Milan is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,372,810 while its metropolitan city has a population of 3,245,308. Its continuously built-up urban area has a population estimated to be about 5,270,000 over 1,891 square kilometres; the wider Milan metropolitan area, known as Greater Milan, is a polycentric metropolitan region that extends over central Lombardy and eastern Piedmont and which counts an estimated total population of 7.5 million, making it by far the largest metropolitan area in Italy and the 54th largest in the world. Milan served as capital of the Western Roman Empire from 286 to 402 and the Duchy of Milan during the medieval period and early modern age. Milan is considered a leading alpha global city, with strengths in the field of the art, design, entertainment, finance, media, services and tourism, its business district hosts Italy's stock exchange and the headquarters of national and international banks and companies.
In terms of GDP, it has the third-largest economy among European cities after Paris and London, but the fastest in growth among the three, is the wealthiest among European non-capital cities. Milan is considered part of the Blue Banana and one of the "Four Motors for Europe"; the city has been recognized as one of the world's four fashion capitals thanks to several international events and fairs, including Milan Fashion Week and the Milan Furniture Fair, which are among the world's biggest in terms of revenue and growth. It hosted the Universal Exposition in 1906 and 2015; the city hosts numerous cultural institutions and universities, with 11% of the national total enrolled students. Milan is the destination of 8 million overseas visitors every year, attracted by its museums and art galleries that boast some of the most important collections in the world, including major works by Leonardo da Vinci; the city is served by a large number of luxury hotels and is the fifth-most starred in the world by Michelin Guide.
The city is home to two of Europe's most successful football teams, A. C. Milan and F. C. Internazionale, one of Italy's main basketball teams, Olimpia Milano; the etymology of the name Milan remains uncertain. One theory holds that the Latin name Mediolanum planus. However, some scholars believe that lanum comes from the Celtic root lan, meaning an enclosure or demarcated territory in which Celtic communities used to build shrines. Hence Mediolanum could signify the central sanctuary of a Celtic tribe. Indeed, about sixty Gallo-Roman sites in France bore the name "Mediolanum", for example: Saintes and Évreux. In addition, another theory links the name to the boar sow an ancient emblem of the city, fancifully accounted for in Andrea Alciato's Emblemata, beneath a woodcut of the first raising of the city walls, where a boar is seen lifted from the excavation, the etymology of Mediolanum given as "half-wool", explained in Latin and in French; the foundation of Milan is credited to two Celtic peoples, the Bituriges and the Aedui, having as their emblems a ram and a boar.
Alciato credits Ambrose for his account. The Celtic Insubres, the inhabitants of the region of northern Italy called Insubria, appear to have founded Milan around 600 BC. According to the legend reported by Livy, the Gaulish king Ambicatus sent his nephew Bellovesus into northern Italy at the head of a party drawn from various Gaulish tribes; the Romans, led by consul Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus, fought the Insubres and captured the city in 222 BC. They conquered the entirety of the region, calling the new province "Cisalpine Gaul" – "Gaul this side of the Alps" – and may have given the site its Latinized Celtic name of Mediolanum: in Gaulish *medio- meant "middle, center" and the name element -lanon is the Celtic equivalent of Latin -planum "plain", thus *Mediolanon meant " in the midst of the plain". In 286 the Roman Emperor Diocletian moved the capital of the Western Roman Empire from Rome to Mediolanum. Diocletian himself chose to reside at Nicomedia in the Eastern Empire, leaving his colleague Maximian at Milan.
Maximian built several gigantic monuments, the large circus, the thermae or "Baths of Hercules", a large complex of imperial palaces and other services and buildings of which fewer visible traces remain. Maximian increased the city area surrounded by a new, larger stone wall encompassing an area of 375 acres with many 24-sided towers; the monumental area had twin towers. From Mediolanum the Emperor Constantine issued the Edict of Milan in 313 AD, granting tolerance to all religions within the Empire, thus paving the way for Christianity to become the dominant religion of Roman Europe. Constantine had come to Mediolanum to celebrate the wedding of his sister
Maxentius was Roman Emperor from 306 to 312. He was the son-in-law of Emperor Galerius; the latter part of his reign was preoccupied with civil war, allying with Maximinus II against Licinius and Constantine. The latter defeated him at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge in 312, where Maxentius, with his army in flight, purportedly perished by drowning in the Tiber river. Maxentius' exact date of birth is unknown, he was the son of his wife Eutropia. As his father became emperor in 285, he was regarded as crown prince who would follow his father on the throne, he seems not to have served, however, in any important military or administrative position during the reign of Diocletian and his father. The exact date of his marriage to Valeria Maximilla, daughter of Galerius, is unknown, he had Valerius Romulus and an unknown one. In 305, Diocletian and Maximian abdicated, the former caesares Constantius and Galerius became Augusti. Although two sons of emperors were available and Maxentius, they were passed over for the new tetrarchy, Severus and Maximinus Daia were appointed Caesars.
Lactantius' Epitome states that Galerius hated Maxentius and used his influence with Diocletian to see that Maxentius was ignored in the succession. Maxentius retired to an estate some miles from Rome; when Constantius died in 306, his son Constantine was crowned emperor on July 25 and subsequently accepted by Galerius into the tetrarchy as Caesar. This set the precedent for Maxentius' accession in the same year; when rumours reached the capital that the emperors tried to subject the Roman population to the capitation tax, like every other city of the empire, wanted to dissolve the remains of the Praetorian Guard which were still stationed at Rome, riots broke out. A group of officers of the city's garrisons turned to Maxentius to accept the imperial purple judging that the official recognition, granted to Constantine would not be withheld from Maxentius, son of an emperor as well. Maxentius accepted the honour, promised donations to the city's troops, was publicly acclaimed emperor on October 28, 306.
The usurpation went without bloodshed. The conspirators turned to Maximian as well, who had retired to a palace in Lucania, but he declined to resume power for the time being. Maxentius managed to be recognized as emperor in central and southern Italy, the islands of Corsica and Sardinia and Sicily, the African provinces. Northern Italy remained under the control of the western Augustus Severus, who resided in Mediolanum. Maxentius refrained from using the titles Augustus or Caesar at first and styled himself princeps invictus, in the hope of obtaining recognition of his reign by the senior emperor Galerius. However, the latter refused to do so. Apart from his alleged antipathy towards Maxentius, Galerius wanted to deter others from following the examples of Constantine and Maxentius and declaring themselves emperors. Constantine controlled his father's army and territories, Galerius could pretend that his accession was part of the regular succession in the tetrarchy, but neither was the case with Maxentius: he would be the fifth emperor, he had only few troops at his command.
Galerius reckoned that it would be not too difficult to quell the usurpation, early in 307, the Augustus Severus marched on Rome with a large army. The majority of this army consisted of soldiers who had fought under Maxentius' father Maximian for years, as Severus reached Rome, the majority of his army went over to Maxentius, rightful heir of their former commander, who dealt out a large amount of money; when Maximian himself left his retreat and returned to Rome to assume the imperial office once again and support his son, Severus with the rest of his army retreated to Ravenna. Shortly after, he surrendered to Maximian. After the defeat of Severus, Maxentius took possession of northern Italy up to the Alps and the Istrian peninsula to the east, assumed the title of Augustus, which had become vacant with the surrender of Severus; the joint rule of Maxentius and Maximian in Rome was tested further when Galerius himself marched to Italy in the summer of 307 with an larger army. While negotiating with the invader, Maxentius could repeat what he did to Severus: by the promise of large sums of money, the authority of Maximian, many soldiers of Galerius defected to him.
Galerius was forced plundering Italy on his way. Some time during the invasion, Severus was put to death by Maxentius at Tres Tabernae near Rome. After the failed campaign of Galerius, Maxentius' reign over Italy and Africa was established. Beginning in 307 he tried to arrange friendly contacts with Constantine, in the summer of that year, Maximian travelled to Gaul, where Constantine married his daughter Fausta and was in turn appointed Augustus by the senior emperor. However, Constantine tried to avoid breaking with Galerius, did not support Maxentius during the invasion. In 308 April, Maximian tried to depose his son in an assembly of soldiers in Rome. In the conference of C
Battle of the Milvian Bridge
The Battle of the Milvian Bridge took place between the Roman Emperors Constantine I and Maxentius on 28 October 312. It takes its name from an important route over the Tiber. Constantine won the battle and started on the path that led him to end the Tetrarchy and become the sole ruler of the Roman Empire. Maxentius drowned in the Tiber during the battle. According to chroniclers such as Eusebius of Caesarea and Lactantius, the battle marked the beginning of Constantine's conversion to Christianity. Eusebius of Caesarea recounts that Constantine and his soldiers had a vision sent by the Christian God; this was interpreted as a promise of victory if the sign of the Chi-Rho, the first two letters of Christ's name in Greek, was painted on the soldiers' shields. The Arch of Constantine, erected in celebration of the victory attributes Constantine's success to divine intervention; the underlying causes of the battle were the rivalries inherent in Diocletian's Tetrarchy. After Diocletian stepped down on 1 May 305, his successors began to struggle for control of the Roman Empire immediately.
Although Constantine was the son of the Western Emperor Constantius, the Tetrarchic ideology did not provide for hereditary succession. When Constantius died on 25 July 306, his father's troops proclaimed Constantine as Augustus in Eboracum. In Rome, the favorite was Maxentius, the son of Constantius' imperial colleague Maximian, who seized the title of emperor on 28 October 306, but whereas Constantine's claim was recognized by Galerius, ruler of the Eastern provinces and the senior emperor in the Empire, Maxentius was treated as a usurper. Galerius, recognized Constantine as holding only the lesser imperial rank of Caesar. Galerius ordered his co-Augustus, Severus, to put Maxentius down in early 307. Once Severus arrived in Italy, his army defected to Maxentius. Severus was captured and executed. Galerius himself failed to take the city. Constantine avoided conflict with the Eastern emperors for most of this period. By 312, however and Maxentius were engaged in open hostility with one another, although they were brothers-in‑law through Constantine's marriage to Fausta, sister of Maxentius.
In the spring of 312, Constantine gathered an army of 40,000 soldiers and decided to oust Maxentius himself. He overran northern Italy, winning two major battles: the first near Turin, the second at Verona, where the praetorian prefect Ruricius Pompeianus, Maxentius' most senior general, was killed, it is understood that on the evening of 27 October with the armies preparing for battle, Constantine had a vision which led him to fight under the protection of the Christian God. Some details of that vision, differ between the sources reporting it. Lactantius states that, in the night before the battle, Constantine was commanded in a dream to "delineate the heavenly sign on the shields of his soldiers", he followed the commands of his dream and marked the shields with a sign "denoting Christ". Lactantius describes that sign as a "staurogram", or a Latin cross with its upper end rounded in a P-like fashion. There is no certain evidence that Constantine used that sign, opposed to the better known Chi-Rho sign described by Eusebius.
From Eusebius, two accounts of the battle survive. The first, shorter one in the Ecclesiastical History promotes the belief that the Christian God helped Constantine but does not mention any vision. In his Life of Constantine, Eusebius gives a detailed account of a vision and stresses that he had heard the story from the Emperor himself. According to this version, Constantine with his army was marching, when he looked up to the sun and saw a cross of light above it, with it the Greek words "Εν Τούτῳ Νίκα", En toutō níka translated into Latin as "in hoc signo vinces"; the literal meaning of the phrase in Greek is "in this, conquer" while in Latin it's "in this sign, you shall conquer". At first he was unsure of the meaning of the apparition, but in the following night he had a dream in which Christ explained to him that he should use the sign against his enemies. Eusebius continues to describe the labarum, the military standard used by Constantine in his wars against Licinius, showing the Chi-Rho sign.
The accounts of the two contemporary authors, though not consistent, have been merged into a popular notion of Constantine seeing the Chi-Rho sign on the evening before the battle. Both authors agree that the sign was not understandable to denote Christ, its first imperial appearance is on a Constantinian silver coin from c. 317, which proves that Constantine did use the sign at that time, though not prominently. He made more extensive use of the Chi-Rho and the Labarum during the conflict with Licinius; some have considered the vision in a solar context, which may have preceded the Christian beliefs expressed by Constantine. Coins of Constantine depicting him as the companion of a solar deity were minted as late as 313, the year following the battle; the solar deity Sol Invictus is pictured with a nimbus or halo. Various
Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great known as Constantine I, was a Roman Emperor who ruled between 306 and 337 AD. Born in Naissus, in Dacia Ripensis, town now known as Niš, he was the son of Flavius Valerius Constantius, a Roman Army officer, his mother was Empress Helena. His father became Caesar, the deputy emperor in the west, in 293 AD. Constantine was sent east, where he rose through the ranks to become a military tribune under Emperors Diocletian and Galerius. In 305, Constantius was raised to the rank of Augustus, senior western emperor, Constantine was recalled west to campaign under his father in Britannia. Constantine was acclaimed as emperor by the army at Eboracum after his father's death in 306 AD, he emerged victorious in a series of civil wars against Emperors Maxentius and Licinius to become sole ruler of both west and east by 324 AD. As emperor, Constantine enacted administrative, financial and military reforms to strengthen the empire, he restructured the government, separating military authorities.
To combat inflation he introduced the solidus, a new gold coin that became the standard for Byzantine and European currencies for more than a thousand years. The Roman army was reorganised to consist of mobile field units and garrison soldiers capable of countering internal threats and barbarian invasions. Constantine pursued successful campaigns against the tribes on the Roman frontiers—the Franks, the Alamanni, the Goths, the Sarmatians—even resettling territories abandoned by his predecessors during the Crisis of the Third Century. Constantine was the first Roman emperor to convert to Christianity. Although he lived much of his life as a pagan, as a catechumen, he joined the Christian faith on his deathbed, being baptised by Eusebius of Nicomedia, he played an influential role in the proclamation of the Edict of Milan in 313, which declared religious tolerance for Christianity in the Roman empire. He called the First Council of Nicaea in 325, which produced the statement of Christian belief known as the Nicene Creed.
The Church of the Holy Sepulchre was built on his orders at the purported site of Jesus' tomb in Jerusalem and became the holiest place in Christendom. The Papal claim to temporal power in the High Middle Ages was based on the forged Donation of Constantine, he has been referred to as the "First Christian Emperor", he did promote the Christian Church. Some modern scholars, debate his beliefs and his comprehension of the Christian faith itself; the age of Constantine marked a distinct epoch in the history of the Roman Empire. He renamed the city Constantinople after himself, it became the capital of the Empire for more than a thousand years, with the eastern Roman Empire now being referred to as the Byzantine Empire by historians. His more immediate political legacy was that he replaced Diocletian's tetrarchy with the principle of dynastic succession by leaving the empire to his sons, his reputation for centuries after his reign. The medieval church upheld him as a paragon of virtue, while secular rulers invoked him as a prototype, a point of reference, the symbol of imperial legitimacy and identity.
Beginning with the Renaissance, there were more critical appraisals of his reign, due to the rediscovery of anti-Constantinian sources. Trends in modern and recent scholarship have attempted to balance the extremes of previous scholarship. Constantine was a ruler of major importance, he has always been a controversial figure; the fluctuations in his reputation reflect the nature of the ancient sources for his reign. These are abundant and detailed, but they have been influenced by the official propaganda of the period and are one-sided; the nearest replacement is Eusebius's Vita Constantini—a mixture of eulogy and hagiography written between 335 AD and circa 339 AD—that extols Constantine's moral and religious virtues. The Vita creates a contentiously positive image of Constantine, modern historians have challenged its reliability; the fullest secular life of Constantine is the anonymous Origo Constantini, a work of uncertain date, which focuses on military and political events to the neglect of cultural and religious matters.
Lactantius' De Mortibus Persecutorum, a political Christian pamphlet on the reigns of Diocletian and the Tetrarchy, provides valuable but tendentious detail on Constantine's predecessors and early life. The ecclesiastical histories of Socrates and Theodoret describe the ecclesiastic disputes of Constantine's reign. Written during the reign of Theodosius II, a century after Constantine's reign, these ecclesiastic historians obscure the events and theologies of the Constantinian period through misdirection, misrepresentation, deliberate obscurity; the contemporary writings of the orthodox Christian Athanasius and the ecclesiastical history of the Arian Philostorgius survive, though their biases are no less firm. The epitomes of Aurelius Victor, Eutropius and the anonymous author of the Epitome de Caesaribus offer compressed secular political and military histories of the period. Although not Christian, the epitomes paint a favourable image of Constantine but omit reference to Constantine's religious policies.
The Panegyrici Latini, a collection of panegyrics
Susa is a town and comune in the Metropolitan City of Turin, Italy. In the middle of Susa Valley, it is situated on at the confluence of the Cenischia with the Dora Riparia, a tributary of the Po River, at the foot of the Cottian Alps, 51 km west of Turin. Susa was founded by the Gauls. In the late 1st century BC it became voluntarily part of the Roman Empire. Remains of the Roman city have been found in the excavations of the central square, the Piazza Savoia. Susa was the capital of the province of Alpes Cottiae. According to the medieval historian Rodulfus Glaber, Susa was "the oldest of Alpine towns". In the Middle and Modern ages Susa remained important as a hub of roads connecting southern France to Italy. Taking part of the county or march of Turin. Henry of Segusio called Hostiensis, an Italian canonist of the thirteenth century, was born in the city. During the Napoleonic era a new road, the Via Napoleonica, was built; the city's role as a communications hub has been confirmed by a nationwide dispute over the construction of the proposed Turin-Lyon high-speed rail link to France.
Susa Cathedral. The triumphal Arch of Augustus, erected by a Romanized Sugusian chief to Augustus in 8 BC; the Roman Amphitheater. Castle of Marquise Adelaide, it is located in the same site of the ancient Roman Praetorium. Archaeological area of Piazza Savoia. Barnstaple, United Kingdom Briançon, France Paola, Italy Val di Susa Treno Alta Velocità Roman Catholic Diocese of Susa Treaty of Susa Bertrand, E. R. Talbert, T. Elliott, S. Gillies. "Places: 167919". Pleiades. Retrieved March 8, 2012. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list
Battle of Adrianople (324)
The Battle of Adrianople was fought on July 3, 324, during a Roman civil war, the second to be waged between the two emperors Constantine I and Licinius. Constantine had, in a previous war, defeated Licinius at the Battle of Cibalae and conquered from him all the Balkan Peninsula, with the exception of Thrace. A peace had been arranged but the relationship between the two emperors remained uneasy. By 324 Constantine was ready to renew the conflict and when his army, in pursuit of a raiding Visigothic, or Sarmatian, crossed into Licinius' territory an opportune casus belli was created; the reaction of Licinius to this incursion was overtly hostile and this induced Constantine to go on to the offensive. Constantine invaded Thrace in force. Licinius encamped his army in a strong position near the major city of inland Thrace. Constantine advanced eastward from Thessalonica until he came to the Hebrus River, on which Adrianople stands, set up his own camp. Licinius arranged his battle line, of 200 stades in length, in a strong position between a height overlooking the town and the confluence of the Hebrus with a tributary.
The two armies remained in position for a number of days before battle was joined, as both sides were reluctant to chance the crossing of the river against a well-prepared and battle-arrayed enemy. Constantine used a ruse to get his troops across the Hebrus. Having noticed a suitable crossing point where the river narrowed and was overlooked by a wooded hillside, he ordered material and ropes to be conspicuously assembled at another place on the river, well away from his chosen crossing, to give the impression that he intended to build a bridge to cross there. On the wooded hillside, he secretly assembled a force of cavalry, he led his cavalry over the river crossing at the narrows, fell on the enemy unexpectedly. The surprise attack was a complete success and the remainder of his army crossed at the same point. With his position on the river outflanked, Licinius' withdrew his forces and took up a defensive position on higher ground. However, this gave Constantine the initiative once more, his attack was again successful.
What followed, in the words of the historian Zosimus, was "a great massacre": Licinius' army, according to Zosimus, received losses of 34,000 dead. During the onslaught, Constantine directed the guard of his overtly Christian standard, the labarum, to move it to any part of the field where his troops seemed to be faltering; the appearance of this talisman dismayed those of Licinius. Constantine, wounded in the thigh, halted his attack at sunset and darkness allowed Licinius and the remains of his force to withdraw to Byzantium, the coast, the safety of his fleet; the battle was one of the largest of the 4th century. Though Zosimus attributes the success of the Constantinian forces to the courage and martial prowess of Constantine himself, whom he alleges to have led the cavalry in person in the charge which broke Licinus' defenses, other contemporary accounts ascribe his success to the discipline of the troops and Constantine's felicitas, his'good fortune'. Constantine's effort to start a civil conflict proved successful, as did his campaign against Licinius.
Following the battle at Adrianople, Constantine moved to besiege Byzantium. At this point in the campaign, control of the narrow waters separating Thrace and Asia Minor became of the utmost importance to both emperors. Constantine's son Crispus commanded his navy in a struggle with the larger fleet of Licinius. Following Crispus' naval victory in the waters of the Hellespont, Constantine crossed with his army into Bithynia, he met Licinius' army in the final battle of the war at Chrysopolis on the Asiatic shore of the Bosporus. Constantine won an overwhelming victory. Yielding to the pleas of his sister Constantia, Constantine spared the life of his brother-in-law, but some months he ordered his execution, thereby breaking his solemn oath. Licinius was suspected of the army command pressed for his execution. A year Constantine's nephew the younger Licinius fell victim to the emperor's anger or suspicions. Constantine became the first man to be master of the entire Roman world since the elevation of Maximian as co-emperor by Diocletian in 285.
Primary source Zosimus, Historia nova, English translation: R. T. Ridley, Zosimus: New History, Byzantina Australiensia 2, Canberra. 1814 English translation at WikisourceSecondary sources Grant, The Emperor Constantine, London. ISBN 0-7538-0528-6 Lieu, S. N. C and Montserrat, D. From Constantine to Julian, London. ISBN 0-415-09336-8 Odahl, C. M. Constantine and the Christian Empire, Routledge 2004. ISBN 0-415-17485-6 Stephenson, P. Constantine: Unconquered Emperor, Christian Victor, London Syvanne, I. Military History of Late Rome 284-361 Pen and Sword, Barnsley Yorks
Battle of the Hellespont
The Battle of the Hellespont, consisting of two separate naval clashes, was fought in 324 between a Constantinian fleet, led by the eldest son of Constantine I, Crispus. Despite being outnumbered, Crispus won a complete victory. Following his defeat at Adrianople, in Thrace and his main army fell back to the city of Byzantium. Licinius left a strong garrison in Byzantium but ferried the greater part of his troops across the Bosphorus to the Asian shore. To maintain his force in Byzantium, to secure his line of communication between Asia Minor and the city, retaining control of the narrow waters separating Thrace from Bithynia and Mysia now became imperative for Licinius. Constantine, if he wished to cross to Asia in order to destroy Licinius' means of further resistance, had to gain control of the sea crossings. Licinius' main army was on the Bosphoros to cover this crossing point whilst the bulk of his navy was moved to cover the Hellespontine narrows, he assembled a second military force, under his newly elevated co-emperor Martinian, at Lampsacus on the Asian shore of the Hellespont.
While Constantine was directing the siege of Byzantium, Crispus led a force of 80 vessels into the Hellespont. Abantus opposed him with a superior fleet of 200 ships. However, the size of the Licinian forces worked against them within the confined waters of the strait. Crispus was able to use his more compact squadrons to outmanoeuvre his opponent's unwieldy armada and sink many of the Licinian warships. Abantus withdrew to the eastern end of the Hellespont to regroup his forces. Crispus augmented his fleet with reinforcements brought in from the Aegean Sea and the two fleets met again on the following day; the second clash was fought near Gallipoli. Abantus' ship was sunk and he only managed to save himself by swimming ashore. All but four of the ships of the Licinian fleet were sunk or captured; the Constantinian fleet won an overwhelming victory. This naval victory allowed Constantine to move his army across to Asia Minor, using a fleet of light transports to avoid Martinian's forces. Once Licinius knew of the destruction of his navy he withdrew his forces from Byzantium.
Constantine's army defeated Licinius' at the Battle of Chrysopolis. Constantine became the sole master of the Roman Empire. Grant, The Roman Emperors: A biographical Guide to the Rulers of Imperial Rome 31 BC-AD 476, London. ISBN 0-297-78555-9 Lieu, S. N. C and Montserrat, D. From Constantine to Julian, London. ISBN 0-415-09336-8 Odahl, C. M. Constantine and the Christian Empire, Routledge 2004. ISBN 0-415-17485-6 Pears, Edwin. "The Campaign against Paganism A. D. 324." The English Historical Review, Vol. 24, No. 93: 1–17