Battle of the Atlantic

The Battle of the Atlantic was the longest continuous military campaign in World War II, running from 1939 to the defeat of Nazi Germany in 1945, was a major part of the Naval history of World War II. At its core was the Allied naval blockade of Germany, announced the day after the declaration of war, Germany's subsequent counter-blockade, it was at its height from mid-1940 through to the end of 1943. The Battle of the Atlantic pitted U-boats and other warships of the Kriegsmarine and aircraft of the Luftwaffe against the Royal Canadian Navy, Royal Navy, United States Navy, Allied merchant shipping. Convoys, coming from North America and predominantly going to the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union, were protected for the most part by the British and Canadian navies and air forces; these forces were aided by ships and aircraft of the United States beginning September 13, 1941. The Germans were joined by submarines of the Italian Regia Marina after their Axis ally Italy entered the war on June 10, 1940.

As an island nation, the United Kingdom was dependent on imported goods. Britain required more than a million tons of imported material per week in order to be able to survive and fight. In essence, the Battle of the Atlantic was a tonnage war: the Allied struggle to supply Britain and the Axis attempt to stem the flow of merchant shipping that enabled Britain to keep fighting. From 1942 onward, the Axis sought to prevent the build-up of Allied supplies and equipment in the British Isles in preparation for the invasion of occupied Europe; the defeat of the U-boat threat was a prerequisite for pushing back the Axis. The outcome of the battle was a strategic victory for the Allies—the German blockade failed—but at great cost: 3,500 merchant ships and 175 warships were sunk in the Atlantic for the loss of 783 U-boats and 47 German surface warships, including 4 battleships, 9 cruisers, 7 raiders, 27 destroyers. Of the U-boats, 519 were sunk by British, Canadian, or other allied forces, while 175 were destroyed by American forces.

The Battle of the Atlantic has been called the "longest and most complex" naval battle in history. The campaign started after the European War began, during the so-called "Phoney War", lasted six years, until the German Surrender in May 1945, it involved thousands of ships in more than 100 convoy battles and 1,000 single-ship encounters, in a theatre covering millions of square miles of ocean. The situation changed with one side or the other gaining advantage, as participating countries surrendered and changed sides in the war, as new weapons, counter-measures and equipment were developed by both sides; the Allies gained the upper hand, overcoming German surface raiders by the end of 1942 and defeating the U-boats by mid-1943, though losses due to U-boats continued until the war's end. On 5 March 1941, First Lord of the Admiralty A. V. Alexander asked Parliament for "many more ships and great numbers of men" to fight "the Battle of the Atlantic", which he compared to the Battle of France, fought the previous summer.

The first meeting of the Cabinet's "Battle of the Atlantic Committee" was on March 19. Churchill claimed to have coined the phrase "Battle of the Atlantic" shortly before Alexander's speech, but there are several examples of earlier usage. Following the use of unrestricted submarine warfare by Germany in the First World War, countries tried to limit abolish, submarines; the effort failed. Instead, the London Naval Treaty required submarines to abide by "cruiser rules", which demanded they surface and place ship crews in "a place of safety" before sinking them, unless the ship in question showed "persistent refusal to stop...or active resistance to visit or search". These regulations did not prohibit arming merchantmen, but doing so, or having them report contact with submarines, made them de facto naval auxiliaries and removed the protection of the cruiser rules; this made restrictions on submarines moot. In 1939, the Kriegsmarine lacked the strength to challenge the combined British Royal Navy and French Navy for command of the sea.

Instead, German naval strategy relied on commerce raiding using capital ships, armed merchant cruisers and aircraft. Many German warships were at sea when war was declared, including most of the available U-boats and the "pocket battleships" Deutschland and Admiral Graf Spee which had sortied into the Atlantic in August; these ships attacked British and French shipping. U-30 sank the ocean liner SS Athenia within hours of the declaration of war—in breach of her orders not to sink passenger ships; the U-boat fleet, to dominate so much of the Battle of the Atlantic, was small at the beginning of the war. Much of the early German anti-shipping activity involved minelaying by destroyers, aircraft and U-boats off British ports. With the outbreak of war, the British and French began a blockade of Germany, although this had little immediate effect on German industry; the Royal Navy introduced a convoy system for the protection of trade that extended out from the British Isles reaching as far as Panama and Singapore.

Convoys allowed the Royal Navy to concentrate its escorts near the one place the U-boats were

Ganendranath Tagore

Ganendranath Tagore was an Indian musician and theatre personality, contributed to nationalist discourse. One of the first students to pass the entrance examinations of Calcutta University, he was the founder-secretary of Hindu Mela. Dwarkanath Tagore, the founder of Jorasanko branch of the Tagore family had left behind three sons at the time of his death – Debendranath and Nagendranath. Both Girindranath and Nagendranath died quite young. Nagendranath did not leave behind any children. Ganendranath was the eldest son of Jogmaya Devi, his younger brother was Gunendranath. Ganendranath did not leave behind any children. Gunendranath's children were – Gaganendranath, Abanindranath, Binayini Devi and Sunayani Devi, they used to live in. That portion has since been demolished, he used to be called ‘Mejadada’ in the joint family, as he was younger to Dwijendranath but older to Satyendranath. He was a student of Hindu School and when Calcutta University introduced the Entrance examination in 1857, he and Satyendranath Tagore passed out in first division.

Ganendranath was an ardent writer and translated Kalidas's Vikramorvashiya into Bengali in 1869. He composed devotional songs known as songs with patriotic fervour. A Brahma Sangeet CD containing songs sung by Subinoy Roy and brought out in 2007 has a composition of his entitled "Gaao Hey Taahaari Naam" as the title song; the same Brahma Sangeet was sung by Debabrata Biswas and appears in CD published in 2018. Chitra Deb writes, "More than from any other single source, it was from this group that the rising new currents of Bengali literature and culture drew their strength". Ganendranath had great attraction for the theatre, he established the Jorasanko Natyasala, a private theatre in the household, in Calcutta in 1865 and staged Krishnakumari written by Michael Madhusudan Dutta that year itself. Young Jyotirindranath had the first opportunity to act in it in the role of Ahalyadevi. At first men played the female roles, but women of the family acted in front of an audience of friends and relatives.

As there were few good plays in Bengali, which could be taken up for staging, Ganendranath announced a prize for writing plays on social themes. Nabanatak written by Ramnarayan Tarkaratna won the first prize, he awarded the playwright Rs. 200 and promised to bear the cost of printing a thousand copies of the play. Sarada Prasad Ganguly, Akshay Mazumder, Jyotirindranath Tagore and others were actors. Ganendranath founded the Hindu Mela, along with Dwijendranath Tagore, Rajnarayan Basu, Nabagopal Mitra in 1867, he was founder-secretary of the organisation. It sought to promote patriotism as well as indigenous industry. Speaking at the inaugural session, he said, "This gathering is not for ordinary religious activity, not for attaining happiness in any matter, not for entertainment, it is for the country, the mother land." On another occasion he said, "One of the major drawbacks of India is that we are always looking towards the nobility for whatever assistance we require. It is a matter of great shame.

Are we not human beings? One of the aims of the mela is to infuse the spirit of self-dependence in the country."Ganendranath earned a great reputation for a song, sung in the Hindu Mela several times: "Lajjay Bharat-jas gaibo ki kore"


KNDU, virtual channel 25, is an NBC-affiliated television station licensed to Richland, United States and serving the Tri-Cities area. The station is owned by the Spokane-based Cowles Company as part of the KHQ Television Group. KNDU's studios are located on West Kennewick Avenue in Kennewick, its transmitter is located on Jump Off Joe Butte. Although identifying as a separate station in its own right, KNDU is considered a semi-satellite of KNDO in Yakima; as such, it simulcasts all network and syndicated programming as provided through its parent, the two stations share a website. However, KNDU airs legal identifications. Local newscasts, produced by KNDU, are simulcast on both stations. KNDU serves the eastern half of the Yakima/Tri-Cities market; the two stations are counted as a single unit for ratings purposes. Master control and some internal operations are based at the studios of sister station, fellow NBC affiliate and company flagship KHQ-TV on West Sprague Avenue in downtown Spokane. On satellite, KNDU is only available on Dish Network.

KNDU first took the air on October 10, 1961 as a primary ABC affiliate, which carried some NBC programming. In 1965, KNDU became a primary NBC affiliate, but continued to air some ABC programs until 1970 when KVEW went on the air as a full-time ABC affiliate. For a brief period in 1960, a station called KNBS-TV operated in Walla Walla, Washington, on channel 22, it was an ABC affiliate. The station's digital signal is multiplexed: KNDO and KNDU have been digital-only since February 17, 2009. NBC Weather Plus had been carried on digital subchannel 25.3. On September 1, 2010, KNDO and KNDU discontinued broadcasting Universal Sports on digital subchannel 25.2. They will be giving this bandwidth to SWX Right Now to improve the picture of SWX programming. In addition to the NBC network schedule, syndicated programming on KNDU includes Hot Bench, The Ellen DeGeneres Show, Jeopardy!, Wheel of Fortune, among others. In the past, as in many stations not owned and operated by the network, KNDU preempted select NBC shows.

For example, the station did not carry Friday Night Videos after it moved to the 1:30 a.m. slot in summer 1987 until 1996, opting to sign off until in the morning. The station preempted the entire Bob Costas incarnation and the pre-1996 broadcasts of Greg Kinnear's incarnation of Later from the show's premiere in 1988 until they picked up the show in 1996. From 1991 to 1996, the station preempted NBC Nightside due to the station signing off for the night as a result. NBC was far less tolerant of program preemptions during the entire timeframe where the station preempted programming from that network. Jamie Kern Whit Johnson Jim Snyder Official website SWX Right Now Query the FCC's TV station database for KNDU Query TV Fool's coverage map for KNDU BIAfn's Media Web Database -- Information on KNDU-TV