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Battle of Towton

The Battle of Towton was fought on 29 March 1461 during the English Wars of the Roses, near the village of Towton in Yorkshire. It was "probably the largest and bloodiest battle fought on English soil". An estimated 50,000 soldiers fought for hours amidst a snowstorm on that day, Palm Sunday, it brought about a change of monarchs in England, with Edward IV displacing Henry VI, establishing the House of York on the English throne and driving the incumbent House of Lancaster and its key supporters out of the country. The incumbent King of England, Henry VI, on the throne since 1422, was a weak and mentally unsound ruler, which encouraged the nobles to scheme for control over him; the situation deteriorated in the 1450s into a civil war between the supporters of his queen, Margaret of Anjou, those of his cousin Richard, Duke of York. In 1460, the English parliament passed an act to let York succeed Henry as king; the queen refused to accept the dispossession of her own son's right to the throne and succeeded in raising a large army of supporters, who promptly defeated and killed York in battle.

The late duke's supporters considered the Lancastrians to have reneged on the parliamentary act of succession – a legal agreement – and York's son and heir, found enough backing to denounce Henry and declare himself king. The Battle of Towton was to affirm the victor's right to rule over England through force of arms. On reaching the battlefield, the Yorkists found themselves outnumbered. Part of their force under the Duke of Norfolk had yet to arrive; the Yorkist leader Lord Fauconberg turned the tables by ordering his archers to take advantage of the strong wind to outrange their enemies. The one-sided missile exchange, with Lancastrian arrows falling short of the Yorkist ranks, provoked the Lancastrians into abandoning their defensive positions; the ensuing hand-to-hand combat lasted hours. The arrival of Norfolk's men reinvigorated the Yorkists and, encouraged by Edward, they routed their foes. Many Lancastrians were killed while fleeing. Several who were taken as prisoners were executed; the power of the House of Lancaster was reduced after this battle.

Henry fled the country, many of his most powerful followers were dead or in exile after the engagement, leaving a new king, Edward IV, to rule England. Generations remembered the battle as depicted in William Shakespeare's dramatic adaptation of Henry's life – Henry VI, Part 3, Act 2, Scene 5. In 1929, the Towton Cross was erected on the battlefield to commemorate the event. Various archaeological remains and mass graves related to the battle were found in the area centuries after the engagement. In 1461, England was in the sixth year of the Wars of the Roses, a series of civil wars between the houses of York and Lancaster over the English throne; the Lancastrians backed the reigning King of England, Henry VI, an indecisive man who had bouts of madness. The leader of the Yorkists was Richard, Duke of York, who resented the dominance of a small number of aristocrats favoured by the king, principally his close relatives, the Beaufort family. Fuelled by rivalries between influential supporters of both factions, York's attempts to displace Henry's favourites from power led to war.

After capturing Henry at the Battle of Northampton in 1460, the duke, of royal blood, issued his claim to the throne. York's closest supporters among the nobility were reluctant to usurp the dynasty; the Queen of England, Margaret of Anjou, refused to accept an arrangement that deprived her son—Edward of Westminster—of his birthright. She had fled to Scotland after the Yorkist victory at Northampton, her Lancastrian supporters mustered in the north of England, preparing for her arrival. York marched with his army to meet this threat but he was lured into a trap at the Battle of Wakefield and killed; the duke and his second son Edmund, Earl of Rutland were decapitated by the Lancastrians and their heads were impaled on spikes atop the Micklegate Bar, a gatehouse of the city of York. The leadership of the House of York passed onto Edward; the victors of Wakefield were joined by Margaret's army and they marched south, plundering settlements in their wake. They liberated Henry after defeating the Yorkist army of Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick, in the Second Battle of St Albans and continued pillaging on their way to London.

The city of London refused to open its gates to Margaret for fear of being looted. The Lancastrian army had no adequate means to replenish them; when Margaret learned that Richard of York's eldest son Edward, Earl of March and his army had won the Battle of Mortimer's Cross in Herefordshire and were marching towards London, she withdrew the Lancastrians to York. Warwick and the remnants of his army marched from St Albans to join Edward's men and the Yorkists were welcomed into London. Having lost custody of Henry, the Yorkists needed a justification to continue the rebellion against the king and his Lancastrian followers. On 4 March, Warwick proclaimed the young Yorkist leader as King Edward IV; the proclamation gained greater acceptance than Richard of York's earlier claim, as several nobles opposed to letting Edward's father ascend the throne viewed the Lancastrian actions as a betrayal of the established Accord. The country now had two kings—a situation that could not be allowed to pers

Carlo Agostini

Carlo Agostini was an Italian prelate of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as Patriarch of Venice from 1949 until his death, died shortly after the announcement for his elevation to the cardinalate in 1952. Born in San Martino di Lupari, Carlo Agostini studied at the seminary in Treviso, was ordained to the priesthood by Bishop Andrea Longhin, OFM Cap, on 24 September 1910, he furthered his studies in Rome earning a Doctorate in Philosophy at the Pontifical University of St. Thomas Aquinas and a Doctorate in Theology Pontifical Gregorian University until 1913. Agostini was a professor and the rector of the Treviso seminary, was raised to the rank of Privy Chamberlain of His Holiness in 1925. On 30 January 1932, he was appointed Bishop of Padua by Pope Pius XI. Agostini received his episcopal consecration on the following 10 April from Bishop Longhin, with Archbishop Elia dalla Costa and Bishop Eugenio Beccegato serving as co-consecrators, he was Apostolic Administrator of Treviso from 8 March to 6 December 1936, named Patriarch of Venice on 5 February 1949.

Pope Pius XII announced on 29 November 1952 that he would elevate Agostini and twenty-three others to the College of Cardinals. However, the Patriarch died, from Parkinson's disease at the age of 64, before the consistory could take place on 12 January 1953. Agostini was buried in S. Michele cemetery, but his remains were transferred to the crypt of St Mark's Basilica in November 1957; the unexpected vacancy in Venice opened the way for the elevation of Angelo Roncalli, the future Pope John XXIII. Catholic-Hierarchy Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Elacatinus evelynae

Elacatinus evelynae, the sharknose goby,Caribbean cleaner goby,Caribbean cleaning goby, is a species of goby native to the Western Atlantic Ocean from the Bahamas and the Lesser Antilles to the northern coast of South America, as well as the Antilles and western Caribbean. Elacatinus evelynae is a small, torpedo-shaped fish, it can reach a maximum length of 4 cm. It has a yellow stripe in front of each eye. Black stripes run under the yellow ones from the snout, over the lower part of the eye to the end of the caudal fin. E. evelynae's fin configuration is the same as all other gobies. Its dorsal fin is split in two, with a rounded anterior fin and a flat posterior fin which lines up with its anal fin; the pectoral fins are circular. All its fins are transparent, they inhabit coral reefs in clear ocean waters at a depth of 1–53 m. The reported temperature range where they are found is 22 to 27 °C. E. evelynae is a cleaner fish as indicated by one of its common names, the Caribbean cleaning goby.

They feed on ectoparasites found on other fish. Females tend to clean and feed more than males if they are accompanied by a large male, which may be due to mate guarding and the male spending more time guarding the eggs, they are monogamous and are found in pairs near coral heads. Both males and females show aggression towards potential intruders of the same sex to protect their mates. Attempts to breed them in captivity have shown that they do not produce eggs unless conditions are optimal, with little to no fluctuation in temperature and salinity; the specific name honours Evelyn McCutcheon, of Salt Cay in the Bahamas, who provided hospitality to James Erwin Böhlke and his fellow ichthyologist Charles C. G. Chaplin. Photos of Elacatinus evelynae on Sealife Collection