Catgut is a type of cord, prepared from the natural fibre found in the walls of animal intestines. Catgut makers use sheep or goat intestines, but use the intestines of cattle, horses, mules, or donkeys. Despite the name, catgut manufacturers do not use cat intestines; the word catgut may have been an abbreviation of the word "cattlegut". Alternatively, it may derive by folk etymology from kitgut or kitstring—the word kit, meaning fiddle, having at some point been confused with the word kit for a young cat. For a long time, catgut was the most common material for the strings of harps, violins, violas and double basses, acoustic guitars and other stringed musical instruments, as well as older marching snare drums. Most musical instruments produced today use strings with cores made of other materials steel or synthetic polymer. Gut strings are the natural choice for many classical and baroque string players, gut strings are still most preferred in concert-tension pedal/grand and some lever harps because they give a richer, darker sound as well as withstanding high tension within low alto and high-bass ranges.
Many acoustic guitarists moved away from gut strings in the early 1900s when the C. F. Martin & Company introduced steel strings, which gave greater volume to the guitar. "The demand for steel came from ensemble players, who couldn't make themselves heard without it." Within a few years the majority of Martin guitars were made with steel strings to accommodate the demand. After World War II, most classical and flamenco guitarists switched from catgut to the new nylon strings for their greater smoothness and stability of intonation. Before 1900, the best strings for musical instruments were reputedly from Italy. Musicians believed the best were from Naples, though Rome and other Italian cities produced excellent strings. Today high quality gut strings are produced in Italy and the United States, they are made elsewhere, for example in India and Morocco, for local use. Catgut suture was once a used material in surgical settings. There is debate about whether to continue using catgut in a medical setting, since cotton is cheaper and wounds closed with either cotton or synthetic threads are less prone to infection.
Catgut sutures remain in use in developing countries where they are locally less expensive and easier to obtain. Catgut treated with chromium salts, known as chromic catgut, is used in surgery. Natural gut is still used as a high-performance string in tennis racquets, although it had more popularity in the past and is being displaced by synthetic strings. To prepare catgut, workers clean the small intestines, free them from any fat, steep them in water, they scrape off the external membrane with a blunt knife, steep the intestines again for some time in potassium hydroxide. They smooth and equalize the intestines by drawing them out. Lean animals yield the toughest gut. Next, they twist. String diameter is determined by the thickness of the individual guts, by the number used. A thin string, such as a violin E, uses only three or four guts, whereas a double bass string may use twenty or more. After twisting and drying, workers polish the strings to the required diameter. Before the twentieth century, the strings were rubbed with an abrasive to smooth them.
Today they are ground down to the desired diameter using a centerless grinder. After drying and polishing, workers bleach and disinfect the strings using sulfur dioxide, dye them if necessary, sort them into sizes. Catgut sutures are treated with a chromium salt solution to resist body enzymes, to slow the absorption process, are called catgut chromic sutures—whereas untreated catgut sutures are called catgut plain sutures. Notes Sources This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Catgut". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Information on catgut sutures from company DOLPHIN Sutures "Good Gut Strings" by Dimitry Badiarov "Italian violin strings in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries: typologies, manufacturing techniques and principals of stringing" by Mimmo Peruffo
Badminton is a racquet sport played using racquets to hit a shuttlecock across a net. Although it may be played with larger teams, the most common forms of the game are "singles" and "doubles". Badminton is played as a casual outdoor activity in a yard or on a beach. Points are scored by striking the shuttlecock with the racquet and landing it within the opposing side's half of the court; each side may only strike the shuttlecock. Play ends once the shuttlecock has struck the floor or if a fault has been called by the umpire, service judge, or the opposing side; the shuttlecock is a feathered or plastic projectile which flies differently from the balls used in many other sports. In particular, the feathers create much higher drag, causing the shuttlecock to decelerate more rapidly. Shuttlecocks have a high top speed compared to the balls in other racquet sports; the flight of the shuttlecock gives the sport its distinctive nature. The game developed in British India from the earlier game of shuttlecock.
European play came to be dominated by Denmark but the game has become popular in Asia, with recent competitions dominated by China. Since 1992, badminton has been a Summer Olympic sport with four events: men's singles, women's singles, men's doubles, women's doubles, with mixed doubles added four years later. At high levels of play, the sport demands excellent fitness: players require aerobic stamina, strength and precision, it is a technical sport, requiring good motor coordination and the development of sophisticated racquet movements. Games employing shuttlecocks have been played for centuries across Eurasia, but the modern game of badminton developed in the mid-19th century among the British as a variant of the earlier game of battledore and shuttlecock, its exact origin remains obscure. The name derives from the Duke of Beaufort's Badminton House in Gloucestershire, but why or when remains unclear; as early as 1860, a London toy dealer named Isaac Spratt published a booklet entitled Badminton Battledore – A New Game, but no copy is known to have survived.
An 1863 article in The Cornhill Magazine describes badminton as "battledore and shuttlecock played with sides, across a string suspended some five feet from the ground". The game may have developed among expatriate officers in British India, where it was popular by the 1870s. Ball badminton, a form of the game played with a wool ball instead of a shuttlecock, was being played in Thanjavur as early as the 1850s and was at first played interchangeably with badminton by the British, the woollen ball being preferred in windy or wet weather. Early on, the game was known as Poona or Poonah after the garrison town of Pune, where it was popular and where the first rules for the game were drawn up in 1873. By 1875, officers returning home had started a badminton club in Folkestone; the sport was played with sides ranging from 1 to 4 players, but it was established that games between two or four competitors worked the best. The shuttlecocks were coated with India rubber and, in outdoor play, sometimes weighted with lead.
Although the depth of the net was of no consequence, it was preferred that it should reach the ground. The sport was played under the Pune rules until 1887, when J. H. E. Hart of the Bath Badminton Club drew up revised regulations. In 1890, Hart and Bagnel Wild again revised the rules; the Badminton Association of England published these rules in 1893 and launched the sport at a house called "Dunbar" in Portsmouth on 13 September. The BAE started the first badminton competition, the All England Open Badminton Championships for gentlemen's doubles, ladies' doubles, mixed doubles, in 1899. Singles competitions were added in 1900 and an England–Ireland championship match appeared in 1904. England, Wales, Denmark, Ireland, the Netherlands, New Zealand were the founding members of the International Badminton Federation in 1934, now known as the Badminton World Federation. India joined as an affiliate in 1936; the BWF now governs international badminton. Although initiated in England, competitive men's badminton has traditionally been dominated in Europe by Denmark.
Worldwide, Asian nations have become dominant in international competition. China, India, Indonesia and South Korea are the nations which have produced world-class players in the past few decades, with China being the greatest force in men's and women's competition recently; the game has become a popular backyard sport in the United States. The following information is a simplified summary of badminton rules based on the BWF Statutes publication, Laws of Badminton; the court is divided into halves by a net. Courts are marked for both singles and doubles play, although badminton rules permit a court to be marked for singles only; the doubles court is wider than the singles court. The exception, which causes confusion to newer players, is that the doubles court has a shorter serve-length dimension; the full width of the court is 6.1 metres, in singles this width is reduced to 5.18 metres. The full length of the court is 13.4 metres. The service courts are marked by a centre line dividing the width of the court, by a short service line at a distance of 1.98 metres from the net, by the outer side and back boundaries.
In doubles, the service court is marked by a long service line, 0.76 metres from the back boundary. T
A shuttlecock is a high-drag projectile used in the sport of badminton. It has an open conical shape formed by feathers embedded into a rounded cork base; the shuttlecock's shape makes it aerodynamically stable. Regardless of initial orientation, it will turn to fly cork first, remain in the cork-first orientation; the name ` shuttlecock' originates in 1570s England. It is shortened to shuttle; the "shuttle" part of the name is derived from its back-and-forth motion during the game, resembling the shuttle of a 14th-century loom, while the "cock" part of the name is derived from the resemblance of the feathers to those on a chicken. A shuttlecock weighs around 4.75 to 5.50 g. It has 16 feathers with each feather 70 mm in length; the diameter of the cork is 25 to 28 mm and the diameter of the circle that the feathers make is around 58 to 68 mm. A shuttlecock is formed from 16 or so overlapping feathers goose or duck, embedded into a rounded cork base; the cork is covered with thin leather. To ensure satisfactory flight properties, it is considered preferable to use feathers from right or left wings only in each shuttlecock, not mix feathers from different wings, as the feathers from different wings are shaped differently.
The feathers are brittle. For this reason, synthetic shuttlecocks have been developed that replace the feathers with a plastic skirt. Players refer to synthetic shuttlecocks as plastics and feathered shuttlecocks as feathers. Feather shuttles need to be properly humidified for at least 4 hours prior to play in order to fly the correct distance at the proper speed and to last longer. Properly humidified feathers flex during play, enhancing durability. Dry feathers are brittle and break causing the shuttle to wobble. Saturated feathers are'mushy', making the feather cone narrow too much when hit, which causes the shuttle to fly overly far and fast. Humidification boxes are used, but a simple moist sponge inserted in the feather end of the closed shuttle tube will work nicely. Water should never touch the cork of the shuttle. Shuttles are tested prior to play to make sure they fly true and at the proper speed, cover the proper distance. Different weights of shuttles are used to compensate for local atmospheric conditions.
Both humidity and height above sea level affect shuttle flight. World Badminton Federation Rules say the shuttle should reach the far doubles service line plus or minus half the width of the tram. According to manufacturers proper shuttle will travel from the back line of the court to just short of the long doubles service line on the opposite side of the net, with a full underhand hit from an average player; the cost of good quality feathers is similar to that of good quality plastics, but plastics are far more durable lasting many matches without any impairment to their flight. Shuttles are damaged and should be replaced every three or four games, sooner if they are damaged and do not fly straight; this interferes with the game, as the impairment on the flight of the shuttle may misdirect the direction of the shuttlecock. Most experienced and skillful players prefer feathers, serious tournaments or leagues are always played using feather shuttlecocks of the highest quality. Experienced players prefer the "feel" of feathered shuttlecocks and assert that they are able to control the flight of feathers better than that of plastics.
In Asia, where feather shuttlecocks are more affordable than in Europe and North America, plastic shuttlecocks are hardly used at all. The playing characteristics of plastics and feathers are different. Plastics fly more on initial impact, but slow down less towards the end of their flight. While feathers tend to drop straight down on a clear shot, plastics never quite return to a straight drop, falling more on a diagonal. Feather shuttles may come off the strings at speeds in excess of 320 km/h but slow down faster as they drop. For this reason, the feather shuttle makes the game seem faster, but allows more time to play strokes; because feather shuttles fly more off the racquet face they tend to cause less shoulder impact and injury. Shuttle game is a physically rigorous game needing to run and played indoor as either a singles or as doubles game. Jianzi: a traditional Asian game in which players aim to keep a weighted shuttlecock from touching the ground Battledore and shuttlecock: an ancient game similar to that of modern badminton.
This Time with Alan Partridge: a shuttlecock played a vital part in the second episode. "shuttlecock: badminton equipment consisting of a ball of cork or rubber with a crown of feathers." Random House Kernerman Webster's College Dictionary, 2010. K Dictionaries Ltd. Media related to Shuttlecock at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of shuttlecock at Wiktionary
China the People's Republic of China, is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering 9,600,000 square kilometers, it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since China has expanded, re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin established the first Chinese empire; the succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements.
The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty and Northern Song completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa. Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution; the Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949, when the Communist Party of China established the People's Republic of China, a unitary one-party sovereign state on Mainland China, while the Kuomintang-led government retreated to the island of Taiwan. The political status of Taiwan remains disputed. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing with annual growth rates above 6 percent. According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $12.24 trillion by 2017. Since 2010, China has been the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and since 2014, the largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity.
China is the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget; the PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as it replaced the ROC in 1971, as well as an active global partner of ASEAN Plus mechanism. China is a leading member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, WTO, APEC, BRICS, the BCIM, the G20. In recent times, scholars have argued that it will soon be a world superpower, rivaling the United States; the word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century. It is not a word used by the Chinese themselves, it has been traced through Portuguese and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Cīna, used in ancient India."China" appears in Richard Eden's 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. Barbosa's usage was derived from Persian Chīn, in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna.
Cīna was first used including the Mahābhārata and the Laws of Manu. In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived from the name of the Qin dynasty. Although this derivation is still given in various sources, it is complicated by the fact that the Sanskrit word appears in pre-Qin literature; the word may have referred to a state such as Yelang. The meaning transferred to China as a whole; the origin of the Sanskrit word is still a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China"; the shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne. It was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing, it was used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians". The name Zhongguo is translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 2.24 million and 250,000 years ago. The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; the fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Hunan. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE, Damaidi around 6000 BCE, Dadiwan from 5800–5400 BCE, Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE; some scholars have suggested. According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE; the dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period; the succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE.
Their oracle bone script
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
Thailand the Kingdom of Thailand and known as Siam, is a country at the centre of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces. At 513,120 km2 and over 68 million people, Thailand is the world's 50th largest country by total area and the 21st-most-populous country; the capital and largest city is a special administrative area. Thailand is bordered to the north by Myanmar and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, to the west by the Andaman Sea and the southern extremity of Myanmar, its maritime boundaries include Vietnam in the Gulf of Thailand to the southeast, Indonesia and India on the Andaman Sea to the southwest. Although nominally a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, the most recent coup in 2014 established a de facto military dictatorship. Tai peoples migrated from southwestern China to mainland Southeast Asia from the 11th century. Various Indianised kingdoms such as the Mon, the Khmer Empire and Malay states ruled the region, competing with Thai states such as Ngoenyang, the Sukhothai Kingdom, Lan Na and the Ayutthaya Kingdom, which rivaled each other.
European contact began in 1511 with a Portuguese diplomatic mission to Ayutthaya, one of the great powers in the region. Ayutthaya reached its peak during cosmopolitan Narai's reign declining thereafter until being destroyed in 1767 in a war with Burma. Taksin reunified the fragmented territory and established the short-lived Thonburi Kingdom, he was succeeded in 1782 by Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke, the first monarch of the Chakri dynasty and founder of the Rattanakosin Kingdom, which lasted into the early 20th century. Through the 18th and 19th centuries, Siam faced pressure from France and the United Kingdom, including forced concessions of territory, but it remained the only Southeast Asian country to avoid direct Western rule. Following a bloodless revolution in 1932, Siam became a constitutional monarchy and changed its official name to "Thailand". While it joined the Allies in World War I, Thailand was an Axis satellite in World War II. In the late 1950s, a military coup revived the monarchy's influential role in politics.
Thailand became a major ally of the United States and played a key anti-communist role in the region. Apart from a brief period of parliamentary democracy in the mid-1970s, Thailand has periodically alternated between democracy and military rule. In the 21st century, Thailand endured a political crisis that culminated in two coups and the establishment of its current and 20th constitution by the military junta. Thailand is a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy under a military junta. Thailand is a founding member of Association of Southeast Asian Nations and remains a major ally of the US. Despite its comparatively sporadic changes in leadership, it is considered a regional power in Southeast Asia and a middle power in global affairs. With a high level of human development, the second largest economy in Southeast Asia, the 20th largest by PPP, Thailand is classified as a newly industrialized economy. Thailand the Kingdom of Thailand known as Siam, is a country at the centre of the Indochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The country has always been called Mueang Thai by its citizens. By outsiders prior to 1949, it was known by the exonym Siam; the word Siam may have originated from Pali or Sanskrit श्याम or Mon ရာမည. The names Shan and A-hom seem to be variants of the same word; the word Śyâma is not its origin, but a learned and artificial distortion. Another theory is the name derives from Chinese: "Ayutthaya emerged as a dominant centre in the late fourteenth century; the Chinese called this region Xian, which the Portuguese converted into Siam." A further possibility is that Mon-speaking peoples migrating south called themselves'syem' as do the autochthonous Mon-Khmer-speaking inhabitants of the Malay Peninsula. The signature of King Mongkut reads SPPM Mongkut Rex Siamensium, giving the name "Siam" official status until 24 June 1939 when it was changed to Thailand. Thailand was renamed to Siam from 1946 to 1948. According to George Cœdès, the word Thai means "free man" in the Thai language, "differentiating the Thai from the natives encompassed in Thai society as serfs".
A famous Thai scholar argued that Thai means "people" or "human being", since his investigation shows that in some rural areas the word "Thai" was used instead of the usual Thai word "khon" for people. According to Michel Ferlus, the ethnonyms Thai/Tai would have evolved from the etymon *kri:'human being' through the following chain: *kəri: > *kəli: > *kədi:/*kədaj > *di:/*daj > *dajA > tʰajA2 or > tajA2. Michel Ferlus' work is based on some simple rules of phonetic change observable in the Sinosphere and studied for t
Racket (sports equipment)
A racket or racquet is a sports implement consisting of a handled frame with an open hoop across which a network of strings or catgut is stretched tightly. It is used for striking a ball or shuttlecock in games such as squash, tennis and badminton. Collectively, these games are known as racket sports. Racket design and manufacturing has changed over the centuries; the frame of rackets for all sports was traditionally made of solid wood and the strings of animal intestine known as catgut. The traditional racket size was limited by the strength and weight of the wooden frame which had to be strong enough to hold the strings and stiff enough to hit the ball or shuttle. Manufacturers started adding non-wood laminates to wood rackets to improve stiffness. Non-wood rackets were made first of steel of aluminum, carbon fiber composites. Wood is still used for real tennis and xare. Most rackets are now made of composite materials including carbon fiber or fiberglass, metals such as titanium alloys, or ceramics.
Catgut has been replaced by synthetic materials including nylon and other polymers. Rackets are restrung. Despite the name, "catgut" has never been made from any part of a cat. Racket is the standard spelling of the word. Racquet is an alternative spelling used more in certain sports and less in others. While some writers those outside North America, prefer the French-influenced racquet, racket is the predominant spelling by a large margin. While some believe that racket came about as a misspelling of racquet, racket is in fact the older spelling: it has been in use since the 16th century, with racquet only showing up in the 19th century as a variant of racket; the origin of the term "racket" is unclear. According to a popular belief first published by tennis player Malcolm Whitman in 1932, the expression comes from the Arabic term rahat al-yad, meaning "palm of hand". Modern research however, holds this thesis in a questionable light. Instead, the term is more to be derived from the Flemish word "raketsen", itself derived from Middle French "rachasser", meaning "to strike back".
Badminton rackets are light, with top quality rackets weighing between about 95 grams. Modern rackets are composed of carbon fiber composite, which may be augmented by a variety of materials. Carbon fiber has an excellent strength to weight ratio, is stiff, gives excellent kinetic energy transfer. Before the adoption of carbon fiber composite, rackets were made of wood to their excessive weight and cost. There is a wide variety of racket designs, although the badminton racket size and shape are limited by the Laws. Different rackets have playing characteristics; the traditional oval head shape is still available, but an isometric head shape is common in new rackets. Various companies have emerged but Yonex of Japan and Li-Ning of China are the dominant players in the market; the majority of top tournaments are sponsored by these companies. Every year new technology is introduced by these companies but predominantly, all rackets are made of carbon graphite composite, they have another quality like reflex which differs from 6to8 in low quality an 8 to 12or13 in good quality.
For good quality of guts or stings as people say li-ning and Yonex bg5,65 are best guts for a good racket. This predecessor to the modern game of squash, rackets, is played with 30 1⁄2-inch wooden rackets. While squash equipment has evolved in the intervening century, rackets equipment has changed little. According to the current racquetball rules there are no limitations on the weight of a racquetball racket; the racket, including bumper guard and all solid parts of the handle, may not exceed 22 inches in length. The racket frame may be any material judged safe; the racket frame must include a cord. The string of the racket must be gut, nylon, plastic, metal, or a combination thereof, must not mark or deface the ball. Using an illegal racket will result in forfeiture of the game in progress or, if discovered between games, forfeiture of the preceding game. Racquetball rackets, unlike many other types have little or no neck, the grip connecting directly to the head, they tend to have head shapes that are notably wider at the top, with some older rackets looking triangular or teardrop shaped.
In real tennis called court tennis, 27-inch long rackets are made of wood and tight strings to cope with the game's heavy balls. The racket heads are bent to make striking balls close to the floor or in corners easier. Standard squash rackets are governed by the rules of the game. Traditionally they were made of laminated timber, with a small strung area using natural gut strings. After a rule change in the mid-1980s, they are now always made of composite materials such as carbon fiber or metals with synthetic strings. Modern rackets are 70 cm long, with a maximum strung area of 500 square centimetres and a mass between 90 and 200 grams. Table tennis uses a table tennis racket made from laminated wood covered with rubber on one or two sides depending on the grip of the player. Unlike a conventional racket, it does not contain strings strung across an open frame; this is called with usage differing by region. In the USA the term "paddle" is common, in Europe the term is "bat", the official ITTF