Battle of Waterloo

The Battle of Waterloo was fought on Sunday, 18 June 1815 near Waterloo in Belgium, part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands at the time. A French army under the command of Napoleon Bonaparte was defeated by two of the armies of the Seventh Coalition: an army consisting of units from the United Kingdom, the German Legion, the Netherlands, Hanover and Nassau, under the command of the Duke of Wellington, referred to by many authors as the Anglo-allied army, a Prussian army under the command of Field Marshal Blücher; the battle marked the end of the Napoleonic Wars. Upon Napoleon's return to power in March 1815, many states that had opposed him formed the Seventh Coalition and began to mobilise armies. Wellington and Blücher's armies were cantoned close to the northeastern border of France. Napoleon chose to attack them separately in the hope of destroying them before they could join in a coordinated invasion of France with other members of the coalition. On 16 June, he attacked the bulk of the Prussian army at the Battle of Ligny with his main force, while a portion of the French army attacked an Anglo-allied army at the Battle of Quatre Bras.

Despite Wellington holding his ground at the strategic crossroads of Quatre Bras, the defeat of the Prussians forced him to withdraw north to Waterloo on the 17th. Napoleon sent a third of his forces to pursue the Prussians, who had withdrawn parallel to Wellington in good order; this resulted in the simultaneous Battle of Wavre with the Prussian rear-guard. Upon learning that the Prussian army was able to support him, Wellington decided to offer battle on the Mont-Saint-Jean escarpment across the Brussels road. Here he withstood repeated attacks by the French throughout the afternoon of the 18th, aided by the progressively arriving Prussians. In the evening, Napoleon committed his last reserves, the senior battalions of the French Imperial Guard infantry; the desperate final attack of the Guard was narrowly beaten back. With the Prussians breaking through on the French right flank, Wellington's Anglo-allied army counter-attacked in the centre, the French army was routed. Waterloo was Napoleon's last.

According to Wellington, the battle was "the nearest-run thing you saw in your life". Napoleon abdicated four days and coalition forces entered Paris on 7 July; the defeat at Waterloo ended Napoleon's rule as Emperor of the French and marked the end of his Hundred Days return from exile. This ended the First French Empire and set a chronological milestone between serial European wars and decades of relative peace referred to as the Pax Britannica; the battlefield is located in the Belgian municipalities of Braine-l'Alleud and Lasne, about 15 kilometres south of Brussels, about 2 kilometres from the town of Waterloo. The site of the battlefield today is dominated by the monument of the Lion's Mound, a large artificial hill constructed from earth taken from the battlefield itself. On 13 March 1815, six days before Napoleon reached Paris, the powers at the Congress of Vienna declared him an outlaw. Four days the United Kingdom, Russia and Prussia mobilised armies to defeat Napoleon. Critically outnumbered, Napoleon knew that once his attempts at dissuading one or more members of the Seventh Coalition from invading France had failed, his only chance of remaining in power was to attack before the coalition mobilised.

Had Napoleon succeeded in destroying the existing coalition forces south of Brussels before they were reinforced, he might have been able to drive the British back to the sea and knock the Prussians out of the war. Crucially, this would have bought him time to recruit and train more men before turning his armies against the Austrians and Russians. An additional consideration for Napoleon was that a French victory might cause French-speaking sympathisers in Belgium to launch a friendly revolution. Coalition troops in Belgium were second-line, as many units were of dubious quality and loyalty, most of the British veterans of the Peninsular War had been sent to North America to fight in the War of 1812; the initial dispositions of British commander Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, were intended to counter the threat of Napoleon enveloping the Coalition armies by moving through Mons to the south-west of Brussels. This would have pushed Wellington closer to the Prussian forces, led by Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher, but might have cut Wellington's communications with his base at Ostend.

In order to delay Wellington's deployment, Napoleon spread false intelligence which suggested that Wellington's supply chain from the channel ports would be cut. By June, Napoleon had raised a total army strength of about 300,000 men; the force at his disposal at Waterloo was less than one third that size, but the rank and file were nearly all loyal and experienced soldiers. Napoleon divided his army into a left wing commanded by Marshal Ney, a right wing commanded by Marshal Grouchy and a reserve under his command. Crossing the frontier near Charleroi before dawn on 15 June, the French overran Coalition outposts, securing Napoleon's "central position" between Wellington's and Blücher's armies, he hoped this would prevent them from combining, he would be able to destroy first the Prussian's army Wellington's. Only late on the night of 15 June was Wellington certain that the Charleroi attack was the main French thrust. In the early hours of 16 June, at the Duchess of Richmond's ball in Brussels, he received a dispatch from the Prince of Orange and was shocked by the speed of Napoleon's advance.

He hastily o

Niten Ichi-ryƫ

Niten Ichi-ryū, which can be loosely translated as "the school of the strategy of two heavens as one", is a koryū, transmitting a style of classical Japanese swordsmanship conceived by the warrior Miyamoto Musashi. Hyōhō Niten Ichi-ryū is known for the two-sword—katana and wakizashi—kenjutsu techniques Musashi called Niten Ichi or Nitō Ichi. Musashi studied Enmei Ryū and Tōri Ryū, which were ryūha founded by his grandfather Miyamoto Musashi no Kami Yoshimoto and his father Miyamoto Muninosuke respectively. Musashi focused in the kenjutsu and nitōken and developed his own style. Around 1640, Musashi intended to pass on his art to three successors from among his thousand students, he considered Magonojo to excel in technique but to lack in reflection, while Furuhashi excelled at reflection but lacked technique. Magonojo received the Go Rin no Sho. Hosokawa Mitsuhisa made two copies- one for Furuhashi and one for himself, which he transmitted under the name of Ihon go rin no sho; the best known edition today is this Hosokawa copy.

Magonojo yielded the role of successor to his younger brother Kyumanosuke who had received the Hyoho San-jugo from Musashi. It was Kyumanosuke who transmitted this document to his students with seven added instructions called the Hyoho shiji ni kajo. Shortly before his death, Musashi wrote the Dokkodo, it seems to be a list of rules. Terao Kyumanosuke had received the complete transmission of the School of Musashi, with certification and Musashi's two swords, he at first sent what he had received to Musashi's adopted son, Iori. Iori refused the succession. With this, Kyumanosuke agreed to take over as head—both his and Iori's actions were manifestations of their respect for Musashi. Succession in the Hyoho Niten Ichi-ryū does not follow a hereditary pattern, it is attested to by the bestowing of two artifacts: a scroll on, written the name of the techniques and the approach to them that must be transmitted if the school is to be perpetuated and a wooden sword that Musashi made himself, with which he trained and used as a walking stick during the last years of his life, today in possession of the city of Usa's Shinto Shrine.

The Gosho-ha Hyōhō Niten Ichi-ryū disputed the lineage claiming that Iwami Toshio Gensho is the sole legal representative of Hyōhō Niten Ichi-ryū until 2007. Miyagawa Yasutaka established a line of Niten Ichi-ryū that continues to practice and thrive in the Kansai region of Japan. Miyagawa Yasutaka and Kiyonaga Tadanao were both students of Aoki Kikuo during the same period; this "Kansai" line under 10th Headmaster Miyagawa Morito, is an alternate but equal lineage to the main line. The lineage to date is as follows: Shinmen Miyamoto Musashi-No-Kami Fujiwara no Genshin 新免宮本武蔵守藤原玄信 Terao Motome-no-suke Nobuyuki 寺尾求馬助信行 Terao Goemon Katsuyuki 寺尾郷右衛門勝行 Yoshida Josetsu Masahiro 吉田如雪正広 Santo Hikozaemon Kyohide 山東彦左衛門清秀 Santo Hanbe Kiyoaki 山東半兵衛清明 Santo Shinjuro Kiyotake 山東新十郎清武 Aoki Kikuo Hisakatsu 青木規矩男久勝 Kiyonaga Tadanao Masami / Miyagawa Yasutaka Imai Masayuki Nobukatsu / Miyagawa Morito Iwami Toshio Gensho/ Kiyonaga Fumiya / Chin Kin Kajiya Takanori / Yoshimochi Kiyoshi Today the following sets of techniques and forms are transmitted: 1) Tachi Seiho Twelve techniques with long sword: 指先 Sassen 八相左 Hasso Hidari 八相右 Hasso Migi 受流左 Uke Nagashi Hidari 受流右 Uke Nagashi Migi 捩構 Moji Gamae 張付 Haritsuke 流打 Nagashi Uchi 虎振 Tora Buri 数喜 Kazuki 合先打留 Aisen Uchidome 余打 Kodachi Seiho Seven techniques with a short sword: 指先 Sassen 中段 Chudan 受流 Uke Nagashi 捩構 Moji Gamae 張付 Haritsuke 流打 Nagashi Uchi 合先 Aisen3) Nito Seiho Five techniques with two swords corresponding to the five forms in the Water Scroll: 中段 Chudan 上段 Jodan 下段 Gedan 左脇構 Hidari Waki Gamae 右脇構 Migi Waki Gamae4) Bōjutsu—Twenty techniques with a long staff bō. 5) Aikuchi roppo, both 6) Jitte to jutsu—Five techniques against a sword.

Iwami Toshio Harukatsu soke, 11th successor in Hyoho Niten Ichi-ryu: "Masters are needles, students are threads", Karate-Bushido 2011.02, ed. Européenne de Magazines, original text in French Musashi's principles, Dragon n°13, January 2006, ed. Mathis.

Romanian Writers' Society

The Romanian Writers' Society was a professional association based in Bucharest, that aided the country's writers and promoted their interests. Founded in 1909, it operated for forty years before the early communist regime transformed it into the Writers' Union of Romania. Toward the end of the 19th century, an increasing number of Romanian writers began to feel the need for a professional association that would defend their interests before editors and bookstores and facilitate mutual aid. Although the circle surrounding Literatură și artă magazine shared these objectives, the idea of a freestanding association developed and under some pressure from foreign professional organizations concerned about intellectual property rights. Thus, the circle became the Romanian Society for Literature and Art, recognized by law in May 1904; the society included artists of all kinds, with diverging interests, as well as artists' descendants and art collectors. Its presidents were Dimitrie C. Ollănescu-Ascanio, Alexandru Dimitrie Xenopol and George Bengescu-Dabija, while N. Petrașcu served as secretary.

Its main achievement was an international congress on intellectual property regulation held at Bucharest in 1906. Bucharest city hall donated land for the construction of an artists' house, but it appears the lot was put to a different use. In 1903-1904, the press mentioned other initiatives for setting up a writers' society. In 1908, several poets and prose writers, headed by Cincinat Pavelescu, founded an association they called the Romanian Writers' Society; the founding meeting was held on April 28, the 70th anniversary of the Société des gens de lettres' establishment. Twenty writers were present, the leadership committee was composed of the following: Pavelescu, president; the original statute does not survive, but much accounts indicate it was inspired by the French model. The small number of participants was due to the lack of interest by older writers, the opposition of certain public figures to the society's professional character, the exclusion of literary critics, a clause against which Chendi vehemently protested.

The event was remarked by the press. By the middle of the following year, amidst a deteriorating literary atmosphere, the need for a relaunch became apparent. In July 1909, Anghel and Iosif launched an appeal for a writers' congress, an effort to which Chendi rallied. Conditions did not allow for this to take place, but it was decided that a new writers' society should be founded. A sixteen-member committee would meet in August, presided over by Anghel, the founding meeting was scheduled for early September; the initiative was promoted in the press, with the editor of Minerva newspaper, Vasile Savel, publishing a series of articles on the need for a society and its possible goals. Although launched hurriedly in the middle of the summer holidays, the articles were a success, with responses garnered from Constantin Rădulescu-Motru, Chendi, Eugen Lovinescu, Scurtu, Anghel and Nicolae N. Beldiceanu. Additionally, Nicolae Iorga, Simion Mehedinți, Corneliu Moldovanu, Dimitrie Teleor and Aurel Alexandrescu-Dorna opined on the topic in their own periodicals.

Of the responders, only Iorga objected, considering the idea materialistic and unsuitable for "the true purposes of national literature". Sadoveanu had an important role in the preparatory work, enlisting the help of his friends from Viața Românească; the constituent meeting took place as scheduled, in the amphitheater of Gheorghe Lazăr High School, under Anghel's direction. Twenty-five writers attended, while a further twenty-five, who were in other parts of the Romanian Old Kingdom or in Bukovina and Transylvania, gave their proxy votes to attendees or sent letters of affiliation; the meeting discussed the society's name, elected the committee and drafter a plan of action. The Romanian Writers' Society name was selected, its objectives of defending and aiding writers defined, it specified member would be divided into categories of active and donors. One of the criteria for active membership was the holding of Romanian citizenship, a problem for the many participants from Transylvania and Macedonia who were foreign nationals.

It was decided that older writers and leading critics would soon be invited to join, with the exception of Iorga, in view of his "negative and offensive" attitude. The committee elected was composed of president. In order to give the society a more permanent character, it was decided to organize literary meetings in towns and in the countryside, well as in Transylvania and Bukovina. Over the following months, the committee offered the honorary presidency to Queen Elisabeth and attempted to attract older writers. Of these, Alexandru Vlahuță seemed the most sensitive to the problems of younger writers. After obtaining a pledge of financial aid from minister Spiru Haret, he launched a public appeal