Battle of the Granicus

The Battle of the Granicus River in May 334 BC was the first of three major battles fought between Alexander the Great and the Persian Empire. Fought in northwestern Asia Minor, near the site of Troy, it was here that Alexander defeated the forces of the Persian satraps of Asia Minor, including a large force of Greek mercenaries led by Memnon of Rhodes; the battle took place on the road from Abydos at the crossing of the Granicus River. After the death of Phillip of Macedon, many of his newly conquered territories desired to take advantage of the perceived weakness of the new young king; these nations included the Illyrians and some southern Greek city-states. Alexander had to prove the strength of his rule before leaving for his Persian expedition, crushed several nascent rebellions within Greece and the northern tribes. After extensive planning in Macedonia, Alexander started to prepare for his next major conquest: the invasion of Asia. Before leaving Macedon, Alexander appointed his father’s experienced general Antipater as regent in his absence, leaving him with 9,000 infantry and 1,500 cavalry to maintain control over Macedonia's holdings in Europe.

In the spring of 334 BC, Alexander took 2,600 cavalry and went on a 20-day march from Macedon to Hellespont, to join Parmenion in Asia. Before Alexander and his army were able to cross at Hellespont, the Persian provincial governors, others in power at that time in Persia, assembled their forces of 10-20,000 cavalry and 5-20,000 infantry to the town of Zelea. Memnon was a high-ranking Greek mercenary employed by the Persians, he advised the Persians to lay waste to the land that Alexander would have to pass, depriving his army of food and supplies; this would make it harder for Alexander and his army to survive on their long journey before the battle. The satraps did not trust Memnon because of his nationality, did not ravage their territories; the Persians had two major objectives. The Persians advanced from Zelea to the Granicus River, which would be an obstacle for Alexander and his army; the Persians hoped that his army would not be able to hold formation, which would cripple its effectiveness, as maintaining the packed and mutually supportive formation employed by the Greeks was central to their strategy.

The Persians awaited the arrival of the Macedonians with all their cavalry in the front line. Alexander, after crossing into Asia at the Hellespont marched 100 km back to the north to meet the Persian armies. According to Alexander's biographer Arrian, Alexander's army met the Persians on the third day of May from Abydos. Alexander's second-in-command, suggested crossing the river upstream and attacking at dawn the next day, but Alexander attacked immediately; this tactic caught the Persians off guard. The Macedonian line was arrayed with the heavy phalanxes in the middle, cavalry on either side. Alexander was with the Companions on the right flank; the Persians expected the main assault to come from Alexander's position and moved units from their center to that flank. The battle started with a cavalry and light infantry feint from the Macedonian left, from Parmenion's side of the battle line; the cavalry squadron was led by son of Philip. The Persians reinforced that side, the feint was driven back, but at that point, Alexander led the horse companions in their classic wedge-shaped charge, smashed into the center of the Persian line.

The Persians countercharged with a squadron of nobles on horse, accounts show that in the melee, several high-ranking Persian nobles were killed by Alexander himself or his bodyguards, although Alexander was stunned by an axe-blow from a Persian nobleman named Rhoisakes. A second Persian nobleman named Spithridates attempted to attack Alexander from behind while he was still reeling. Alexander recovered; the Macedonian horse were able to gain the advantage over their Persian counterpart, owing to the superiority of their lance over the Persian javelin for melee fighting, as well as the close support of the light infantry interspersed among their squadrons. The Greek cavalry turned left and started rolling up the Persian cavalry, engaged with the left side of the Macedonian line after a general advance. A hole opened in the vacated place in the battle line, the Macedonian infantry charged through to engage the poor-quality Persian infantry in the rear; the Macedonian phalanx attacked the Greek mercenaries.

With many of their leaders dead, their infantry routed, both flanks of the Persian cavalry retreated, seeing the collapse of the center. The infantry routed too, many being cut down as they fled. Total casualties for the Greeks were between 300 and 400; the Persians had 1,000 cavalry and 3,000 infantry killed in the rout. The Greek mercenaries, under the command of Memnon of Rhodes, who fought for the Persians, were abandoned after the cavalry retreat, they attempted to broker a peace to no avail. As a result, after the battle Alexander ordered the mercenaries to be enslaved. Out of the 18,000 Greek mercenaries, half were killed and 8,000 enslaved and sent back to Macedon. Alexander sent 300 Persian armours to the Parthenon of Athens as an oblation to Athena, with this epigram: "Alexander, son of Philip, the Greeks, except of Lacedaemonians, from the barbarians who live in Asi


The TVR 400/450SE was a series of open sports cars designed and built by TVR in the late eighties and early nineties. The 400SE was introduced in 1988, the 450SE a year later; the 400SE was the last of the Wedges built, with the last cars being produced in late 1991 and registered in 1992. There were special versions built, with two Sprintex supercharged 400SX built by dealer'Northern TVR Centre' in 1989, three Griffith engined 430SEs were constructed in 1991; the 400SE was similar to late 390SEs, but featured marginally larger displacement - 3,948 versus 3,905 cc. The body was as for Series 2 390SEs, with a large rear underbody aerofoil. An asymmetrically vented bonnet hinted at what was underneath, there was a large rear spoiler; the appearance was more mature than the wild SEAC, but both suffered from the large transmission tunnel which cramped the footwell and serious heatsink from the large engines. On the plus side was the "phenomenal noise" and "exhilarating acceleration". Ventilated front disc brakes and fifteen inch wheels were standard fitment, with power steering available and made standard.

In 1989 the bigger engined 450SE appeared, with an extra 45 bhp but otherwise hard to distinguish from the 400. Production of the 450SE ended in 1990. There was the 1989 400SX, a supercharged version developed by "Northern TVR Centre" in Barrow-in-Furness. Along with DPR Forced Induction Systems Sprintex supercharger units were fitted, while power and torque outputs are unknown the smaller engined 350SX showed increases of over thirty percent, which would mean ample power for most; the supercharged versions provided superrb mid-range punch, compared to the peakier aspirated models. The last development of the SE was the 430SE, three of which were built in 1991, they used the 4.3 litre V8 engine seen in the introduced TVR Griffith.

Shipwreck (film)

Shipwreck is a 1931 short animated film starring Oswald the Lucky Rabbit. The film is the 37th Oswald cartoon by Walter Lantz Productions, the 89th overall. Oswald and a parrot are on a log boat; the sea becomes calm moments later. They notice they are hungry and decided to fish. Oswald casts a line, the parrot goes down with the hook to find suitable fish; the parrot places the line on a fish, signals Oswald to reel in. But the fish the parrot selected therefore drags Oswald below the sea; the fish has Oswald in his grasp before putting the rabbit in his mouth. The fish, finds out he isn't hungry and that he removes Oswald, but he will look for them after an hour. Oswald and the parrot figure they need to getaway far and as possible. Oswald and the parrot go on to wonder the floor of the sea, but instead of continuing, they come across an old organ. As Oswald plays the organ, he and the parrot sing the song It Ain't Gonna Rain No Mo'. Other sea creatures join their singing; the hour has passed, the fish comes for the two friends.

Oswald and the parrot, who are still at the organ, frantically make their move upon seeing their pursuer. While they try to keep distance, the fish manages to get his teeth on the parrot's tail. Oswald refuses to let go of the bird. A tug-of-war ensues. Oswald and the parrot are relieved of their worries, knowing the now boneless fish can longer go after them. Shipwreck at the Big Cartoon Database Shipwreck on YouTube