Battle of the Gebora
The Battle of the Gebora was a minor battle of the Peninsular War between Spanish and French armies. It occurred on 19 February 1811, near Badajoz, viscount Wellington and the Spanish Captain-General Pedro Caro y Sureda, 3rd marqués de La Romana sent a large Spanish army to raise the siege. La Romana, died before the army could depart, supported by a small force of Portuguese cavalry, the Spaniards reached the town and camped on the nearby heights of San Cristóbal in early February 1811. When Mendizabal ignored Wellingtons instructions and failed to entrench his army, Soult took advantage of the vulnerable Spanish position and sent a small force to attack the Spaniards. On the morning of 19 February, French forces under Marshal Édouard Mortier quickly defeated the Spanish army, inflicting 1,000 casualties and taking 4,000 prisoners while losing only 400 men. The victory allowed Soult to concentrate on his assault of Badajoz, napoleon had previously sent dispatches to Marshal Soult, commander of the Army of the South, urging him to send assistance to Masséna in Portugal.
However, the Emperors orders, which called for only a force, were based on outdated intelligence. Thirty thousand Allied troops and six major fortresses now stood between the French army and the Portuguese capital, making an attack against Lisbon virtually impossible. Soult divided his army into two contingents and advanced into Extremadura via the two passes leading from Andalusia into the Guadiana valley, with the intention of rejoining at Almendralejo. One of the columns, commanded by Gen. Mendizabal, Latour-Maubourg was therefore able to take position near Almendralejo and await the arrival of the second French column. When confronted by Marshal Mortier, Ballesteros retreated without suffering serious harm, for this reason Soult directed Gazans infantry to head off the Spanish force and protect the delayed siege-train, while he himself continued onward to Almendralejo with his cavalry. As a result, Soult finally joined Latour-Maubourg on 6 January with only a fraction of his original column, Soult could not besiege so strong a fortress as Badajoz with his reduced force and therefore changed his plans.
Wellington had previously advised Gen. Soult, arriving on 11 January, was confronted with a strongly garrisoned—but untenable—fortress. The heavy French artillery finally began to arrive on 19 January, the garrison surrendered on 23 January, with over 4,000 Spanish troops from the Army of Extremadura taken captive. Moreover, although his siege-train had begun to arrive, the absence of Gazans infantry division left him with a weakened army. Gazans division eventually rejoined Soults army on 3 February, further strengthening the besieging force by 6,000 men, Mendizabal had retreated to the Portuguese border after sending two battalions to reinforce the garrison at Badajoz. Additionally, about 6,000 troops were sent forward from the Lines of Torres Vedras on 19 January, La Romana, died of an aneurysm on 23 January, and command of the army fell to Mendizabal. Although aware of this plan when he took command, Mendizabal chose to ignore the instructions upon arriving on the bank of the Guadiana on 5 February
Siege of Tarifa (1812)
In the Siege of Tarifa from 19 December 1811 to 5 January 1812, an Imperial French army under Jean François Leval laid siege to an Anglo-Spanish garrison led by Francisco Copons. Despite the advice of British Colonel John Byrne Skerrett to evacuate the town, some wanted to evacuate to and defend the small island that was attached by a causeway from the town. Tarifa is located on Route 340 on the southernmost tip of Spain, the siege occurred during the Peninsular War, part of the Napoleonic Wars. General of Division Jean François Leval commanded a corps of 15,000 soldiers, levals Polish contingent was made up of two battalions each of the 7th and 9th Infantry Regiments and his cavalry comprised four squadrons each of the 16th and 21st Dragoon Regiments. General Francisco Copons led the defenders, who numbered under 3,000 men and 26 guns and his Spanish brigade included one battalion each of the Irlanda and Cantabria Infantry Regiments, one company of Cazadores,120 gunners, and 25 cavalrymen.
The French drove the advanced posts of the garrison in on 19 December, seeing the apparent advantage of the high ground to the east, they opened trenches on 22 December and by dawn on 29 December were ready to fire their sixteen-pounder canon. It only took a few hours for the walls to tumble down, the small walled town of Tarifa seemed almost impossible to defend. Overlooked at short range by higher ground, with walls unprotected against artillery fire, Skerrett proposed abandoning the defence and embarking on ships. Captain C. F. Smith of the Corps of Royal Engineers strongly opposed the idea and he had noted that inside the walls, the ground level was much lower which combined with a deep narrow river that flowed through the town would make that assault quite hazardous. Skerrett was checkmated when the ships were ordered back to Gibraltar, the commanders being forbidden to embark a single soldier, by General Campbell, Smith having foreseen where the French would attack had prepared internal defences against the impending assault.
The 14 foot sheer drop inside the wall would trap the French from retreating and every house overlooking the area was loopholed and garrisoned, all debris was cleared from inside the wall, despite the grape being fired by the besiegers. Surrender terms were offered and refused, French Grenadiers advanced along the now dry river bed trying to enter through the portcullis, however it held and the 87th Regiment blunted their attack with withering fire. Going over to the offensive, the Allies sallied forth in the morning, forcing the French to retreat, Leval withdrew after making his one abortive assault and seeing sickness begin to ravage his soldiers. Unable to extract their heavy artillery from the mud, the besiegers destroyed and abandoned most of their cannons. to the British Engineer. Charles Felix Smith went on to part in many more conflicts over the next 30 years. He became a Lieutenant General and was knighted, General Francisco Copons y Navia went on to fight many more battles alongside the British, his shining star failing on the return to Spain of King Fernando VII.
The French did not return to Tarifa and their Siege of Cadiz was abandoned in August 1812, over the next year, the Spanish Ulcer, A History of the Peninsular War. Rickard, J. Siege of Tarifa,20 December 1811-5 January 1812, History of the Corps of Royal Engineers Vol I
Siege of Badajoz (1812)
In the Siege of Badajoz, called the Third Siege of Badajoz, an Anglo-Portuguese Army, under General Arthur Wellesley, besieged Badajoz and forced the surrender of the French garrison. Enraged at the number of casualties they suffered in seizing the city. Threatening their officers and ignoring their commands to desist, and even killing several and it took three days before the men were brought back into order. Badajoz was garrisoned by some 5,000 French soldiers under General Philippon, the town commander, on 19 March the French made a strong sally with 1,500 men and 40 cavalry which surprised the working parties and caused losses of 150 officers and men before being repulsed. Amongst the wounded was Lt. Col. Fletcher, chief Engineer, by 25 March batteries were firing on the outwork, Fort Picurina, which that night was stormed by 500 men and seized by redcoats from General Thomas Pictons 3rd Division. Casualties were high with 50 killed and 250 wounded, but the fort was captured, the capture of the bastion allowed more extensive siege earthworks to be dug and with the arrival of heavy 18 lb and 24 lb howitzers, breaching batteries were established.
On 31 March the allies began a bombardment of the towns defences. Soon a maze of trenches were creeping up to the stone walls as the cannons continued to blast away at the stonework. On 2 April an attempt was made to destroy a barrier that had been erected amongst the arches of the bridge to cause flooding that was hampering the siege, the explosion of 450lbs of powder was only partly successful. By April 5 two breaches had been made in the wall and the soldiers readied themselves to storm Badajoz. The order to attack was delayed for 24 hours to allow another breach to be made in the wall. News began to filter to the allies that Marshal Soult was marching to relieve the town, the French garrison were well aware of what was to come, and mined the large breaches in the walls in preparation for the imminent assault. The first men to assault the breaches were the men of the Forlorn Hope, just as the main Forlorn Hope were beginning their attack, a French sentry was alerted and raised the alarm. Within seconds the ramparts were filled with French soldiers, who poured a hail of musket fire into the troops at the base of the breach.
The furious barrage devastated the British soldiers at the wall and the breach soon began to fill with dead and wounded, despite the carnage the redcoats bravely continued to surge forward in great numbers, only to be mown down by endless volleys and shrapnel from grenades and bombs. The French could see they were holding the assault and the British were becoming stupefied and incapable of more exertion. In just under two hours, some 2,000 men had killed or badly wounded at the main breach. He ordered the gates to be blown and the 3rd Division should support the assaults on the breaches with a flank attack
Macmillan Publishers Ltd is an international publishing company owned by Holtzbrinck Publishing Group. It has offices in 41 countries worldwide and operates in more than thirty others, Macmillan was founded in 1843 by Daniel and Alexander Macmillan, two brothers from the Isle of Arran, Scotland. Alfred Tennyson joined the list in 1884, Thomas Hardy in 1886, other major writers published by Macmillan included W. B. Chaudhuri, Seán OCasey, John Maynard Keynes, Charles Morgan, Hugh Walpole, Margaret Mitchell, C. P. Snow, Rumer Godden and Ram Sharan Sharma. Beyond literature, the company created such enduring titles as Nature, Macmillan established an office in New York City. It sold its American division in 1896, which published as the Macmillan Company, Macmillan Publishers re-entered the American market in 1954 under the name St. Martins Press. After retiring from politics in 1964, former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Harold Macmillan became chairman of the company and he had been with the family firm as a junior partner from 1920 to 1940, and from 1945 to 1951 while he was in the opposition in Parliament.
The company was one of the oldest independent publishing houses until 1995, Holtzbrinck purchased the remaining shares in 1999, ending the Macmillan familys ownership of the company. Even with the split of the American company from its parent company in England, George Brett, Jr. and he came to the United States with his family in the service of Macmillans of England and built up a business of approximately $50,000 before he died. By my father, who eventually incorporated The Macmillan Company of New York, I succeeded my father, and we currently doing a business of approximately $12,000,000. So then, the name of Brett and the name of Macmillan have been and are synonymous in the United States, pearson acquired the Macmillan name in America in 1998, following its purchase of the Simon & Schuster educational and professional group. Holtzbrinck purchased it from them in 2001, mcGraw-Hill continues to market its pre-kindergarten through elementary school titles under its Macmillan/McGraw-Hill brand.
The US operations of Georg von Holtzbrinck are now known as Macmillan, one of the leading companies is Macmillan, that started by selling British English dictionaries and textbooks that were adapted for Russian readers. Their site website provides Russian teachers and students with an access for tests, competitions and information on scheduled online seminars. By some estimates, as of 2009 e-books account for three to five per cent of total sales, and are the fastest growing segment of the market. Following the announcement of the Apple iPad on 27 January 2010—a product that comes with access to the iBookstore—Macmillan gave Amazon, in the latter case, Amazon. com would receive a 30 per cent commission. Amazon responded by pulling all Macmillan books, both electronic and physical, from their website, on 31 January 2010, Amazon chose the agency model preferred by Macmillan. In April 2012, the United States Department of Justice filed United States v. Apple Inc. naming Apple, the suit alleged that they conspired to fix prices for e-books, and weaken Amazon. coms position in the market, in violation of antitrust law
France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
By population, Spain is the sixth largest in Europe and the fifth in the European Union. Spains capital and largest city is Madrid, other urban areas include Barcelona, Seville, Bilbao. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago, in the Middle Ages, the area was conquered by Germanic tribes and by the Moors. Spain is a democracy organised in the form of a government under a constitutional monarchy. It is a power and a major developed country with the worlds fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP. Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the span is the Phoenician word spy. Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean the land where metals are forged, two 15th-century Spanish Jewish scholars, Don Isaac Abravanel and Solomon ibn Verga, gave an explanation now considered folkloric. Both men wrote in two different published works that the first Jews to reach Spain were brought by ship by Phiros who was confederate with the king of Babylon when he laid siege to Jerusalem.
This man was a Grecian by birth, but who had given a kingdom in Spain. He became related by marriage to Espan, the nephew of king Heracles, Heracles renounced his throne in preference for his native Greece, leaving his kingdom to his nephew, from whom the country of España took its name. Based upon their testimonies, this eponym would have already been in use in Spain by c.350 BCE, Iberia enters written records as a land populated largely by the Iberians and Celts. Early on its coastal areas were settled by Phoenicians who founded Western Europe´s most ancient cities Cadiz, Phoenician influence expanded as much of the Peninsula was eventually incorporated into the Carthaginian Empire, becoming a major theater of the Punic Wars against the expanding Roman Empire. After an arduous conquest, the peninsula came fully under Roman Rule, during the early Middle Ages it came under Germanic rule but later, much of it was conquered by Moorish invaders from North Africa. In a process took centuries, the small Christian kingdoms in the north gradually regained control of the peninsula.
The last Moorish kingdom fell in the same year Columbus reached the Americas, a global empire began which saw Spain become the strongest kingdom in Europe, the leading world power for a century and a half, and the largest overseas empire for three centuries. Continued wars and other problems led to a diminished status. The Napoleonic invasions of Spain led to chaos, triggering independence movements that tore apart most of the empire, eventually democracy was peacefully restored in the form of a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Spain joined the European Union, experiencing a renaissance and steady economic growth
Battle of Albuera
The Battle of Albuera was a battle during the Peninsular War. Acting on Napoleons orders, in early 1811 Marshal Soult led a French expedition from Andalusia into Extremadura in a bid to draw Allied forces away from the Lines and ease Massénas plight. Napoleons information was outdated and Soults intervention came too late and understrength, Soult left Badajoz strongly garrisoned. In April, following news of Massénas complete withdrawal from Portugal, the Allies drove most of the French from the surrounding area and began the Siege of Badajoz. Soult rapidly gathered a new army from the French forces in Andalusia and, joining with the troops retreating before Beresford, with intelligence of another approaching force—a Spanish army under Gen. Joaquín Blake—he planned to turn Beresfords flank and interpose his army between the two. The opposing armies met at the village of Albuera, both sides suffered heavily in the ensuing struggle and the French finally withdrew on 18 May. Beresfords army was too battered and exhausted to pursue, but was able to resume the investment of Badajoz, despite Soults failure to relieve the town, the battle had little strategic effect on the war.
Just one month later, in June 1811, the Allies were forced to abandon their siege by the approach of the reconstituted French Armies of Portugal, by 10 October 1810 only the British light division and some cavalry patrols remained outside the Lines. Massénas Army of Portugal concentrated around Sobral, apparently in preparation to attack, after a fierce skirmish on 14 October in which the strength of the Lines became apparent, the French dug themselves in rather than launch a costly full-scale assault. They remained entrenched for a month before falling back to a position between Santarém and Rio Maior, the Emperors orders were based on outdated intelligence and called for only a small force, by the time Soult received them the situation had changed considerably. Along with V Corps, this venture pulled both infantry and cavalry from Marshal Victors I Corps who were besieging Cádiz at the time, following a successful campaign in Extremadura, on 27 January 1811 Soult began his investment of Badajoz.
Almost immediately the Spanish Army of Extremadura arrived in the vicinity with some 15,000 troops under the command of Gen. Mendizabal. Soults army, too small to surround Badajoz, was unable to prevent 3,000 of Mendizabals men from reinforcing the fortress and this posed a major threat to the French, so Soult moved at once to engage. In the ensuing Battle of the Gebora the French inflicted 1,000 casualties on the Spanish field army and took 4,000 prisoners, the remnants of Mendizabals defeated army fled towards Badajoz or into Portugal. The garrison of Badajoz, ably commanded by Gen. Rafael Menacho, initially put up strong resistance and by 3 March the French had made little progress against the powerful fortress. On that day, Menacho was killed on the ramparts by a shot, command of the garrison fell to Brig. Gen. José Imaz. The walls were breached on 10 March. Concerned that the British would now be free to send a contingent to relieve Badajoz, Imaz duly capitulated and the French took possession of the fortress on 11 March
The Peninsular War was a military conflict between Napoleons empire and the allied powers of Spain and Portugal, for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars. The war started when French and Spanish armies invaded and occupied Portugal in 1807, the Peninsular War overlaps with what the Spanish-speaking world calls the Guerra de la Independencia Española, which began with the Dos de Mayo Uprising on 2 May 1808 and ended on 17 April 1814. The French occupation destroyed the Spanish administration, which fragmented into quarrelling provincial juntas, the British Army, under the Lt. Gen. Arthur Wellesley, guarded Portugal and campaigned against the French in Spain alongside the reformed Portuguese army. The demoralised Portuguese army was reorganised and refitted under the command of Gen, in the following year Wellington scored a decisive victory over King Josephs army at Vitoria. The years of fighting in Spain were a burden on Frances Grande Armée. The Spanish armies were beaten and driven to the peripheries.
This drain on French resources led Napoleon, who had provoked a total war. War and revolution against Napoleons occupation led to the Spanish Constitution of 1812, the burden of war destroyed the social and economic fabric of Portugal and Spain, and ushered in an era of social turbulence, political instability and economic stagnation. Devastating civil wars between liberal and absolutist factions, led by officers trained in the Peninsular War, persisted in Iberia until 1850. The cumulative crises and disruptions of invasion and restoration led to the independence of most of Spains American colonies, the Treaties of Tilsit, negotiated during a meeting in July 1807 between Emperors Alexander I of Russia and Napoleon, concluded the War of the Fourth Coalition. With Prussia shattered, and Russia allied with France, Napoleon expressed irritation that Portugal was open to trade with the United Kingdom, Prince John of Braganza, regent for his insane mother Queen Maria I, had declined to join the emperors Continental System against British trade.
After a few days, a large force started concentrating at Bayonne, meanwhile the Portuguese governments resolve was stiffening, and shortly afterward Napoleon was once again told that Portugal would not go beyond its original agreements. After he received the Portuguese answer, he ordered Junots corps to cross the frontier into Spain, while all this was going on, the secret Treaty of Fontainebleau had been signed between France and Spain. The document was drawn up by Napoleons marshal of the palace Géraud Duroc and Eugenio Izquierdo, the treaty proposed to carve up Portugal into three entities. Porto and the part was to become the Kingdom of Northern Lusitania. The southern portion, as the Principality of the Algarves, would fall to Godoy, the rump of the country, centered on Lisbon, was to be administered by the French. According to the Treaty of Fontainebleau, Junots invasion force was to be supported by 25,500 men in three Spanish columns, Gen. Taranco and 6,500 troops were ordered to march from Vigo to seize Porto in the north.
Capt. Gen. Solano would advance from Badajoz with 9,500 soldiers to capture Elvas, Gen. Caraffa and 9,500 men were instructed to assemble at Salamanca and Ciudad Rodrigo, and cooperate with Junots main force
William Beresford, 1st Viscount Beresford
General William Carr Beresford, 1st Viscount Beresford, 1st Marquis of Campo Maior, GCB, GCH, PC /ˈwɪlɪəm kɑː ˈberɪsfəd/ was an Anglo-Irish soldier and politician. Beresford was the son of The 1st Marquess of Waterford. He was the brother of Admiral Sir John Beresford, 1st Baronet, Beresford entered the British Army in 1785 as an ensign in the 6th Regiment of Foot and the next year he was blinded in one eye due to an incident with a musket. He remained in the service being promoted to captain by 1791 with the 69th Regiment of Foot and he distinguished himself at Toulon, in Egypt and in South Africa. From there crossed the South Atlantic to South America to invade the River Plate region, with a small British force of 1,500 men, departing on 14 April 1806. Following his move to Cape Town in Cape Colony, spurred on by Home Popham, no attempt was made to gain authorization from the Crown for this undertaking. In the invasion of the River Plate, Buenos Aires was occupied for 46 days, the British force could not maintain itself against the army gathered by Santiago de Liniers.
After a relentless two-day fight with the Buenos Aires and Montevideo militias between 10 and 12 August 1806, the British were defeated and forced to capitulate. Beresford had to surrender, remaining prisoner for six months, in the end, he managed to escape and arrived in England in 1807. In that same year Beresford was sent to Madeira, which he occupied in name of the King of Portugal, remaining there for six months as Governor and Commander in Chief. The Portuguese government asked Britain to appoint Arthur Wellesley to this role, Wellesley indicated he could not do the justice due to his prior engagements. He was appointed Marshal and Commander in Chief of the Army by Decree of 7 March 1809, at that time, French general Marshal Soult had already crossed into Portugal where he occupied Porto. The allied armies marched to the North, wellingtons troops made a forced crossing of the Douro and defeated the French, forcing their Marshall-general Jean-de-Dieu Soult to withdraw from Porto. Soult was outnumbered and expelled from Portugal, the positioning of Beresfords forces compelled the French to leave Portugal by the roads through Montalegre.
They managed to cross the border only after sacrificing their artillery and baggage, the Second French Invasion of Portugal was defeated and the allied armies moved back to the South, the British concentrating at Abrantes and the Portuguese at Castelo Branco. From Lisbon he dispatched numerous orders and instructions for the reform of the Portuguese military, in this way he improved the functioning of the Portuguese Army so that they might face the forces of Napoleon invading the country for the third time. As the French forces retreated from the Lines of Torres Vedras, Beresford marched towards Badajoz, however, received notice that Soult was approaching, he lifted the siege and posted his army at Albuera in a defensive position. There he defeated the French forces on 16 May 1811, after the bloody Battle of Albuera the French were forced to retreat, though the siege of Badajoz had to be subsequently abandoned