The Battle of the Catalaunian Plains called the Battle of the Campus Mauriacus, Battle of Châlons, Battle of Troyes or the Battle of Maurica, took place on June 20, 451 CE, between a coalition led by the Roman general Flavius Aetius and the Visigothic king Theodoric I against the Huns and their vassals commanded by their king Attila. It was one of the last major military operations of the Western Roman Empire, although Germanic foederati composed the majority of the coalition army. Whether the battle was strategically conclusive is disputed: the Romans stopped the Huns' attempt to establish vassals in Roman Gaul. However, the Huns looted and pillaged much of Gaul and crippled the military capacity of the Romans and Visigoths; the Hunnic Empire was dismantled by a coalition of their Germanic vassals at the Battle of Nedao in 454. By 450, Roman authority over Gaul had been restored in much of the province, although control over all of the provinces beyond Italy was continuing to diminish. Armorica was only nominally part of the empire, Germanic tribes occupying Roman territory had been forcibly settled and bound by treaty as Foederati under their own leaders.
Northern Gaul between the Rhine north of Xanten and the Lys had unofficially been abandoned to the Salian Franks. The Visigoths on the Garonne were growing restive; the Burgundians in Sapaudia were more submissive, but awaiting an opening for revolt. The Alans on the Loire and in Valentinois were more loyal, having served the Romans since the defeat of Jovinus in 411 and the siege of Bazas in 414; the parts of Gaul still securely in Roman control were the Mediterranean coastline. The historian Jordanes states that Attila was enticed by the Vandal king Genseric to wage war on the Visigoths. At the same time, Genseric would attempt to sow strife between the Visigoths and the Western Roman Empire. However, Jordanes' account of Gothic history is notoriously biased and unreliable, much of it is omitted or garbled. Other contemporary writers offer different motivations: Justa Grata Honoria, the sister of the emperor Valentinian III, had been betrothed to the former consul Herculanus the year before.
In 450, she sent the eunuch Hyacinthus to the Hunnic king asking for Attila's help in escaping her confinement, with her ring as proof of the letter's legitimacy. Attila interpreted it as offering her hand in marriage, he had claimed half of the empire as a dowry, he demanded Honoria to be delivered along with the dowry. Valentinian rejected these demands, Attila used it as an excuse to launch a destructive campaign through Gaul. Hughes suggests that the reality of this interpretation should be that Honoria was using Attila's status as honorary Magister Militum for political leverage. Another possible explanation is that in 449, the King of the Franks, died. Aetius had adopted the younger son of Chlodio to secure the Rhine Frontier, the elder son had fled to the court of Attila, it is thought that Childeric I was a vassal of Attila, the founders of the Merovingian dynasty and Merovech, are the two claimants to the Frankish throne. In the somewhat garbled story of the Chronicle of Fredegar, Childeric was expelled by the Franks and exiled for eight years to Thuringia, a Hunnic vassal at the time.
Kim concludes that the character of Wiomad represents the Huns who helped Childeric fight the Romans and engineered his return from exile, stating that the main objective of Attila at Chalons was conquest of the Franks and establishment of vassal states on the Rhine. Attila crossed the Rhine early in 451 with his followers and a large number of allies, sacking Divodurum on April 7. Other cities attacked can be determined by the hagiographies written to commemorate their bishops: Nicasius of Rheims was slaughtered before the altar of his church in Reims. Lupus, bishop of Troyes, is credited with saving his city by meeting Attila in person. Many other cities claim to have been attacked in these accounts, although archaeological evidence shows no destruction layer dating to the timeframe of the invasion; the most explanation for Attila's widespread devastation of Gaul is that Attila's main column crossed the Rhine at Worms or Mainz and marched to Trier, Metz and Orleans, while sending a small detachment north into Frankish territory to plunder the countryside.
This explanation would support the literary evidence claiming North Gaul was attacked, the archaeological evidence showing major population centers were not sacked. Attila's army had reached Aurelianum before June. According to Jordanes, the Alan king Sangiban, whose Foederati realm included Aurelianum, had promised to open the city gates; this siege is confirmed by the account of the Vita S. Aniani and in the account of Gregory of Tours, although Sangiban's name does not appear in their accounts. However, the inhabitants of Aurelianum shut their gates against the advancing invaders, Attila began to besiege the city, while he waited for Sangiban to deliver on his promise. There are two different accounts of the siege of Aurelianum, Hughes suggests that combining them provides a better understanding of what happened. After four days of heavy rain, Attila began his final assault on June 14, broken due to the approach of the Roman coalition. Modern scholars tend to agree that the siege of Aurelianum was the high point of Atti
Ilyos Zeytulayev is an Uzbek footballer who plays as a midfielder or as a forward. Zeytulayev has spent most of his career in Lega Pro Prima Divisione, his first name is sometimes spelled Illyos, or Ilyas, the latter of, the Russian equivalent. Moreover, Zeytulayev is romanized as Zeytulaev. Zeytulayev started his professional career in the Juventus youth teams along with Serhiy Kovalenko and Viktor Budyanskiy, he signed a 5-year contract on 10 August 2001. He joined Juve permanently in February 2002 along with Kovalenko after a loan from Sportakademklub Moscow, the team he played since he was 13; the Turin club paid US$400,000 to buy the duo's registration rights. He played both legs against Sampdoria in the Coppa Italia 2001–02. After graduating from the U20 team in June, along with Viktor Budyanskiy, they were unable to register as a Juve players. At first, FIGC declared that their remaining 2-year contracts did not fulfill the regulations and voided them; the FIGC declared that they had been on youth contracts which could only run for a maximum of 3 years.
In addition, a non-EU player at that time could not sign a contract extension. Thus they were released. However, after an appeal, the appeal community stated that a foreigner could sign a professional contract regardless his age, FIGC regulations only protected domestic youth products who can only sign a contract for more than 3 years after the age of 18, they were transferred to Reggina for €1K to co-own the players in January 2005, He played in his first Serie A match on 19 March 2005, coming on as a substitute for Marco Borriello in the 75th minutes against his first club Juve. The match ended in a 0-1 loss. In June 2005, Juventus bought back Budyanskiy for €0.5K, while Reggina signed Zeytulayev permanently for the same price. After not playing in the 2005–06 Serie A, in January 2006 he was loaned out to Serie B side Crotone. In 2006-07 season, he was loaned out again, this time to Genoa and Vicenza of Serie B. In July 2007, he left for Verona of Serie C1, but after a poor season, he left for Pescara on a free transfer.
There, he became a regular member of the team. In August 2009, he signed a 3-year contract with Lanciano as a free agent. In his first season, he only made 14 league appearances, but in 2010–11 season, he started a successive 5 league games for the team, as one of the strikers in a 4-3-3 formation, along with Luís Gabriel Sacilotto to partner with Umberto Improta or Francesco Di Gennaro. In January 2014 Zeytulayev was signed by Torino F. C.. However, the signing was aiming to exploit the mechanism of the non-EU signing of the league. On 4 February 2014 Zeytulayev joined Croatian club HNK Gorica in a temporary deal. In the same window Torino signed Marko Vešović from Serbia. Zeytulayev has been capped for Uzbekistan U20 team in the 2003 FIFA World Youth Championship, he played for the Uzbekistan national football team in the 2002 FIFA World Cup qualification, 2004 AFC Asian Cup and 2007 AFC Asian Cup qualification. He was named in the squad for friendlies before 2007 AFC Asian Cup in March 2007. In March 2009, he was recalled to national team for the 2010 FIFA World Cup qualification in March 2009 but did not play.
Virtus Lanciano prifile Profile at La Gazzetta dello Sport Profile at AIC. Football.it Ilyos Zeytulayev at WorldFootball.net Ilyos Zeytulayev at National-Football-Teams.com Ilyos Zeytulayev – FIFA competition record
Hungarian pengő paper money was part of the physical form of Hungary's historical currency, the Hungarian pengő. Paper money meant banknotes, which were issued by the Hungarian National Bank. – during and after World War II – other types of paper money appeared, including emergency money and savings certificates. Paper money was designed abroad, printed using simple methods. More advanced techniques were used, creating banknotes which reflected stability. After the war, in parallel with their loss in value, the quality of banknotes decreased. Not serial numbers were printed on the notes; the first series of pengő banknotes were printed in 1926 in the following denominations: 5 P, 10 P, 20 P, 50 P, 100 P. All these banknotes were designed by Ferenc Helbing. Due to the poor printing technology counterfeits appeared in a short time; the situation was so serious. As a consequence, these belong to the most valued collector rarities among Hungarian banknotes; the first denomination of the second series of pengő banknotes was the 1000 pengő note, designed by Zoltán Egri.
In contrast to the 1926 series, this banknote was printed using intaglio printing. The next banknote of the series was the 5 pengő note the 10 pengő, 20 and 100 pengő, the 50 pengő notes; these banknotes were designed by Álmos Jaschik. In 1938, a series of 50 fillér, 1, 2, 5 pengő bills were designed by Franke Rupert; the aim of the National Bank was to supply the territories over which Hungary gained control under the First and Second Vienna Awards with low denomination money. However, only the 1 and 5 pengő bills were put into circulation, although printer's proofs of the others exist. Since the amount of 1 P bills allowed by the serial number proved to be insufficient, a second issue was printed, marked with a star in the serial number; the first banknote of the series is the 10 pengő bill, dated 1936 but was not put into circulation earlier than 1939. This banknote was followed by the 5 pengő bill the 2 pengő and the 20 pengő bills. A 100 pengő note was planned, however, it was printed in a different version and only used by the evacuated troops in Austria.
The banknotes of the series were designed by Endre Horváth) Series of banknotes were printed in Veszprém by the evacuated Szálasi government and circulated in the Nazi-ruled part of Hungary in 1944. First, the 100 P bill of 1930 and the 10 P bill of 1936 were reprinted in late 1944; these banknotes were marked with a star in the serial number, are much less common than those without it. Some of the 100 P banknotes were overstamped with a 1000 P adhesive stamp – these were replaced by the 1000 P bill of 1943. In 1944 there was a plan to issue a new series of 10, 100 and 1000 P banknotes – all designed by Endre Horváth. Due to lack of time, only the 1000 P bill was put into circulation, 100 P bills were printed but only used by the evacuated troops in Austria, the 10 P bill is only known as printer's proof; the 100 and 1000 P bills were designed using elements of earlier banknotes. In the last days of the Szálasi government, some of the bills were overstamped with a green arrow-cross stamp – however, most of these overstamped banknotes are considered to be fake: stamp inks are tend to be fresh on these banknotes and it is not clear what the purpose of such overstamping would have been.
After the war the new democratic government suffered from serious lack of money, so it ordered the national bank to manufacture banknotes and cheaply. There was little time to design new notes, so the plates of banknotes printed in 1926 were reused as well as portraits from other notes. Beginning with the 1000 pengő note, only denominations of integer powers of ten were used; the uncontrolled issue of banknotes aggravated inflation. In December 1945, the government tried to bring inflation under control by a one-off capital levy; this meant that the 1000, 10,000 and 100,000 pengő banknotes had to be overstamped with a stamp that could be bought for 3 times the value of the banknote. Unstamped banknotes were worth a quarter of their nominal value after this campaign; the 100,000 pengő note was issued again in different colors – this banknote and higher denominations did not fall under the capital levy. Although there were plans to issue ten billion pengő notes, denominations higher than one billion were renamed milpengő and the indicated value was reduced by a factor of one million.
The next denomination after the one billion pengő note became the 10 000 milpengő, equal to ten thousand million pengő, had a similar design to the 10 000 pengő note. The aim was to ease everyday money handling and accounting as well as to reuse the designs of earlier banknotes with little changes. After the one billion milpengő note a new abbreviation had to be used, since further higher denominations were necessary; this became the b.-pengő (which stands for billion pengő.