5th Dragoon Guards
The 5th Dragoon Guards was a cavalry regiment in the British Army, first raised in 1685 as the Duke of Shrewsburys Regiment of Horse. It was renamed as the 5th Regiment of Dragoon Guards in 1788 and it saw service for two centuries, including the First World War, before being amalgamated with The Inniskillings, to form the 5th/6th Dragoons in 1922. It fought at the Battle of the Boyne in July 1690 and it charged the French and made them to fall back at the Battle of Beaumont in April 1794 during the French Revolutionary Wars. In 1804 it took the title 5th Regiment of Dragoon Guards for Princess Charlotte and it saw action at the Battle of Salamanca in July 1812, Battle of Vitoria in June 1813 and Battle of Toulouse in April 1814 during the Napoleonic Wars. It took part in the charge of the Heavy Brigade at the Battle of Balaclava in October 1854 during the Crimean War, the regiment saw action at the Battle of Elandslaagte and the Battle of Lombards Kop in October 1899 during the Anglo-Boer War.
It landed in France at the outbreak of the First World War as part of the 1st Cavalry Brigade in the 1st Cavalry Division on 16 August 1914 for service on the Western Front. After the war, it retitled as 5th Dragoon Guards in 1921, Rosières, Albert 1918, Hindenburg Line, St. John Fitzwilliam 1789 John Douglas 1790 Thomas Bland 1816 Prince Léopold Georg Christian Friedrich of Saxe-Saalfeld-Coburg 1831, Gen. James Brudenell, 7th Earl of Cardigan 1860, Gen. Hon, sir James Yorke Scarlett 1871, Gen. Richard Parker 1885, Gen. Sir Thomas Westropp McMahon 1892, Lt-Gen, somerset Gough-Calthorpe, 7th Baron Calthorpe 1912, Maj-Gen. Sir George Tom Molesworth Bridges British cavalry during the First World War Gore, the Story of a Regiment of Horse 1685-1922
Second Siege of Badajoz (1811)
After failing to force a surrender, Wellington withdrew his army when the French mounted a successful relief effort by combining the armies of Marshals Nicolas Soult and Auguste Marmont. The action was fought during the Peninsular War, part of the Napoleonic Wars, Badajoz is located 6 kilometres from the Portuguese border on the Guadiana River in western Spain. While Wellington faced Marshal André Massénas Army of Portugal in the north, Beresford invested the city in April but Philippons garrison successfully fended off his attacks. The siege was lifted while the Battle of Albuera was fought on 16 May. Though both sides suffered casualties, Beresford emerged the victor and Soult retreated to the east. Wellington brought reinforcements from the north and resumed the siege, Massénas replacement Marmont brought large forces south to join Soult. The British commander lifted the siege after being menaced by the numerically superior French army led by Soult, hoping to assist Marshal André Massénas invasion of Portugal, Emperor Napoleon ordered Marshal Nicolas Soult to act.
Accordingly, Soult set out in January 1811 with 13,500 foot soldiers,4,000 horse, in a preliminary operation, Soult captured Olivenza in a two week siege that ended on 23 January. The French seized 4,161 Spanish prisoners and 18 guns for a loss of only 15 killed and 40 wounded. On 27 January, Soults army invested Badajoz, despite the interference of a 15, 000-man Spanish relief army, the results were all the French could have hoped for. On 19 February, Soult sent Marshal Édouard Mortier to deal with the Spanish army, Mortier won a crushing victory in the Battle of the Gebora. The Spanish lost 850 killed and wounded plus 4,000 men,17 guns, turning to the siege, Soult forced a surrender on 11 March. The 4, 340-man Spanish garrison plus 2,000 fugitives from the Battle of the Gebora lost about 1,000 killed and wounded while the rest became prisoners, the French sustained 1,900 casualties in the siege. Leaving Mortier and 11,000 soldiers to hold Badajoz and environs, Mortier besieged and captured Campo Maior on 21 March.
In the Battle of Campo Maior on 25 March, the British 13th Light Dragoons scored an initial success, in the confusion, Latour-Maubourg kept his head and, with the help of Mortier, managed to save the artillery convoy except for one artillery piece. Nevertheless, the appearance of Beresford and 18,000 Allied troops threw the French onto the defensive. A field marshal in the service of Portugal, Beresford had available the 2nd Division, the 4th Division, Major General John Hamiltons Portuguese Division, if he could have invested Badajoz at the end of March, Beresford might have found the defenses of the fortress in poor shape. However, problems arose to delay the operation until the French effected repairs, the 4th Division was immobilized by a lack of shoes and had to wait for a new shipment from Lisbon
By population, Spain is the sixth largest in Europe and the fifth in the European Union. Spains capital and largest city is Madrid, other urban areas include Barcelona, Seville, Bilbao. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago, in the Middle Ages, the area was conquered by Germanic tribes and by the Moors. Spain is a democracy organised in the form of a government under a constitutional monarchy. It is a power and a major developed country with the worlds fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP. Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the span is the Phoenician word spy. Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean the land where metals are forged, two 15th-century Spanish Jewish scholars, Don Isaac Abravanel and Solomon ibn Verga, gave an explanation now considered folkloric. Both men wrote in two different published works that the first Jews to reach Spain were brought by ship by Phiros who was confederate with the king of Babylon when he laid siege to Jerusalem.
This man was a Grecian by birth, but who had given a kingdom in Spain. He became related by marriage to Espan, the nephew of king Heracles, Heracles renounced his throne in preference for his native Greece, leaving his kingdom to his nephew, from whom the country of España took its name. Based upon their testimonies, this eponym would have already been in use in Spain by c.350 BCE, Iberia enters written records as a land populated largely by the Iberians and Celts. Early on its coastal areas were settled by Phoenicians who founded Western Europe´s most ancient cities Cadiz, Phoenician influence expanded as much of the Peninsula was eventually incorporated into the Carthaginian Empire, becoming a major theater of the Punic Wars against the expanding Roman Empire. After an arduous conquest, the peninsula came fully under Roman Rule, during the early Middle Ages it came under Germanic rule but later, much of it was conquered by Moorish invaders from North Africa. In a process took centuries, the small Christian kingdoms in the north gradually regained control of the peninsula.
The last Moorish kingdom fell in the same year Columbus reached the Americas, a global empire began which saw Spain become the strongest kingdom in Europe, the leading world power for a century and a half, and the largest overseas empire for three centuries. Continued wars and other problems led to a diminished status. The Napoleonic invasions of Spain led to chaos, triggering independence movements that tore apart most of the empire, eventually democracy was peacefully restored in the form of a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Spain joined the European Union, experiencing a renaissance and steady economic growth
Badajoz is the capital of the Province of Badajoz in the autonomous community of Extremadura, Spain. It is situated close to the Portuguese border, on the bank of the river Guadiana. The population in 2011 was 151,565, conquered by the Moors in the 8th century, Badajoz became a Moorish kingdom, the Taifa of Badajoz. Spanish history is reflected in the town. Badajoz is the see of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Mérida-Badajoz, prior to the merger of the Diocese of Mérida and the Diocese of Badajoz, Badajoz was the see of the Diocese of Badajoz from the bishoprics inception in 1255. The architecture of Badajoz is indicative of its tempestuous history, even the Badajoz Cathedral, built in 1238, resembles a fortress, Badajoz is home to the CD Badajoz and AD Cerro de Reyes football clubs and the AB Pacense basketball club. It is served by Badajoz Railway Station and Badajoz Airport, Archaeological finds unearthed in the Badajoz area have been dated to the Bronze Age. Megalithic tombs are dated as far back as 4000 BC, while many of the steles found are from the Late Bronze Age, other finds include weapons such as axes and swords, everyday items of pottery and utensils, and various items of jewellery such as bracelets.
Archaeological excavations have revealed remnants from the Lower Paleolithic period, artifacts have been found at the Roman town of Colonia Civitas Pacensis in the Badajoz area, although a significant number of larger artifacts were found in Mérida. Badajoz attained importance during the reign of Moorish rulers such as the Umayyad caliphs of Córdoba, from the 8th century, the Umayyad dynasty controlled the region until the early 11th century. The official foundation of Badajoz was laid by the Muladi nobleman Ibn Marwan, around 875, under Ibn Marwan, the city was the seat of an effective autonomous rebel state which was quenched only in the 10th century. In 1021, it became the capital of a small Muslim kingdom, Badajoz was known as Baṭalyaws during Muslim rule. The invasion of Badajoz by Christian rulers in 1086 under Alfonso VI of Castile, in addition to an invasion by the Almoravids of Morocco in 1067, Badajoz was invaded by the Almohads in 1147. Badajoz was captured by Alfonso IX of León on 19 March 1230, shortly after its conquest, in the time of Alfonso X the Wise of Castile, a bishopric see was established and work was initiated on the Cathedral of San Juan Bautista.
In 1336, during the reign of Alfonso XI of Castile and their victory forced the king of Portugal to desert the city and it fell into neglect. They temporarily lost Barcarrota after a tiff with the Portuguese but soon regained control, fernán Sánchezs grandson of the same name, son of Garci Sánchez de Badajoz, was both lord of Barcarrota and Mayor of Badajoz in 1434. The first hospital was founded in the town by Bishop Fray Pedro de Silva in 1485 and those affected by the plague epidemic were treated here in 1506. With reason to assert their rights to the Portuguese Crown, Philip II of Spain briefly moved his court to Badajoz in August 1580, queen Anne of Austria died in the city two months later, and on 5 December 1580, Philip moved out of the city
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established as a sovereign state on 1 January 1801 by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland. The growing desire for an Irish Republic led to the Irish War of Independence, Northern Ireland remained part of the United Kingdom, and the state was consequently renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Britain financed the European coalition that defeated France in 1815 in the Napoleonic Wars, the British Empire thereby became the foremost world power for the next century. The Crimean War with Russia and the Boer wars were relatively small operations in a largely peaceful century, rapid industrialisation that began in the decades prior to the states formation continued up until the mid-19th century. A devastating famine, exacerbated by government inaction in the century, led to demographic collapse in much of Ireland. It was an era of economic modernization and growth of industry and finance.
Outward migration was heavy to the colonies and to the United States. Britain built up a large British Empire in Africa and Asia, India, by far the most important possession, saw a short-lived revolt in 1857. In foreign policy Britain favoured free trade, which enabled its financiers and merchants to operate successfully in many otherwise independent countries, as in South America. Britain formed no permanent military alliances until the early 20th century, when it began to cooperate with Japan and Russia, and moved closer to the United States. A brief period of limited independence for Ireland came to an end following the Irish Rebellion of 1798, the British governments fear of an independent Ireland siding against them with the French resulted in the decision to unite the two countries. This was brought about by legislation in the parliaments of both kingdoms and came into effect on 1 January 1801, King George III was bitterly opposed to any such Emancipation and succeeded in defeating his governments attempts to introduce it.
When the Treaty of Amiens ended the war, Britain agreed to return most of the territories it had seized, in May 1803, war was declared again. In 1806, Napoleon issued the series of Berlin Decrees, which brought into effect the Continental System and this policy aimed to eliminate the threat from the British by closing French-controlled territory to foreign trade. Frances population and agricultural capacity far outstripped that of the British Isles, Napoleon expected that cutting Britain off from the European mainland would end its economic hegemony. The Spanish uprising in 1808 at last permitted Britain to gain a foothold on the Continent, after Napoleons surrender and exile to the island of Elba, peace appeared to have returned. The Allies united and the armies of Wellington and Blucher defeated Napoleon once, simultaneous with the Napoleonic Wars, trade disputes, arming hostile Indians and British impressment of American sailors led to the War of 1812 with the United States. The war was little noticed in Britain, which could devote few resources to the conflict until the fall of Napoleon in 1814, American frigates inflicted a series of defeats on the Royal Navy, which was short on manpower due to the conflict in Europe
14th King's Hussars
The 14th Kings Hussars was a cavalry regiment in the British Army, first raised in 1715. It saw service for two centuries, including the First World War, before being amalgamated with the 20th Hussars to form the 14th/20th Kings Hussars in 1922 and it took part in the Battle of Preston in November 1715 after which it escorted some of the rebels to Lancaster Gaol. The regiment was sent to Ireland in 1717 and remained there until 1742, the regiment returned to Ireland in 1747 and it was formally renamed as the 14th Regiment of Dragoons in 1751. The regiment was renamed for Princess Frederica in 1798 as the 14th Regiment of Dragoons, the regiment was dispatched to Lisbon in December 1808 to join Sir Arthur Wellesleys Army which was engaged in the Peninsular War. The regiment fought at the Second Battle of Porto in May 1809 during which one of the French brigade commanders, the regiment advanced into France performing a supporting role at the Battle of Orthez in February 1814 and at the Battle of Toulouse in April 1814.
The regiment served in Ireland between January 1816 and June 1819 and between April 1825 and March 1828. The regiment was renamed in July 1830, to mark the coronation of William IV as the 14th Regiment of Dragoons and it was dispatched to India in May 1841. The regiment marched from Kirkee in the west of the country to Ambala in the north of the country through the winter of 1845 during the First Anglo-Sikh War. The commanding officer of the regiment, Colonel William Havelock, led a charge, apparently without orders and his leading troopers were surrounded and cut down. After a further charge failed, Brigadier Charles Cureton, the commander of the division to which the troops belonged, galloped up. Cureton himself was killed by musket fire. The regiment were routed at the Battle of Chillianwala in January 1849 and it took part in an expedition under Lieutenant-General Sir James Outram against Persia in spring 1857 during the Anglo-Persian War. The regiment returned to India in May 1857 and took part in the Central Indian campaign during 1858 in the stages of the Indian Rebellion.
Major James Leith was awarded the Victoria Cross during this campaign, the title of the regiment was simplified in August 1861 to the 14th Hussars. The regiment arrived in South Africa in January 1900 and took part in the relief of Kimberley in February 1900 during the Second Boer War. The regiment, which was serving in Mhow in India as part of the Meerut Cavalry Brigade in the Meerut Divisional Area at the start of the First World War landed in Mesopotamia in November 1915. It was involved in most of the actions during the Mesopotamian campaign before moving to Persia in May 1918, the regiment retitled as the 14th Kings Hussars in January 1921 and was amalgamated with the 20th Hussars to form the 14th/20th Kings Hussars in October 1922. James OHara, 2nd Baron Tyrawley 14th Regiment of Dragoons 1752–1757, John Campbell, 5th Duke of Argyll 1765–1772, Gen. Charles FitzRoy, 1st Baron Southampton 1772–1773, Lt-Gen
3rd Dragoon Guards
The 3rd Dragoon Guards was a cavalry regiment in the British Army, first raised in 1685 as the Earl of Plymouths Regiment of Horse. It was renamed as the 3rd Regiment of Dragoon Guards in 1751 and it saw service for two centuries, including the First World War, before being amalgamated into the 3rd/6th Dragoon Guards in 1922. In 1746 it was ranked as the 3rd Dragoon Guards, shortly thereafter, in 1765, it took the title 3rd Dragoon Guards, for the future George IV. It took part in the suppression of the Bristol riots in 1831 and, after service in India, the regiment was employed chasing the elusive General Christiaan de Wet in spring 1901 during the Second Boer War. It retitled as 3rd Dragoon Guards in 1921, and was amalgamated with the 6th Dragoon Guards to form the 3rd/6th Dragoon Guards the following year, lord Robert Manners 1782 Gen. Philip Honywood 1785 Lt-Gen. Sir William Fawcett 1804 Gen. Richard Vyse 1825 Gen, sir William Payne-Gallwey, 1st Baronet 1831 Gen. Samuel Hawker 1839 Lt-Gen.
Sir James Charles Dalbiac 1842 Lt-Gen, francis Newbery 1847 Gen. Charles Cathcart, 2nd Earl Cathcart 1851 Lt-Gen. Sir John Scott 1866 Gen. Robert Richardson Robertson 1883 Gen, sir William Henry Seymour 1891 Lt-Gen. Andrew Smythe Montague Browne 1905 Maj-Gen, sir Nevill Maskelyne Smyth after the regiment was amalgamated with the 6th Dragoon Guards British cavalry during the First World War Chant, Christopher. Battle Honours Awarded for the Great War
Siege of Badajoz (1812)
In the Siege of Badajoz, called the Third Siege of Badajoz, an Anglo-Portuguese Army, under General Arthur Wellesley, besieged Badajoz and forced the surrender of the French garrison. Enraged at the number of casualties they suffered in seizing the city. Threatening their officers and ignoring their commands to desist, and even killing several and it took three days before the men were brought back into order. Badajoz was garrisoned by some 5,000 French soldiers under General Philippon, the town commander, on 19 March the French made a strong sally with 1,500 men and 40 cavalry which surprised the working parties and caused losses of 150 officers and men before being repulsed. Amongst the wounded was Lt. Col. Fletcher, chief Engineer, by 25 March batteries were firing on the outwork, Fort Picurina, which that night was stormed by 500 men and seized by redcoats from General Thomas Pictons 3rd Division. Casualties were high with 50 killed and 250 wounded, but the fort was captured, the capture of the bastion allowed more extensive siege earthworks to be dug and with the arrival of heavy 18 lb and 24 lb howitzers, breaching batteries were established.
On 31 March the allies began a bombardment of the towns defences. Soon a maze of trenches were creeping up to the stone walls as the cannons continued to blast away at the stonework. On 2 April an attempt was made to destroy a barrier that had been erected amongst the arches of the bridge to cause flooding that was hampering the siege, the explosion of 450lbs of powder was only partly successful. By April 5 two breaches had been made in the wall and the soldiers readied themselves to storm Badajoz. The order to attack was delayed for 24 hours to allow another breach to be made in the wall. News began to filter to the allies that Marshal Soult was marching to relieve the town, the French garrison were well aware of what was to come, and mined the large breaches in the walls in preparation for the imminent assault. The first men to assault the breaches were the men of the Forlorn Hope, just as the main Forlorn Hope were beginning their attack, a French sentry was alerted and raised the alarm. Within seconds the ramparts were filled with French soldiers, who poured a hail of musket fire into the troops at the base of the breach.
The furious barrage devastated the British soldiers at the wall and the breach soon began to fill with dead and wounded, despite the carnage the redcoats bravely continued to surge forward in great numbers, only to be mown down by endless volleys and shrapnel from grenades and bombs. The French could see they were holding the assault and the British were becoming stupefied and incapable of more exertion. In just under two hours, some 2,000 men had killed or badly wounded at the main breach. He ordered the gates to be blown and the 3rd Division should support the assaults on the breaches with a flank attack
First French Empire
The First French Empire, Note 1 was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century. Its name was a misnomer, as France already had colonies overseas and was short lived compared to the Colonial Empire, a series of wars, known collectively as the Napoleonic Wars, extended French influence over much of Western Europe and into Poland. The plot included Bonapartes brother Lucien, serving as speaker of the Council of Five Hundred, Roger Ducos, another Director, on 9 November 1799 and the following day, troops led by Bonaparte seized control. They dispersed the legislative councils, leaving a rump legislature to name Bonaparte, Sieyès, although Sieyès expected to dominate the new regime, the Consulate, he was outmaneuvered by Bonaparte, who drafted the Constitution of the Year VIII and secured his own election as First Consul. He thus became the most powerful person in France, a power that was increased by the Constitution of the Year X, the Battle of Marengo inaugurated the political idea that was to continue its development until Napoleons Moscow campaign.
Napoleon planned only to keep the Duchy of Milan for France, setting aside Austria, the Peace of Amiens, which cost him control of Egypt, was a temporary truce. He gradually extended his authority in Italy by annexing the Piedmont and by acquiring Genoa, Parma and Naples, he laid siege to the Roman state and initiated the Concordat of 1801 to control the material claims of the pope. Napoleon would have ruling elites from a fusion of the new bourgeoisie, on 12 May 1802, the French Tribunat voted unanimously, with exception of Carnot, in favour of the Life Consulship for the leader of France. This action was confirmed by the Corps Législatif, a general plebiscite followed thereafter resulting in 3,653,600 votes aye and 8,272 votes nay. On 2 August 1802, Napoleon Bonaparte was proclaimed Consul for life, pro-revolutionary sentiment swept through Germany aided by the Recess of 1803, which brought Bavaria, Württemberg and Baden to Frances side. The memories of imperial Rome were for a time, after Julius Caesar and Charlemagne.
The Treaty of Pressburg, signed on 26 December 1805, did little other than create a more unified Germany to threaten France. On the other hand, Napoleons creation of the Kingdom of Italy, the occupation of Ancona, to create satellite states, Napoleon installed his relatives as rulers of many European states. The Bonapartes began to marry into old European monarchies, gaining sovereignty over many nations, in addition to the vassal titles, Napoleons closest relatives were granted the title of French Prince and formed the Imperial House of France. Met with opposition, Napoleon would not tolerate any neutral power, Prussia had been offered the territory of Hanover to stay out of the Third Coalition. With the diplomatic situation changing, Napoleon offered Great Britain the province as part of a peace proposal and this, combined with growing tensions in Germany over French hegemony, Prussia responded by forming an alliance with Russia and sending troops into Bavaria on 1 October 1806. In this War of the Fourth Coalition, Napoleon destroyed the armies of Frederick William at Jena-Auerstedt, the Eylau and the Friedland against the Russians finally ruined Frederick the Greats formerly mighty kingdom, obliging Russia and Prussia to make peace with France at Tilsit.
The Treaties of Tilsit ended the war between Russia and the French Empire and began an alliance between the two empires that held power of much of the rest of Europe, the two empires secretly agreed to aid each other in disputes
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.
The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index.
It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government
Andalusia is an autonomous community in southern Spain. It is the most populated and the second largest in area of the communities in the country. The Andalusian autonomous community is recognised as historical nationality. The territory is divided into eight provinces, Almería, Cádiz, Córdoba, Huelva, Jaén, Málaga and its capital is the city of Seville. Andalusia is the only European region with both Mediterranean and Atlantic coastlines, the small British overseas territory of Gibraltar shares a three-quarter-mile land border with the Andalusian province of Cádiz at the eastern end of the Strait of Gibraltar. The main mountain ranges of Andalusia are the Sierra Morena and the Baetic System, consisting of the Subbaetic and Penibaetic Mountains, in the north, the Sierra Morena separates Andalusia from the plains of Extremadura and Castile–La Mancha on Spains Meseta Central. To the south the geographic subregion of Upper Andalusia lies mostly within the Baetic System, the name Andalusia is derived from the Arabic word Al-Andalus.
Including an intense relationship with Naples, Andalusia has been a traditionally agricultural region, compared to the rest of Spain and the rest of Europe. However, the growth of the community especially in the sectors of industry and services was above average in Spain, the region has, however, a rich culture and a strong cultural identity. Many cultural phenomena that are seen internationally as distinctively Spanish are largely or entirely Andalusian in origin and these include flamenco and, to a lesser extent and Hispano-Moorish architectural styles. Andalusias hinterland is the hottest area of Europe, with cities like Córdoba, Late evening temperatures can sometimes stay around 35 °C until close to midnight, with daytime highs of over 40 °C common. Seville has the highest average temperature in mainland Spain and mainland Europe. Its present form is derived from the Arabic name for Muslim Iberia. However, the etymology of the name Al-Andalus is disputed, the Spanish place name Andalucía was introduced into the Spanish languages in the 13th century under the form el Andalucía.
This was a Castilianization of Al-Andalusiya, the form of the Arabic language al-Andalus. The etymology of al-Andalus is itself somewhat debated, but in fact it entered the Arabic language before this came under Muslim rule. Like the Arabic term al-Andalus, in historical contexts the Spanish term Andalucía or the English term Andalusia do not necessarily refer to the territory designated by these terms today. To designate the territories the Christians had regained by that time in the Guadalquivir valley and in the Kingdoms of Granada, in a document from 1253, Alfonso X styled himself Rey de Castilla, León y de toda Andalucía
4th Queen's Own Hussars
The 4th Queens Own Hussars was a cavalry regiment in the British Army, first raised in 1685. It saw service for three centuries, including the First World War and the Second World War and it amalgamated with the 8th Kings Royal Irish Hussars, to form the Queens Royal Irish Hussars in 1958. The regiment was first raised by the Hon, the regiment transferred its allegiance to King William III in February 1689 and fought the depleted forces of James II in Scotland in that year. The regiment saw action at the Battle of Steenkerque, where it suffered losses, in August 1692. The regiment was designated a light dragoons in 1818, becoming the 4th Regiment of Dragoons, the regiment next saw action, as part of the light brigade under the command of Major General the Earl of Cardigan, at the Battle of Alma in September 1854. The regiment was in the line of cavalry on the right flank during the Charge of the Light Brigade at the Battle of Balaclava in October 1854. The regiment lost 4 officers and 55 men in the debacle, private Samuel Parkes was awarded the Victoria Cross during the charge for saving the life of a Trumpeter, Hugh Crawford.
The regiment became the 4th Hussars in 1861 and Winston Churchill was commissioned as a cornet in the 4th Hussars in February 1895. The regiment took part in the Great Retreat in September 1914, the First Battle of Ypres in October 1914 and the Second Battle of Ypres in April 1915. The regiment was posted to the Middle East arriving on 31 December 1940, as the rearguard in the Corinth Canal Bridge action the regiment was overrun and surrendered losing all senior officers and over 400 men as prisoners of war. In June 1941, the regiment was reconstituted in Cairo and rejoined the 1st Armoured Brigade, the regiment fought with distinction in the Italian campaign during the allied advance into the Axis territories. Winston Churchill became Colonel-in-Chief of the Regiment in 1941 and served until amalgamation, after the Second World War, the 4th Hussars deployed to Lübeck in Germany in March 1947 from where the regiment was sent to serve in the Malayan Campaign in September 1948. It returned to the UK in December 1951 and was posted to Caen Barracks in Hohne in September 1953.
The regiment was slated for reduction in the 1957 Defence White Paper, john Berkeley, 4th Viscount Fitzhardinge 1688, Col. Thomas Maxwell 1688–1693, Brig-Gen. John Berkeley, 4th Viscount Fitzhardinge 1693–1710, Lt-Gen, algernon Capell, 2nd Earl of Essex 1710–1713, F. M. Sir Richard Temple, 1st Viscount Cobham 1713–1735, Gen. William Evans 1735–1768, sir Robert Rich, 4th Baronet 4th Regiment of Dragoons - 1768–1770, F. M. Hon. Henry Seymour Conway 1770–1788, Gen. Benjamin Carpenter 4th Regiment of Dragoons - 1788–1797, john Griffin, 4th Baron Howard de Walden, KB 1797–1802, Gen. Sir Robert Sloper, KB 1802–1808, sir Guy Carleton, 1st Baron Dorchester, KB 1808–1836, Gen. Francis Hugonin 4th Regiment of Light Dragoons - 1836–1841, Gen. Lord Robert Edward Henry Somerset, GCB 1842–1847, Lt-Gen