The Orel–Kursk operation was an offensive conducted by the Southern Front of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic's Red Army against the White Armed Forces of South Russia's Volunteer Army in Orel and Tula Governorates of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic between 11 October and 18 November 1919. It took place on the Southern Front of the Russian Civil War and was part of the wider October counteroffensive of the Southern Front, a Red Army operation that aimed to stop Armed Forces of South Russia commander Anton Denikin's Moscow offensive. After the failure of the Red Southern Front's August counteroffensive to stop the Moscow offensive, the Volunteer Army continued to push back the front's 13th and 14th Armies, capturing Kursk; the Southern Front was reinforced by troops transferred from other sectors, allowing it to regain numerical superiority over the Volunteer Army, launched a counterattack to halt the offensive on 11 October, utilizing a shock group composed of newly arrived troops.
Despite this, the Volunteer Army managed to deal a defeat to the 13th Army, capturing Orel, its nearest advance to Moscow. The Red shock group, struck into the flank of the Volunteer Army's advance, forcing the army to commit its lead forces to defending against the attack. In fierce fighting, the 14th Army recaptured Orel, after which the Red forces wore down the Volunteer Army in defensive battles; the Volunteer Army attempted to establish a new defensive line, but their rear was unhinged by Red cavalry raids. The offensive ended on 18 November with the recapture of Kursk. Although the Red Army did not manage to destroy the Volunteer Army, the Southern Front counteroffensive marked a turning point in the war, as it had permanently regained the strategic initiative. After repulsing the Red Army Southern Front's August counteroffensive towards Kharkov, Lieutenant General Vladimir May-Mayevsky's Volunteer Army, part of Anton Denikin's Armed Forces of South Russia, resumed its advance on Moscow in mid-September 1919.
The army's main attack was conducted by the 1st Army Corps towards Kursk and Tula. On 20 September, the corps captured Kursk; the Southern Front's 13th and 14th Armies retreated north in the face of attacks by numerically superior White troops. As a result, the Central Committee ordered the Main Command of the Red Army to send reinforcements to the Southern Front and begin the transfer of the Latvian Rifle Division and Separate Rifle Brigades, the Separate Cavalry Brigade of Red Cossacks from the Western Front; these units were planned to be used to create a front shock group in the area of Navlya and Dmitrovsk. As a result of these measures, by 5 October, the Southern Front had regained numerical superiority in the Orel direction. By 10 October, the Volunteer Army shock group had reached the line of Khutor Mikhailovsky, Dmitrovsk, Yeropkino and Borki, continued their advance north towards Moscow, seeking a breakthrough at Orel; the shock group included Lieutenant General Alexander Kutepov's 1st Army and Lieutenant General Yakov Yuzefovich's 5th Cavalry Corps.
The group numbered 19,000 infantry, over 5,000 cavalry, 72 guns, 373 machine guns, nine tanks, fourteen armored trains. The 1st Army Corps included the Kornilov and Drozdovsky Infantry Divisions, the Consolidated Infantry Division with the Markov and Alekseyev Brigades, they were opposed by the Red Southern Front, whose commander, Vladimir Yegoryev, was replaced by Alexander Yegorov on 11 October. The troops of the front in the Orel sector numbered over 52,000 infantry, more than 7,000 cavalry, 278 guns, 1,119 machine guns, giving them a 3:1 numerical superiority over the Whites. In these conditions, the Soviet Main Command decided to begin the counterattack without waiting for the arrival of the Estonian Rifle Brigade. On 7 October, the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Republic, Sergey Kamenev, ordered the Southern Front command to draw up plans for the operation, on 9 October subordinated to it the shock group, which concentrated in the Karachev area. In the Orel–Kursk operation, the troops of the right wing and center of the front were to advance in the general direction of Kursk, defeat the 1st Army Corps, capture the line of Sevsk and Livny.
After completing the destruction of the corps, they were to retake Kursk and advance to the line of the Seym River and the Kursk-Kastornoye railroad. The missions of the armies were given to a depth of between 80 and 150 kilometers, were divided into immediate and following; the main role was given to Antons Martusevičs' shock group, consisting of the Latvian Rifle Division, the Separate Rifle and Separate Cavalry Brigades, which numbered 10,000 bayonets and sabers. It was formed from newly arrived reinforcements, it was to launch its attack from the line of Turishchevo and Molodovoye, into the flank of the Volunteer Army's advance to Orel. With the beginning of the offensive, the group was operationally subordinated to Anatoly Gekker's 13th Army; the 13th Army's main forces were to advance along the Orel-Kursk railroad and destroy the Volunteer Army's Kornilov Division in conjunction with the shock group, while its left flank units were tasked with attacking the Consolidated Division at Livny.
The right flank units of Ieronim Uborevich's 14th Army, the front's right wing, were to capture Khutor Mikhailovsky, while the army's main forces were to defeat the Drozdovsky Division advance on Dmitriyev on the right of the shock
The Volga Region is a historical region in Russia that encompasses the drainage basin of the Volga River, the longest river in Europe, in central and southern European Russia. The Volga Region is culturally separated into three sections: Upper Volga Region - from the Volga River's source in Tver Oblast to the mouth of the Oka River in Nizhny Novgorod. Middle Volga Region - from the mouth of the Oka River to the mouth of the Kama River south of Kazan. Lower Volga Region - from the mouth of the Kama River mouth to the Volga Delta in the Caspian Sea, in Astrakhan Oblast; the geographic boundaries of the region are vague, the term "Volga Region" is used to refer to the Middle and Lower sections, which are included in the Volga Federal District and Volga economic region. The Volga Region is entirely within the East European Plain, with a notable distinction contrasting the elevated western side featuring the Volga Upland, the eastern side known as Transvolga which consists of the elevated High Transvolga and the lowland Low Transvolga.
The Idel-Ural region, a collection of six federal subjects between the Volga River and the Ural Mountains, are seen a part of the Volga Region despite the river itself not running through several of them. Idel-Ural is within an extensive north-western protrusion of the Volga River's drainage basin, including numerous tributary rivers such as the Malaya Kokshaga River, tributaries of the Volga's tributaries such as the Belaya River of the Kama River; the region is home to a large portion of Russia's population, with the major cities of Yaroslavl, Nizhny Novgorod, Kazan, Tolyatti, Saratov and Astrakhan all located directly on the Volga River. Other major cities on tributaries of the Volga include Ryazan, Dzerzhinsk and Oryol on the Oka River, Penza on the Sura River and Naberezhnye Chelny on the Kama River, Yoshkar-Ola on the Malaya Kokshaga River, Dimitrovgrad on the Bolshoy Cheremshan River. Major cities located on tributaries of the Volga's tributaries include Moscow, the largest city and capital of Russia, on the Moskva River, a tributary of the Oka River.
Kirov is located on the Vyatka River, Ufa and Salavat are located on the Belaya River, both tributaries of the Kama River. Povolzhye famine Samara Bend Volga Germans
Baron Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel was a Russian officer in the Imperial Russian Army and commanding general of the anti-Bolshevik White Army in Southern Russia in the stages of the Russian Civil War. After his side lost the civil war in 1920, he left Russia and became one of the most prominent exiled White émigrés. Wrangel was born in Kovno Governorate in the Russian Empire; the Wrangel family was of the local Baltic German nobility. Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel was only distantly related to the famed Arctic explorer Ferdinand von Wrangel and the Prussian Generalfeldmarschall Friedrich von Wrangel. After graduating from the Rostov Technical High School in 1896 and the Institute of Mining Engineering in St. Petersburg in 1901, Wrangel volunteered for the prestigious Life Guards cavalry and was commissioned a reserve officer in 1902 after graduating from the Nikolaev Cavalry School, he soon resigned his commission, travelled to Irkutsk, where he was assigned to special missions by the Governor-General.
At the start of the Russo-Japanese War, in February 1904, he reenlisted and was assigned to the 2nd Regiment of the Transbaikal Cossack Corps. In December 1904, he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant. After the war ended, in January 1906, he was reassigned to the 55th Finland Dragoon Regiment, which under General A. N. Orlov took part in pacifying rebels in Siberia. In 1907, he returned to the Life Guards Cavalry Regiment. In 1908, he married Olga Mikhaylovna Ivanenko in St. Petersburg, the marriage produced two sons and two daughters. Wrangel graduated from the Nicholas Imperial General Staff Academy in 1910 and the Cavalry Officers' School in 1911. With the start of World War I, Wrangel was promoted to captain and assigned command of a cavalry squadron. On October 13, 1914, he became one of the first Russian officers to be awarded the Order of St. George in the war, the highest military decoration of the Russian Empire. In December 1914, he was promoted to the rank of colonel. In October 1915, Wrangel was transferred to the Southwestern Front and was appointed commander of the 1st Regiment of the Transbaikal Cossacks.
This unit was active in Galicia against the Austrians, Wrangel distinguished himself during the Brusilov Offensive. He was promoted to the rank of major general in January 1917, took command of the 2nd Brigade of the Ussuri Cavalry Division, merged with other cavalry units to become the Consolidated Cavalry Corps in July of the same year, he was further decorated with the George Cross for his defense of the Zbruch River in the summer of 1917. Following the end of Russia's participation in the war, Wrangel resigned his commission and went to live at his dacha at Yalta in the Crimea. Arrested by the Bolsheviks at the end of 1917, he was released and escaped to Kiev, where he joined Pavlo Skoropadskyi's Ukrainian State. However, it was soon apparent to him that the new government existed only through the waning support of Germany, in August 1918, he joined the anti-Bolshevik Volunteer Army based at Yekaterinodar, where he was given command of the 1st Cavalry Division and the rank of major general in the White movement.
After the Second Kuban Campaign in late 1918, he was promoted to lieutenant general, his Division was raised to that of a corps. As an aggressive commander, he won a number of victories in the north Caucasus. From January 1919, his military force was renamed the Caucasus Volunteer Army. Wrangel soon clashed politically with Armed Forces of South Russia leader Anton Denikin, who demanded a quick march on Moscow. Wrangel insisted instead that his forces should take Tsaritsyn first, to join up with the army of Admiral Aleksandr Kolchak, which his troops accomplished on June 30, 1919 after three previous attempts by Pyotr Krasnov had failed in 1918. Wrangel gained a reputation as a skilled and just administrator, who, in contrast to some other White Army generals, did not tolerate lawlessness or looting by his troops. However, after he was unable to join forces with Admiral Kolchak and at the insistence of Denikin, he led his forces north towards Moscow on a failed attempt by the Whites to take the capital in Autumn 1919.
Continuing disagreement with Denikin led to his removal from command, Wrangel departed for exile to Constantinople on February 8, 1920. Yet Denikin was forced to resign on March 20, 1920, a military committee led by General Abram Dragomirov in Sevastopol asked that Wrangel return as Commander-in-Chief of the White forces in Crimea, he assumed the post on April 4, 1920 at the head of the Russian Army, put forth a coalition government which attempted to institute sweeping reforms. He recognized and established relations with the new anti-Bolshevik independent republics of Ukraine and Georgia, among others. However, by this stage in the Russian Civil War, such measures were too late, the White movement was losing support both domestically and overseas. Wrangel is immortalized by the nickname of "Black Baron" in the marching song The Red Army is the Strongest composed as a rallying call for a final effort on the part of the Bolsheviks to end the war. After defeats in which he lost half his standing army, facing defeat in Northern Tavria and the Crimea, Wrangel organized a mass evacuation on the shores of the Black Sea.
Wrangel gave every officer and civilian the choice to evacuate and go with him into the unknown, or remain in Russia and face the wrath of the Red Army. Wrangel evacuated the
Kliment Yefremovich Voroshilov, popularly known as Klim Voroshilov, was a prominent Soviet military officer and politician during the Stalin era. He was one of the original five Marshals of the Soviet Union, along with Chief of the General Staff of the Red Army Alexander Yegorov, three senior commanders, Vasily Blyukher, Semyon Budyonny, Mikhail Tukhachevsky. Voroshilov was born in the settlement of Verkhnyeye, Bakhmut uyezd, Yekaterinoslav Governorate, Russian Empire, into a railway worker's family of Russian ethnicity. According to the Soviet Major General Petro Grigorenko, Voroshilov himself alluded to the heritage of his birth-country, to the previous family name of Voroshilo. Voroshilov joined the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party in 1905. Following the Russian Revolution of 1917, Voroshilov became a member of the Ukrainian Council of People's Commissars and Commissar for Internal Affairs along with Vasiliy Averin, he was well known for aiding Joseph Stalin in the Revolutionary Military Council, having become associated with Stalin during the Red Army's 1918 defense of Tsaritsyn.
Voroshilov was active as a commander of the Southern Front during the Russian Civil War and the Polish–Soviet War while with the 1st Cavalry Army. As Political Commissar serving co-equally with Stalin, Voroshilov was responsible for the morale of the 1st Cavalry Army, composed chiefly of peasants from southern Russia. Voroshilov headed the Petrograd Police during 1917 and 1918. Voroshilov served as a member of the Central Committee from his election in 1921 until 1961. In 1925, after the death of Mikhail Frunze, Voroshilov was appointed People's Commissar for Military and Navy Affairs and Chairman of the Revolutionary Military Council of the USSR, a post he held until 1934, his main accomplishment in this period was to move key Soviet war industries east of the Urals, so that the Soviet Union could strategically retreat, while keeping its manufacturing capability intact. Frunze's political position adhered to that of the Troika, but Stalin preferred to have a close, personal ally in charge. Frunze was urged by a group of Stalin's hand-picked doctors to have surgery to treat an old stomach ulcer, despite previous doctors recommendations to avoid surgery and Frunze's own unwillingness.
He died on the operating table of a massive overdose of an anaesthetic. Voroshilov became a full member of the newly formed Politburo in 1926, remaining a member until 1960. Voroshilov was appointed People's Commissar for Defence in 1934 and a Marshal of the Soviet Union in 1935, he played a central role in Stalin's Great Purge of the 1930s, denouncing many of his own military colleagues and subordinates when asked to do so by Stalin. He wrote personal letters to exiled former Soviet officers and diplomats such as commissar Mikhail Ostrovsky, asking them to return voluntarily to the Soviet Union and falsely reassuring them that they would not face retribution from authorities. Voroshilov signed 185 documented execution lists, fourth among the Soviet leadership after Molotov and Kaganovich. During World War II, Voroshilov was a member of the State Defense Committee. Voroshilov commanded Soviet troops during the Winter War from November 1939 to January 1940 but, due to poor Soviet planning and Voroshilov's incompetence as a general, the Red Army suffered about 185,000 casualties.
When the leadership gathered at Stalin's dacha at Kuntsevo, Stalin shouted at Voroshilov for the losses. Voroshilov followed this retort by smashing a platter of roast suckling pig on the table. Nikita Khrushchev said it was the only time he witnessed such an outburst. Voroshilov was nonetheless made the scapegoat for the initial failures in Finland, he was replaced as Defense Commissar by Semyon Timoshenko. Voroshilov was made Deputy Premier responsible for cultural matters. Voroshilov argued that thousands of Polish army officers captured in September 1939 should be released, but he signed the order for their execution in the Katyn massacre of 1940. After the German invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941, Voroshilov became commander of the short-lived Northwestern Direction, controlling several fronts. In September 1941 he commanded the Leningrad Front. Working alongside military commander Andrei Zhdanov as German advances threatened to cut off Leningrad, he displayed considerable personal bravery in defiance of heavy shelling at Ivanovskoye.
However, the style of counterattack he launched had long since been abandoned by strategists and drew contempt from his military colleagues. Stalin had a political need for popular wartime leaders and Voroshilov remained as an important figurehead. In an embarrassing incident at the 1943 Tehran Conference, during a ceremony to receive the "Sword of Stalingrad" from Winston Churchill, he took the sword from Stalin but allowed the sword to fall from its scabbard onto his toes in the presence of the Big
Crimea Operation (1918)
The Crimea Operation took place in April 1918 when Crimea was cleared of the Bolsheviks by Ukrainian troops and the Imperial German Army. With the assistance of the German Empire, the Taurida Soviet Socialist Republic was overrun by forces of the Ukrainian People's Republic under command of Petro Bolbochan during the Crimean Offensive. By the end of April 1918, the majority of the CEC and the Council of People's Commissars, including council leader Anton Slutsky and local Bolshevik chief Jan Tarwacki, were arrested and shot in Alushta by insurgent Crimean Tatars. On 30 April, the Republic was abolished; the goal of both Ukrainians and Germans was to get control over the Black Sea Fleet, anchored in Sevastopol. Former Chief of Staff Mikhail Sablin raised the colours of the Ukrainian National Republic on 29 April 1918. and moved a portion of his fleet to Novorossiysk in order to save it from capture by the Germans. He was refused to do so. Most ships returned to Sevastopol, where they first came under German control, until November 1918 when the came under Allied control who gave the ships to the White Russians.
Operation Faustschlag Navy of the Ukrainian People's Republic
Anton Ivanovich Denikin was a Russian Lieutenant General in the Imperial Russian Army and afterwards a leading general of the White movement in the Russian Civil War. Denikin was born in Szpetal Dolny village, now part of the Polish city Włocławek in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, his father, Ivan Efimovich Denikin, had been born a serf in the province of Saratov. Sent as a recruit to do 25 years of military service, the elder Denikin became an officer in the 22nd year of his army service in 1856, he retired from the army in 1869 with the rank of major. In 1869 Ivan Denikin married Polish seamstress Elżbieta Wrzesińska as his second wife. Anton Denikin, the couple's only child, spoke both Polish growing up, his father's Russian patriotism and devotion to the Russian Orthodox religion led Anton Denikin to the Russian army. The Denikins lived close to poverty, with the retired major's small pension as their only source of income, their finances worsened after Ivan's death in 1885. Anton Denikin at this time began tutoring younger schoolmates to support the family.
In 1890 Denikin enrolled at the Kiev Junker School, a military college from which he graduated in 1892. The twenty-year-old Denikin joined an artillery brigade. In 1895 he was first accepted into the General Staff Academy, where he did not meet the academic requirements in the first of his two years. After this disappointment, Denikin attempted to attain acceptance again. On his next attempt he finished fourteenth in his class. However, to his misfortune, the Academy decided to introduce a new system of calculating grades and as a result Denikin was not offered a staff appointment after the final exams, he protested the decision to the highest authority. After being offered a settlement according to which he would rescind his complaint in order to attain acceptance into the General Staff school again, Denikin declined, insulted. Denikin first saw active service during the 1905 Russo-Japanese War. In 1905 he won promotion to the rank of colonel. In 1910 he became commander of the 17th infantry regiment.
A few weeks before the outbreak of the First World War, Denikin reached the rank of major-general. By the outbreak of World War I in August 1914 Denikin was a Chief of staff of the Kiev Military District, he was appointed Quartermaster of General Brusilov's 8th Army. Not one for staff service, Denikin petitioned for an appointment to a fighting front, he was transferred to the 4th Rifle Brigade. His brigade was transformed into a division in 1915, it was with this brigade. In 1916, he was appointed to command the Russian 8th Army Corps and lead troops in Romania during the last successful Russian campaign of the war, the Brusilov Offensive. Following the February Revolution and the overthrow of Tsar Nicholas II, he became Chief of Staff to Mikhail Alekseev Aleksei Brusilov, Lavr Kornilov. Denikin supported the attempted coup of his commander, the Kornilov Affair, in September 1917 and was arrested and imprisoned with him. After this Alekseev would be reappointed commander-in-Chief. Following the October Revolution both Denikin and Kornilov escaped to Novocherkassk in the Northern Caucasus and, with other Tsarist officers, formed the anti-Bolshevik Volunteer Army commanded by Alekseev.
Kornilov was killed in April 1918 near Ekaterinodar and the Volunteer Army came under Denikin's command. There was some sentiment to place Grand Duke Nicholas in overall command but Denikin was not interested in sharing power. In the face of a Communist counter-offensive he withdrew his forces back towards the Don area in what came to be known as the Ice March. After that, in June-November 1918, Denikin launched the successful Second Kuban Campaign which gave him control of the entire area between the Black and Caspian Sea. In the summer of 1919, Denikin led the assault of the southern White forces in their final push to capture Moscow. For a time, it appeared. Makhno duly turned his Black Army east and led it against Denikin's extended lines of supply, forcing the Whites to retreat. Denikin's army would be decisively defeated at Orel in October 1919, some 360 km south of Moscow; the White forces in southern Russia would be in constant retreat thereafter reaching the Crimea in March 1920. Meanwhile, the Soviet government tore up its agreement with Makhno and attacked his anarchist forces.
After a seesaw series of battles in which both sides gained ground, Trotsky's more numerous and better equipped Red Army troops decisively defeated and dispersed Makhno's Black Army. During the Russian Civil War, an estimated 50,000 Jews perished in pogroms. Ukrainian forces, nominally under the control of Symon Petliura, perpetrated 40 percent of the recorded pogroms; the White Army is associated with 17 percent of the attacks, was responsible for the most active propaganda campaign against Jews, whom they associated with communism. The Red Army is blamed for 9 percent of the pogroms. In the territories it occupied, Denikin's army carried out mass executions and plunder, in what was known as the White Terror. In the town of Maykop in Circassia during
The Ice March called the First Kuban Campaign, a military withdrawal lasting from February to May 1918, was one of the defining moments in the Russian Civil War of 1917 to 1921. Under attack by the Red Army advancing from the north, the forces of the Volunteer Army, sometimes referred to as the White Guard, began a retreat from the city of Rostov south towards the Kuban, in the hope of gaining the support of the Don Cossacks against the Bolshevik government in Moscow. After the Bolshevik Party seized power in Russia in November 1917, many of those opposed to the new government gravitated towards the fringes of the old Russian Empire to those parts still under the control of the German Army. In the Don Cossack capital, the Don Cossack Host had elected General Aleksei Maksimovich Kaledin to the position of Ataman at its traditional assembly, the Host Krug. On 20 November 1917, not long after the Communists took control in central Russia, the Don Krug declared its independence. Novocherkassk became a haven for those opposed to the Bolshevik Revolution, soon hosted the headquarters of the Volunteer Army, made up for the most part of former Tsarist officers, under the command of General Mikhail Alekseev and General Lavr Kornilov.
The Cossacks aimed to defend their independence, but the Volunteers persuaded them that they could guarantee this only by joining with them in fighting against the Bolsheviks, who had the support of a large part of the non-Cossack population of the Don region. With the encouragement of Kaledin, the Whites, still only some 500 strong, managed to recapture the city of Rostov from local Red Guard units on 15 December 1917. However, by the beginning of 1918 better-organised and stronger Communist forces began an advance from the north, capturing Taganrog on the Sea of Azov on 10 February 1918. Kornilov, now in command of some 4,000 men at Rostov, judged it pointless to attempt a defence of the city in the face of superior forces. Instead, the Volunteers made ready to re-locate to the south, deep into the Kuban, in the hope of attracting more support, though the whole area was in deep winter, thus began the Ice March. With his defenses gone and his government in a state of collapse, Kaledin shot himself.
On 23 February, as the Red Army entered Rostov, Kornilov began the march south across the frozen steppelands. The soldiers, carrying one rifle each, hauling some field artillery, were accompanied by long trail of civilians, the middle-classes of Rostov, fearful of Bolshevik reprisals. Anton Denikin, Kornilov's second-in-command recalled, "We went from the dark night of spiritual slavery to unknown wandering-in search of the bluebird." The bluebird was a traditional symbol of hope in legend. The march continued day and night, sometimes in a long single-file through the deep snow, avoiding the railways and hostile population centres; those who could not endure the ordeal, the sick and the wounded, were left behind, many shooting themselves rather than risk falling captive to the enemy. After several weeks of wandering, several skirmishes with pursuing enemy forces, Kornilov decided to mount an attack on Ekaterinodar, the capital of the established North Caucasian Soviet Republic; the attack, which began on 10 April, was met with heavy resistance from forces more than twice the size of the Volunteers.
Kornilov was killed when an artillery shell destroyed the farmhouse where he had set up headquarters. He was succeeded in command by Denikin, who decided to abandon the assault and withdraw to the north. Hearing of the death of Kornilov, Lenin told the Moscow Soviet, "It can be said with certainty that, in the main, the civil war has ended." It was, no more than the end of the beginning. In the period since the beginning of the Ice March in February, the indiscriminate use of Red Terror by the Don Soviet had produced a wholesale reaction among the Cossack population among those hostile to the Whites. Small-scale risings against the Communists began to grow in intensity around the area of Novocherkassk. During April, as many as 10,000 cavalrymen gathered at Zaplavskaya, whence they advanced to recapture the Don capital. Here they elected Pyotr Krasnov as the new Ataman. On his orders the ancient title of All-Great Don Host, last used in the seventeenth century, was recreated. By June, Krasnov had 40,000 men under his command.
Denikin and the Volunteer Army was in the best position to take advantage of a dynamic situation. Returning from the south with their fighting ability intact, hardened by the ordeal of the Ice March, the army of the counter-revolution acquired a new momentum. By the summer, reinforced by Cossack units and armed by the Germans, Denikin was able to mount the Second Kuban Campaign, to give him control of much of the south, a base to mount a serious challenge to the Bolshevik government in Moscow. All those who survived the First Kuban Campaign, referred to as pervopokhodhiks were awarded the First Kuban Campaign Badge in memory of their courage and martyrdom. Figes, O. A People's Tragedy: the Russian Revolution, 1891-1924, 1997. Kenez, P. Civil War in South Russia: the First Year of the Volunteer Army, 1971 Mawdsley, E; the Russian Civil War, 2005. Alexey Tolstoy, " Road to Calvary", book two "18th year"