the
The Army Heritage Center Foundation is a membership-based 501 nonprofit corporation, coordinating a public-private partnership to assist the United States Army to develop the U. S. Army Heritage and Education Center in Carlisle, Pennsylvania; the foundation's charter is to ensure construction of two of the center's four facilities and to develop and sustain educational resources and outreach programs. The foundation's other partners include the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, local governments and private citizens; the foundation was incorporated in 1999 as the Military Heritage Foundation. In 2002, after Secretary of the Army Thomas White announced the creation of USAHEC, the foundation assumed the Doing Business As name Army Heritage Center Foundation to reflect its primary focus in building support for this project. In developing the USAHEC, the foundation works with the Army to create a complex that will honor Soldiers and their families. S. Army history. In 2010, the AHCF completed construction of Phase One of the Visitor and Education Center at USAHEC.
The foundation is fundraising to build Phase Two, which will house additional gallery space and meeting room spaces. Once the Visitor and Education Center and the Army Heritage Museum are constructed, the foundation will concentrate on providing margin of excellence support to enhance the visitor experience and to develop innovative educational programs; the foundation offers memberships and commemorative bricks and pavers. The Education Department develops educational materials based on the holdings of the Army Heritage and Education Center; these materials focus on the contributions of the American Soldier to the history and heritage of the United States and the world. They include CD-ROMs, a book and DVD set entitled Army Nurses of World War One: Service Beyond Expectations, content on the Education section of the foundation's website; the Education Department administers the Robert L. Ruth and Robert C. Ruth Fellowship, a three-week summer internship awarded to a graduate student in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.
Funding for the award comes from Chris Gleason, a member of the board of directors for the foundation, in honor of the service of two members of his family. The AHCF honors Russell F. Weigley, a Temple University History Department faculty member from 1930 to 1966, considered to be one of the nation's top military historians, with a financial award for the best paper with a military history focus, presented at the annual Barnes Club Conference in Philadelphia; the Education Department works with local school districts to build an oral history program to train and assist high school and middle school students and teachers to interview veterans to collect their oral histories. The Education Director serves as the State Coordinator for National History Day in Pennsylvania. To supplement AHEC's educational programming, the foundation has produced the following publications, all of which are available in the Museum Store at AHEC, which the foundation operates; the Eye of the Army: A Photographic ExhibitThis is an interactive, educational CD-ROM that brings American history from the 1850s to the 1960s alive through images from the Military History Institute and artifacts from the U.
S. Army Heritage and Education Center. Defending the Long Road to FreedomThis is an interactive CD-ROM focusing on the African American community's experience within the U. S. Army; the centerpiece of the story is the 50-year Army career of Brigadier General Benjamin O. Davis, Sr. the first African American promoted to General Officer rank in the United States Armed Forces. Army Nurses of World War One: Service Beyond ExpectationsMore than 21,000 women enlisted in the U. S. Army during World War I to serve as uniformed nurses. Nearly half of them served in overseas locations, their little-known story is presented through the writings of two of these brave women, Elizabeth Lewis and Emma Elizabeth Weaver. Designing for Victory 1914-1945This educational CD-ROM examines the role of posters as vital tools of communication on the home front during World War I and World War II; the disk includes a selection of vintage posters from both wars and features designs from the United States, as well as Germany, Great Britain, France and Russia.
Service in the 195th Pennsylvania Infantry Regiment: The Diary of Captain Samuel McPherranHaving served two years in the Army and being discharged due to injury, McPherran recruited men from Huntingdon County and joined them in the 195th in the fall of 1864. This booklet is a transcription of the diary he kept during his service in the 195th, along with annotations. Understanding War Through Imagery: The Civil War in American MemoryThis photograph booklet is a companion piece for the Civil War photograph exhibit on display in Ridgway Hall; the majority of the photographs are culled from the AHCF's expansive MOLLUS Civil War photo collection. Army Heritage Center Foundation official website
USA-282 known as SBIRS-GEO 4, is an American military satellite and part of the Space-Based Infrared System. It was launched on January 20, 2018 atop an Atlas V rocket; the SBIRS satellites are a replacement for the Defense Support Program early warning system. They are intended to detect ballistic missile launches, as well as various other events in the infrared spectrum, including nuclear explosions, aircraft flights, space object entries and reentries and spacecraft launches. SBIRS-GEO 4 is built upon the A2100M satellite bus; the Atlas V launch vehicle used for SBIRS-GEO 4 flew with a strap-on booster, a different configuration from the previous three SBIRS-GEO launches. This was done as part of a space debris mitigation effort, to allow the Centaur upper stage to preserve sufficient fuel for a deorbit burn; the Air Force announced the satellite was operating as expected and had established initial communication with it. SBIRS-GEO 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 at Gunter's Space Page