Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,021 square kilometres, with about 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular destination in the world. Germanys capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while its largest conurbation is the Ruhr, other major cities include Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf and Leipzig. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity, a region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward, beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation, in 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire.
After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic, the establishment of the national socialist dictatorship in 1933 led to World War II and the Holocaust. After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded, the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic, in 1990, the country was reunified. In the 21st century, Germany is a power and has the worlds fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP. As a global leader in industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds third-largest exporter and importer of goods. Germany is a country with a very high standard of living sustained by a skilled. It upholds a social security and universal health system, environmental protection. Germany was a member of the European Economic Community in 1957. It is part of the Schengen Area, and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999, Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G8, the G20, and the OECD.
The national military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world, the English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz popular, derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- people, the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a mine in Schöningen where three 380, 000-year-old wooden javelins were unearthed
Anklam, formerly known as Tanglim and Wendenburg, is a town in the Western Pomerania region of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany. It is situated on the banks of the Peene river, just 8 km from its mouth in the Kleines Haff, Anklam has a population of 14,603 and was the capital of the former Ostvorpommern district. Since September 2011, it has been part of the district of Vorpommern-Greifswald, in the early Middle Ages, there was an important Scandinavian and Wendish settlement in the area near the present town now known as Altes Lager Menzlin. Anklam proper began as an associated Wendish fortress, during the German expansion eastwards, the abandoned fortress was developed into a settlement named Tanglim after its new founder. The site possesses importance as the head of navigation on the Peene and it was elevated to town status in 1244 and became a member of the Hanseatic League the same year or in 1483. The town remained small and non-influential, but achieved a measure of wealth, as a town of considerable military importance, it suffered greatly during the Thirty Years War when Swedish and Imperial troops battled over it across a twenty-year span.
Amid this and subsequent wars, it endured repeated outbreaks of fire and it was occupied by imperial forces from 1627 to 1630, and thereafter by Swedish forces. After the war, Anklam became part of Swedish Pomerania in 1648, in 1676, it was captured by Frederick William of Brandenburg. In 1713, Anklam was looted by soldiers of the Russian Empire and that it was not burned to the ground, as ordered by Peter the Great, was in large part due to the resistance of Christian Thomesen Carl, after whom a street is named in remembrance. The southern parts of the town were ceded to Prussia by the 1720 Treaty of Stockholm and it was damaged again during the Seven Years War in the 1750s and 60s, with its fortifications being effectively dismantled in 1762. Sweden yielded its remaining part of the town in 1815, when all of Western Pomerania became part of the Prussian province of Pomerania. In the 19th century, Anklam was connected with Berlin and Stettin by rail and developed its manufacture of linen and woolen goods, leather and its 1871 population was 10,739, which had risen to 14,602 by the turn of the century.
By the time of the First World War, it possessed a school and developed iron foundries. In 1939 the Wehrmacht took over the school and constructed a military prison on the grounds. That was soon to be dissolved and Anklam was within the district of Neubrandenburg, the town was rebuilt in the rather uniform socialist style. After the 1990 reunification of Germany, Anklam became part of the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Anklam was a prosperous medieval city but suffered severely during the Thirty Years War, the Seven Years War, and the Second World War, as well as from periodic fires. Nonetheless, Anklam has some significant buildings remaining, the 12th-century church of St Mary was rebuilt in the 15th century, had a modern spire added in the 19th, and was repaired in 1947. Museum im Steintor Otto-Lilienthal-Museum Anklam is connected with the Autobahn 20 coastal highway, Anklam railway station is served by national and local services to Angermünde, Dresden, Frankfurt, Münich and Stralsund. S
Siege of Hamelin
In the Siege of Hameln or Siege of Hamelin, First French Empire forces captured the fortress of Hamelin from its garrison composed of troops from the Kingdom of Prussia. The siege was begun by the VIII Corps under French Marshal Édouard Adolphe Casimir Joseph Mortier, the marshal initially left General of Division Jean-Baptiste Dumonceau in charge of operations. General of Division Anne Jean Marie René Savary soon arrived to conduct negotiations with the Prussian commander General Karl Ludwig von Lecoq, the operation from the War of the Fourth Coalition was a blockade because a formal siege never took place. Hamelin is located 36 kilometers southwest of Hanover, after Emperor Napoleon I smashed the main Prussian armies at the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt on 14 October, his victorious Grande Armée chased his enemies across the Elbe River. This left the Prussian force defending the former Electorate of Hanover strategically isolated west of the river, while Napoleons Grande Armée hunted down Prussian forces between the Elbe and the Oder River, subsidiary forces invaded Hanover and Hesse-Kassel.
The defenders withdrew into the fortresses of Hamelin and Nienburg where they were blockaded and captured, in September 1806, when King Frederick William III mobilized the Prussian armies, a substantial force assembled in or near the former Electorate of Hanover. Lieutenant General Gebhard von Blücher concentrated 16 battalions of infantry and 17 squadrons of cavalry to the west at Paderborn, Osnabrück, Leer, in Hanover proper were 20 battalions and 28 squadrons at Celle and Braunschweig. This body became the westernmost field army and its 30,000 troops were placed under the command of General of Infantry Ernst von Rüchel and Blücher. The Prussian high command understood that Napoleons major thrust must come from the south, General-Major Christian Alexander von Hagken and General-Major Karl Friedrich von Brüsewitz were left behind to defend against a French offensive from the Kingdom of Holland and the lower Rhine. Taken together with the garrisons of Hamelin and Nienburg, the entire Prussian strength in the area numbered about 12,000 soldiers, the small mobile forces were assembled near Münster and placed under the command of General Karl Ludwig von Lecoq.
Opposing the Prussians were King Louis Bonaparte in Holland and Marshal Édouard Adolphe Casimir Joseph Mortier at Mainz, Louis deployed a 5,000 to 6, 000-man division near Wesel and another similar-sized division at Utrecht, while Wesel itself was well-defended. Napoleon planned to hold Louis and Mortier in place until he defeated the Prussian main army, at time they would seize Hesse-Kassel. On 9 October and Hagken began advancing west in separate columns, the march was slow and on 19 October, the Prussians received news of the catastrophe of Jena-Auerstedt. Lecoq and Hagken immediately fell back on Hamelin, arriving on 23 October, from there, Lecoq set out the next day for the Elbe. Hearing a report that French forces already blocked his path, he halted his march on the 27th and returned to Hamelin where he began acquiring food and supplies to sustain a siege. He sent Oberst Christian Friedrich von der Osten with one regiment and one infantry battalion across the Elbe. After hearing of Jena-Auerstedt, General-Major Karl Anton Ernst von Bila left Hanover on 20 October with one battalion, the treasure, and he managed to get safely across the Elbe but his small force was caught in the French sweep that followed the Capitulation of Stettin.
On 17 October, Napoleon dispatched orders to Louis and Mortier, the King of Holland was supposed to capture Paderborn and Münster, while the marshal was to seize Fulda and come into contact with General of Division Henri Jacques Guillaume Clarke at Erfurt
Battle of Saalfeld
The Battle of Saalfeld saw Marshal Lannes and a division of his V Corps defeat 8,300 Prussians under Prince Louis Ferdinand. Prince Louis Ferdinand was one of the advocates of resuming war against the French. Prince Louis positioned his men on low ground outside the town, with their back to the river and General Suchet had noticed the Prussians had their back to the river, and estimated the Prussian forces to only be about half the size of V Corps. Lannes battered them with cannon for a bit and when they showed signs of disorganization he ordered a charge by his infantry whilst sending a unit against the flank. Pinned and outnumbered by the French, the Prussian infantry soon began to break under the attack and were driven in disorganization under the walls of Saalfeld. Belatedly seeing his mistake, trying to relieve the pressure Prince Louis put himself at the head of his cavalry, the charge was repulsed and the Prince found himself in close combat with Guindet, quartermaster of the French 10th Hussars, who offered the Prince quarter.
Refusing to surrender, the Prince merely replied with a slash to the face causing a severe wound. The Prussians lost 400 killed and wounded and 20 guns, over 1,000 were captured including General Bevilaqua, commander of the Saxon forces. Four days after Saalfeld, the battles of Jena and Auerstedt took place on the plateau west of the river Saale. Battle at Napoleonic Officers The Memoirs of Baron de Marbot – Volume I Order of Battle
Capitulation of Stettin
This event was one of a number of surrenders by demoralized Prussian soldiers to equal or inferior French forces after their disastrous defeat at the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt on 14 October. Stettin, now Szczecin, Poland, is a city on the Oder River near the Baltic Sea lying 120 kilometers north-northeast of Berlin. After Jena-Auerstedt, the broken Prussian armies crossed the Elbe River, following a two-week chase, Marshal Joachim Murat intercepted over 10,000 Prussians at the Battle of Prenzlau and bluffed them into surrendering on 28 October. The following day and another French light cavalry brigade induced 4,200 more Prussians to lay down their weapons in the Capitulation of Pasewalk, on the afternoon of the 29th, Lasalle appeared before the fortress of Stettin and demanded its surrender. A completely unnerved Romberg, believing he was confronted by 30,000 Frenchmen, entered negotiations with Lasalle. Estimates of the numbers vary between 500 French hussars of the 5th and 7th French Hussars and 5,000 to 6,000 Prussians within the garrison.
Within a week, the fortress of Küstrin capitulated and three isolated Prussian columns were hunted down and captured at Boldekow and Wolgast. This left only one Prussian corps at large between the Elbe and Oder, plus garrisons at Magdeburg and in the former Electorate of Hanover, emperor Napoleon I of Frances Grande Armée shattered the Prussian-Saxon armies at the Battle of Jena-Auerstadt on 14 October 1806. In the wake of this catastrophe, the Prussian forces retreated to the Elbe River, feldmarschall Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick, commander of the main Prussian army at Auerstedt, was fatally wounded and died on 10 November at Altona. General of Infantry Ernst von Rüchel, badly wounded at Jena, left the army, Lieutenant General Karl August, Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, who had missed Jena-Auerstedt, brought up the rear with 12,000 troops. Leaving a large garrison in Magdeburg, Hohenlohe struck out for the Oder on 21 October, Blücher and Saxe-Weimar crossed the Elbe at Sandau between the 24th and 26th.
Oberst Ludwig Yorck von Wartenburg fought a rear guard action at Altenzaun on the latter date against Marshal Nicolas Soults IV Corps. Meanwhile, Murats cavalry, Marshal Louis-Nicolas Davouts III Corps, and Marshal Jean Lannes V Corps marched east toward Berlin, on 25 October, Davouts troops marched through Berlin and headed for east for Küstrin and Frankfurt an der Oder. Meanwhile, Marshal Michel Neys VI Corps began the Siege of Magdeburg, seeing an opportunity to cut off Hohenlohe, Napoleon sent Murat and Bernadotte north from Berlin. Murat routed General-Major Christian Ludwig Schimmelpfennigs 1, 300-man flank guard at Zehdenick on 26 October, after losing 250 men, the survivors fled along the highway until they reached Stettin. The next day, General of Brigade Édouard Jean Baptiste Milhaud got across Hohenlohes escape route at Boitzenburg, on 28 October, Murat finally ran Hohenlohe to earth at the Battle of Prenzlau. After the surrender Lasalle rode on to Löcknitz on the road between Pasewalk and Stettin, reaching the village in the afternoon of the 28th, Milhauds brigade marched north on the west bank of the Uecker River until he reached Pasewalk early on 29 October.
Discovering Oberst von Hagens force in the town, Milhaud demanded an immediate surrender, finding Lasalle ahead of him and Milhaud behind him, surrendered 4,200 soldiers and eight guns in the Capitulation of Pasewalk
First French Empire
The First French Empire, Note 1 was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century. Its name was a misnomer, as France already had colonies overseas and was short lived compared to the Colonial Empire, a series of wars, known collectively as the Napoleonic Wars, extended French influence over much of Western Europe and into Poland. The plot included Bonapartes brother Lucien, serving as speaker of the Council of Five Hundred, Roger Ducos, another Director, on 9 November 1799 and the following day, troops led by Bonaparte seized control. They dispersed the legislative councils, leaving a rump legislature to name Bonaparte, Sieyès, although Sieyès expected to dominate the new regime, the Consulate, he was outmaneuvered by Bonaparte, who drafted the Constitution of the Year VIII and secured his own election as First Consul. He thus became the most powerful person in France, a power that was increased by the Constitution of the Year X, the Battle of Marengo inaugurated the political idea that was to continue its development until Napoleons Moscow campaign.
Napoleon planned only to keep the Duchy of Milan for France, setting aside Austria, the Peace of Amiens, which cost him control of Egypt, was a temporary truce. He gradually extended his authority in Italy by annexing the Piedmont and by acquiring Genoa, Parma and Naples, he laid siege to the Roman state and initiated the Concordat of 1801 to control the material claims of the pope. Napoleon would have ruling elites from a fusion of the new bourgeoisie, on 12 May 1802, the French Tribunat voted unanimously, with exception of Carnot, in favour of the Life Consulship for the leader of France. This action was confirmed by the Corps Législatif, a general plebiscite followed thereafter resulting in 3,653,600 votes aye and 8,272 votes nay. On 2 August 1802, Napoleon Bonaparte was proclaimed Consul for life, pro-revolutionary sentiment swept through Germany aided by the Recess of 1803, which brought Bavaria, Württemberg and Baden to Frances side. The memories of imperial Rome were for a time, after Julius Caesar and Charlemagne.
The Treaty of Pressburg, signed on 26 December 1805, did little other than create a more unified Germany to threaten France. On the other hand, Napoleons creation of the Kingdom of Italy, the occupation of Ancona, to create satellite states, Napoleon installed his relatives as rulers of many European states. The Bonapartes began to marry into old European monarchies, gaining sovereignty over many nations, in addition to the vassal titles, Napoleons closest relatives were granted the title of French Prince and formed the Imperial House of France. Met with opposition, Napoleon would not tolerate any neutral power, Prussia had been offered the territory of Hanover to stay out of the Third Coalition. With the diplomatic situation changing, Napoleon offered Great Britain the province as part of a peace proposal and this, combined with growing tensions in Germany over French hegemony, Prussia responded by forming an alliance with Russia and sending troops into Bavaria on 1 October 1806. In this War of the Fourth Coalition, Napoleon destroyed the armies of Frederick William at Jena-Auerstedt, the Eylau and the Friedland against the Russians finally ruined Frederick the Greats formerly mighty kingdom, obliging Russia and Prussia to make peace with France at Tilsit.
The Treaties of Tilsit ended the war between Russia and the French Empire and began an alliance between the two empires that held power of much of the rest of Europe, the two empires secretly agreed to aid each other in disputes
Battle of Heilsberg
The Battle of Heilsberg took place on 10 June 1807, during the Napoleonic Wars. On 24 May 1807, the Siege of Danzig ended when Prussian General Friedrich Adolf, with Danzig secured, Napoleon was now free to turn against Bennigsens army. Yet it was the Russian who struck first when he ordered his columns to converge on Marshal Michel Neys exposed VI Corps on 2 June. Outnumbered 63,000 to 17,000, Ney fought a brilliant rear guard action at the Battle of Guttstadt-Deppen on 5 and 6 June. Within two days, Napoleon ordered his 190, 000-man army to close in on the 100,000 Russians and 15,000 Prussians, detecting the approaching avalanche, Bennigsen ordered his troops to retreat on Lidzbark Warmiński. The Russian army took up defensive positions around the town. The French army, under Marshals Murat and Lannes, attacked on 10 June, Bennigsen repelled several attacks, resulting in huge French casualties, but had to withdraw towards Friedland the following day. Four days later, the decisive Battle of Friedland occurred, ending the War of the Fourth Coalition with the passing of the Treaty of Tilsit, the Battle of Heilsberg was fought on the Alle river, known today as the Lyna.
The Teutonic Castle being the point of the battle was held by Russian control. Defensively, the castle was supported by its bridges and walls, the land surrounding the Teutonic Castle acted as an obstacle for the French army due to the increase of elevation from the base of the river to the castles foundation. The Prussian 21st Fusiliers, commanded by Ludwig August von Stutterheim, was garrisoned there, although the terrain was punishment enough for the French, weather took a toll on their abilities and health. During the day, on top of the weight being carried in regards to supplies and armory, temperatures reached dangerously hot, the dampness and bitter cold of the night played a significant role by providing little opportunity for rest. The French were initially outnumbered by the Russians, and knowing this, at the beginning of the battle, French army men were separating amongst their own divisions. This tactic was thought to help block Russian sights in terms of all the French positioning and flanking, although the woods surrounding the French had provided a perimeter of camouflage, the shrubbery did not extend to the barren field in front of the castle.
It was because of the forest density, that dodging the Russian artillery and infantry fire was difficult to maneuver around. In the midst of war, French cavalry leaders Murat and Lannes had segregated their troops from the greater unit, after such separation, the smaller units within the reserves had refused orders to flank and attack stronger sides of the Russian armies. This was partly because orders being issued by reserves of the infantry, rather than Marshalls. Despite both sides losing a significant number of men, each refused to withdrawal their armies and this truce was signaled when both sides focused solely on the health of wounded soldiers rather than that of offensive tactics
France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
Battle of Mohrungen
The French pushed back the main Russian force, but a cavalry raid on the French supply train caused Bernadotte to call off his attacks. After driving off the cavalry, Bernadotte withdrew and the town was occupied by the army of General Levin August, the fighting took place in and around Morąg in northern Poland, which in 1807 was the East Prussian town of Mohrungen. The action was part of the War of the Fourth Coalition in the Napoleonic Wars, after demolishing the army of the Kingdom of Prussia in a whirlwind campaign in October and November 1806, Napoleons Grande Armée seized Warsaw. After two bitterly fought actions against the Russian army, the French emperor decided to place his troops into winter quarters, however, in wintry weather, the Russian commander moved north into East Prussia and struck west at Napoleons left flank. As one of Bennigsens columns advanced west it encountered forces under Bernadotte, the Russian advance was nearly at an end as Napoleon gathered strength for a powerful counterstroke.
After the Battle of Czarnowo on 23 December 1806 and the battles of Pułtusk and Gołymin on 26 December. Emperor Napoleon wanted time to reorganize the Grande Armées logistical arrangements after their autumn campaign. In addition, his veteran French troops had expressed displeasure at having to fight in Poland during the winter weather. In late 1806, Field Marshal Mikhail Kamenskys Russian army in Poland constituted two major wings under Generals Bennigsen and Friedrich Wilhelm von Buxhoeveden. The initial strength of Bennigsens force, before the December battles, was 49,000 infantry,11,000 regular cavalry,4,000 cossacks,2,700 artillerymen,900 pioneers, and 276 guns. Of these, from 55,000 to 60,000 were able to take the field, Buxhöwdens four divisions fought at the Battle of Austerlitz on 2 December 1805 and had not made up all the losses suffered at that engagement. Consequently, his troops numbered only 29,000 infantry,7,000 cavalry,1,200 gunners, not counting garrisons, the Prussians could put only 6,000 men into the field in that month.
In 1806, the Russian field army consisted of 18 divisions, since the foot batteries contained 14 guns apiece and the horse batteries 12 guns, each Russian division nominally controlled as many as 82 field pieces. Typically, the batteries were made up of eight 12-pound cannons, four heavy howitzers. The light batteries had the establishment except that they substituted 6- for 12-pound cannons. Horse batteries were entirely formed from 6-pound cannons and worn out in body and mind, the 75-year-old Marshal Kamensky exhibited clear signs that he was no longer fit to command. Around the time Pułtusk was fought, Kamensky left the front, the next day, he appeared in the streets of Grodno without his shirt on and called for a surgeon. Pointing out his wounds, he demanded that the doctor give him a written statement that he was no longer able to serve
Battle of Schleiz
It was the first clash of the War of the Fourth Coalition, part of the Napoleonic Wars. Schleiz is located 30 kilometers north of Hof and 145 kilometers southwest of Dresden at the intersection of Routes 2 and 94, at the beginning of the battle, elements of Drouets division clashed with Tauentziens outposts. When Tauentzien became aware of the strength of the advancing French forces, joachim Murat assumed command of the troops and began an aggressive pursuit. A battalion-sized Prussian force to the west was cut off and suffered heavy losses, the Prussians and Saxons retreated north, reaching Auma that evening. During the War of the Third Coalition, King Frederick William III of Prussia signed the Potsdam Accord with Tsar Alexander I of Russia, Frederick William promised to send an ambassador to Napoleon with an offer of armed mediation. Curiously, the Prussian army had already been mobilized against Russia in September when the tsar demanded that Prussia join the Third Coalition, irritated by Napoleons violation of its territory of Ansbach in September 1805, Prussia subsequently moved toward an understanding with Russia.
Napoleon managed to stall the Prussian ambassador Christian Graf von Haugwitz until after his victory at the Battle of Austerlitz on 2 December 1805. Soon afterward, Austria sued for peace and Russia withdrew its troops, on 15 February, Napoleon maneuvered Prussia into agreeing to transfer several of her territories to France and Frances allies in return for Hanover, which France had previously occupied. France invaded the Kingdom of Naples on 8 February 1806 and the last foothold on the Italian peninsula fell to the conquerors on 23 July, on 25 July, Napoleon created the Confederation of the Rhine, a French satellite in Germany. In the face of these French aggressions, the faction at the Prussian court, centered around Queen Louise. The pacific Haugwitz was dismissed as chief minister and on 7 August 1806 King Frederick William determined to go to war against Napoleon, Prussia mobilized 171,000 soldiers, including 35,000 cavalry,15,000 gunners, and 20,000 Saxon allies. The troops were grouped in three armies, feldmarschall Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick concentrated his soldiers around Leipzig and Naumburg in the center.
The left wing, led by General of the Infantry Frederick Louis, Prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen assembled near Dresden, generals Ernst von Rüchel and Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher gathered the right wing at Göttingen and Mühlhausen. Presently, Napoleon became aware of the Prussian preparations for war and he called up 50,000 conscripts of the class of 1806 on 5 September and put the French forces in Germany on alert. When he received intelligence that the Prussians absorbed the Saxon army into their forces, on 5 October, Napoleon issued an order describing the order of march for the Grande Armées invasion of the Electorate of Saxony. Marshal Bernadottes I Corps led the column, followed by Marshal Louis Davouts III Corps, most of Marshal Murats Cavalry Reserve. The right column was formed by Marshal Nicolas Soults IV Corps in the lead, Marshal Michel Neys VI Corps, the left column contained Marshal Jean Lannes V Corps, followed by Marshal Pierre Augereaus VII Corps. Napoleon directed the right column toward Hof, the column from Kronach to Schleiz
Battle of Eylau
Late in the battle, the Russians received a timely reinforcement from a Prussian division of von LEstocq. The town is now called Bagrationovsk and is a part of Kaliningrad Oblast, the engagement was fought during the War of the Fourth Coalition, part of the Napoleonic Wars. Of all Napoleonic battles, this is considered to be the most uncertain, Napoleons armies previously smashed the army of the Austrian Empire in the Ulm Campaign and the combined Austrian and Russian armies at the Battle of Austerlitz on 2 December 1805. Austerlitz forced the Austrians to sue for peace and their Russian allies to withdraw from the conflict, on 14 October 1806, Napoleon crushed the armies of the Kingdom of Prussia at the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt. Eylau was the first serious check to the Grande Armée and the myth of Napoleons invincibility was badly shaken, the French would end up defeating the Russians in the year at the Battle of Friedland. In late January, Bennigsens Russian army went on the offensive in East Prussia, Napoleon reacted by mounting a counteroffensive to the north, hoping to prevent their retreat to the east.
After his cossacks captured a copy of Napoleons orders, Bennigsen rapidly withdrew to the northeast to avoid being cut off, the French pursued for several days and found the Russians drawn up for battle at Eylau. In a vicious evening clash, the French captured the village with heavy losses on both sides, the following day brought even more serious fighting. Early in the battle, an attack by Napoleon failed with catastrophic losses. To retrieve the situation, the emperor launched a cavalry charge against the Russians. This bought enough time for the French right wing to throw its weight into the contest, the Russian left wing was bent back at an acute angle and Bennigsens army was in danger of collapse. A Prussian corps belatedly arrived and saved the day by pushing back the French right wing, as darkness fell, a French corps tardily appeared on the French left flank. That night Bennigsen decided to retreat, leaving Napoleon in possession of a snowy battlefield covered with thousands of corpses, with the Prussian army routed at Jena-Auerstedt, Napoléon occupied the major cities of Germany and marched on east in pursuit of the remaining forces opposed to him.
These were largely Russians under the command of the frail 68-year-old Field Marshal Count Mikhail Kamensky, the old marshal was unwilling to risk battle, and continued to retreat, leaving the Grande Armée free to enter Poland almost unopposed. Nevertheless, as the French pressed aggressively eastward across the Vistula, the French seized a crossing over the Wkra on 23 December at the Battle of Czarnowo. Russian resistance soon stiffened and on 26 December the two clashed at the Battles of Pułtusk and Gołymin. After these fierce engagements Napoléons troops took up quarters in Poland to recuperate after a victorious. In January 1807, the new Russian army commander Levin August, having cleared Neys troops out of the way, the Russians rolled down on the isolated French I Corps under Marshal Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte