The cittern or cithren is a stringed instrument dating from the Renaissance. Modern scholars debate its exact history, but it is accepted that it is descended from the Medieval citole, it looks much like the modern-day flat-back mandolin and the modern Irish bouzouki, is descended from the English Guitar. Its flat-back design was cheaper to construct than the lute, it was easier to play, less delicate and more portable. Played by all classes, the cittern was a premier instrument of casual music-making much as is the guitar today; the cittern is one of the few metal-strung instruments known from the Renaissance period. It has four courses of strings, one or more course being tuned in octaves, though instruments with more or fewer courses were made; the cittern may have a range of only an octave between its lowest and highest strings and employs a re-entrant tuning – a tuning in which the string, physically uppermost is not the lowest, as is the case with the five-string banjo and most ukuleles for example.
The tuning and narrow range allow the player a number of simple chord shapes useful for both simple song accompaniment and dances, however much more complex music was written for it. Its bright and cheerful timbre make it a valuable counterpoint to gut-strung instruments; the Spanish bandurria, still used today, is a similar instrument. From the 16th until the 18th century the cittern was a common English barber shop instrument, kept in waiting areas for customers to entertain themselves and others with, popular sheet music for the instrument was published to that end; the top of the pegbox was decorated with a small carved head not always of great artistic merit. BOYET: A cittern-head. DUMAIN: The head of a bodkin. BIRON: A Death's face in a ring. Just as the lute was enlarged and bass-extended to become the theorbo and chitarrone for continuo work, so the cittern was developed into the ceterone, with its extended neck and unstopped bass strings, though this was a much less common instrument.
The leading 18th century Swedish songwriter Carl Michael Bellman played on the cittern, is shown with the instrument in a 1779 portrait by Per Krafft the elder. In Germany the cittern survives under the names Lutherzither; the last name comes from the belief. The names Thüringer Waldzither in Thüringer Wald, Harzzither in the Harz mountains, Halszither in German-speaking Switzerland are used. There is a tendency in modern German to interchange the words for zither; the term waldzither came into use around 1900. The cittern family survives as the Portuguese guitar; the guitarra portuguesa is used to play the popular traditional music known as fado. In the early 1970s, using the guitarra and a 1930s archtop Martin guitar as models, English luthier Stefan Sobell created a "cittern", a hybrid instrument used for playing folk music, which has proved to be popular with folk revival musicians. Chitarra Italiana Cithara Italica English guitar Stringed instrument tunings Gregory Doc Rossi Martina Rosenberger Music's Delight on the Cithren, John Playford.
Renovata Cythara: The Renaissance Cittern Pages Stefan Sobell website G. Doc Rossi website Zistern: Europäische Zupfinstrumente von der Renaissance bis zum Historismus -Citterns and cittern research at the Musikinstrumenten-Museum der Universität Leipzig Cittern by Petrus Raitta, England, 1579 at the National Music Museum Cittern, Urbino, ca. 1550 at the National Music Museum Decorated Cittern by Joachim Tielke, Hamburg, ca. 1685 at The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Richard Peter Gaughan is a Scottish musician and songwriter of folk and social protest songs. He is regarded as one of Scotland's leading singer-songwriters. Gaughan was born in Glasgow's Royal Maternity Hospital, when his father was working in Glasgow as an engine driver, he spent the first year-and-a-half of his life in Rutherglen, South Lanarkshire, after which the whole family moved to Leith, a port on the outskirts of Edinburgh. The eldest of three children, Gaughan grew up surrounded by the music of both Ireland, his mother, a Highland Scot who spoke Gaelic, had as a child won a silver medal for singing at a Gaelic Mòd. His Leith-born father played guitar, his Irish grandfather played the fiddle and his Glaswegian grandmother played button accordion; the family experienced considerable poverty, but the area they lived in possessed a strong community spirit and many of Gaughan's songs celebrate his working-class roots. In his teens Gaughan served an apprenticeship at a local paper mill, but had wanted to be a musician since he first started playing guitar at the age of seven.
He got involved with the local folk music scene and, with two others, started a club called the Edinburgh Folk Centre. He moved to London. Gaughan's first album, No More Forever, was recorded in 1971. On it he sings and plays acoustic guitar, joined on some tracks by fiddler Aly Bain. All the songs except one are traditional, the exception being Hamish Henderson's "The John Maclean March", a tribute to the Glasgow socialist John Maclean and a foretaste of the many politically committed songs that Gaughan would record. In 1972, before his album was released, Gaughan joined Bain, Cathal McConnell and Robin Morton, all of whom he had known from his Edinburgh Folk Centre days, in their group The Boys of the Lough, he stayed with the group for about a year, during which he played and sang on their eponymous debut album. He gave his reason for leaving the group as fear of flying, incompatible with the group's travelling commitments. Gaughan resumed his solo career and on his next album, Kist O Gold, he sang traditional songs, using only his guitar as accompaniment.
In that year he recorded two tracks with The High Level Ranters on their album The Bonnie Pit Laddie. He was, becoming frustrated with the folk club scene and keen to work with other musicians, so he joined the Celtic rock band Five Hand Reel. Between 1976 and 1978 the pace of Gaughan's life was hectic, he recorded four albums with Five Hand Reel, as well as two solo ones: the all-instrumental Coppers and Brass, Gaughan, on which he played both acoustic and electric guitars. He collaborated with Tony Capstick and Dave Burland in an album of songs by Ewan MacColl. Gaughan loved playing with Five Hand Reel and is proud of its music, but as time went on he felt that the band was being pressurised into becoming more commercial. Five Hand Reel was more popular in northern Europe than in the UK, so he had to spend a lot of time on the road away from his family, an excessive consumption of alcohol and unhealthy lifestyle began to take their toll, both physically and mentally. In November 1978 Gaughan's daughter was knocked down by a car and injured while he was away.
This event precipitated a major crisis in Gaughan's life. He left the band but found it difficult to get solo gigs and by the end of the decade he was only playing supplementing his income by writing articles for the magazine Folk Review. Gaughan resumed playing in 1980, collaborating with several other performers on the album Folk Friends 2 and with Andy Irvine on Parallel Lines, his next solo album, Handful of Earth became, he said, his most successful in terms of acclaim and sales. It was Melody Maker's folk album of the year in 1981, in 1989 was voted album of the decade by Folk Roots magazine in both readers' and critics' polls; the album contained a strong set of traditional and contemporary songs, including several which have remained part of Gaughan's core repertoire, such as Robert Burns's lyrical "Now Westlin Winds", the feisty "Erin Go Bragh", Phil & June Colclough's evocative "Song For Ireland" and his own reworking of the traditional "Both Sides The Tweed", which calls for Scottish independence without sacrificing friendship with the rest of the UK.
The Thatcher government of the 1980s galvanised Gaughan politically. He had never hidden his strong socialist beliefs and all his albums had included songs by such writers as Hamish Henderson, Ewan MacColl, Dominic Behan, Ed Pickford and Leon Rosselson. Now, however, he felt that "It was quite time to stop reporting and start participating" and his next album, A Different Kind of Love Song was, he said, "a full-frontal onslaught an anti Cold War polemic". All of its songs, which were performed in a variety of styles ranging from acoustic folk to electric rock'n' roll, exuded political commitment. Gaughan extended his political activism to areas other than singing, he instigated the setting up of "Perform", an organisation which aimed to facilitate co-operation across the folk music world, he joined the agitprop theatre group 7:84 and during the UK miners' strike he was Chair of the Leith Miners' Support Group. Gaughan recorded three solo albums over the next few years: Live in Edinburgh and Bold, a collection of songs about mining and Call It Freedom, similar in style and content to A Different Kind of Love Song.
He collaborated with the jazz perc
Bad Moon Rising
"Bad Moon Rising" is a song written by John Fogerty and performed by Creedence Clearwater Revival. It was the lead single from their album Green River and was released in April 1969, four months before the album; the song reached No. 2 on the Hot 100 on 28 June 1969 and No. 1 on the UK Singles Chart for three weeks in September 1969. It was CCR's second gold single; the song has been recorded by at least 20 different artists, in styles ranging from folk to reggae to psychedelic rock. In 2010, Rolling Stone ranked it No. 364 on its "500 Greatest Songs of All Time" list. Fogerty wrote "Bad Moon Rising" after watching The Devil and Daniel Webster. Inspired by a scene in the film involving a hurricane, Fogerty claims the song is about "the apocalypse, going to be visited upon us"; the song has been recorded by scores of artists. Notable versions include: Jerry Lee Lewis released a version of the song on his 1973 album, The Session. Fogerty and Lewis recorded a version together, released on Lewis's 2010 album, Mean Old Man.
A 1986 version by the Australian band the Reels reached No. 11 on the Australian charts. The song has been used in a number of films, including An American Werewolf in London, My Fellow Americans, Twilight Zone: The Movie, Howling III: The Marsupials, Sweet Home Alabama, My Girl, Man of the House, Operation Avalanche, Mr. Woodcock, The Big Chill, Kong: Skull Island; the song has been used in many television programs, including Supernatural, Cold Case, Northern Exposure, The Following, The Walking Dead, Teen Wolf, Alvin and the Chipmunks, in which it is performed by the title characters. A remixed version of the song can be heard in the video game Crackdown 2 The song was used in the opening scene of video game Mafia 3 The song was available as a playable song for Guitar Hero 5 series of music rhythm video games as downloadable content; the last line of the chorus, "there's a bad moon on the rise", is sometimes misheard as "there's a bathroom on the right". Fogerty sings the misheard lyric in concert.
In 2013, WatchMojo.com ranked the mishearing No. 5 on Top 10 Misheard Lyrics. The song has become notably popular in Argentina as a soccer chant, sung by fans at the stadium to support their teams during soccer matches. Different versions of the lyrics exist for different local teams, political parties. During the 2014 FIFA World Cup, a modified version, titled "Brasil, decime qué se siente" with Spanish lyrics that taunted Brazil, Argentina's traditional rival, became popular in Argentina, it was sung by fans and players alike. After Brazil lost 7–1 in the semi-final against Germany, the song was again adapted; the song has been adapted by fans of Manchester City football club with the title "Argentinian Blues" referencing the six Argentinian players in Manchester City's ranks. Manchester United fans have adapted the song for three chants entitled "Stretford End Arising", "You Think That Your Moustache Is Trendy" and "Ole, Ander Herrera"A West Wing episode is named "Bad Moon Rising". In the episode, the fictional President Jed Barlett first realizes the implications of hiding his MS from the American people.
An electronic remix of the song by SoundCloud user Palestra is featured in the trailer for the 2016 film Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon: Sword of Destiny, the sequel to 2000's Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
John McCusker is a Scottish folk musician, record producer and composer. An accomplished fiddle player, he had a long association as a member of the Battlefield Band beginning in the 1990s and was a band member and producer for folk singer Kate Rusby, he has served as producer and arranger for artists in a range of genres and has several solo albums to his credit. McCusker was born in Bellshill, 15 May 1973 near Glasgow, Scotland, to an Irish mother who encouraged him to learn to play the fiddle beginning at age seven, he became a regular in local youth orchestras and ceilidh bands and formed the band Parcel O'Rogues with some schoolmates when he was 14. A couple of years he gave up a place at the Royal Scottish Academy in Glasgow to go on the road with the Battlefield Band. McCusker spent eleven years as a member of the Battlefield Band. By the time he left he had composed a catalog of songs, had become a regarded traditional musician. McCusker guested on albums with many musicians including Ocean Colour Scene, Paul Weller, Teenage Fanclub, Danny Thompson, Eddi Reader, Tim O'Brien and Linda Thompson.
By he was involved with folk singer Kate Rusby. He joined her band, became her producer and married in August 2001, they divorced in 2006. McCusker has long been recognised for his skill at transcending musical boundaries; as a live and studio guest he has shared stages with Bonnie Raitt, Patti Smith, Steve Earle, Rosanne Cash, Paolo Nutini and Jools Holland, has been featured on recordings by Mark Knopfler, Paul Weller, Teenage Fanclub, Ocean Colour Scene, many more. Film and TV work include soundtracks for the movie Heartlands, Billy Connolly's World Tour of New Zealand and the Jennifer Saunders sitcom Jam & Jerusalem, his most recent solo album, Goodnight Ginger, was released in 2003. McCusker won the Spirit of Scotland award for music in 2001 and the BBC Radio 2 folk musician of the year in 2003. McCusker's expanding portfolio as a producer includes debut albums by Roddy Woomble. He's manned the controls for singers Eddi Reader, Linda Thompson and Eliza Carthy, is at work on the forthcoming solo release from Radiohead drummer Phil Selway.
After a 6-month world tour with Mark Knopfler, McCusker released a new record along with Orcadian singer Kris Drever and Idlewild front man, Roddy Woomble. The album Before the Ruin was released in September 2008, features members of Teenage Fanclub, Michael McGoldrick and Heidi Talbot. In 2007, McCusker was jointly commissioned by the Celtic Connections festival and Cambridge Folk Festival to compose Under One Sky, uniting Scottish and English musicians of different genres, from Gaelic singer Julie Fowlis to ex-Blur guitarist Graham Coxon, he toured to support Under One Sky in the UK in November and December 2008. After bassist Mike McNamara introduced John and Simon Fowler of Ocean Colour Scene to each other, Fowler subsequently presented him with the BBC Radio 2 folk musician of the year award in 2003. McCusker has appeared live on numerous of times with the Birmingham band, in 2012 McCusker appeared on Fowler's'Merrymouth' album, he joined the band on their UK tour In 2014, McCusker once again appeared on Fowlers solo project, now called Merrymouth, brand new album'Wenlock Hill'.
The album features a guest appearance from Chas Hodges from Chas and Dave McCusker now lives in Edinburgh with his wife, Irish folk singer Heidi Talbot. John McCusker Yella Hoose Goodnight Ginger Before the Ruin Under One Sky Hello, Goodbye Kate Rusby and Kathryn Roberts – Kate Rusby & Kathryn Roberts Kate Rusby – Hourglass Kate Rusby – Sleepless Cathie Ryan – Somewhere Along the Road Kate Rusby – Little Lights Kate Rusby – 10 Blazin' Fiddles – The Old Style Kate Rusby – Underneath the Stars Cathie Ryan – The Farthest Wave Kate Rusby – The Girl Who Couldn't Fly Roddy Woomble – My Secret is My Silence Kris Drever – Black Water Eddi Reader – Peacetime Drever, McCusker, Woomble – Before the Ruin Under One Sky – Under One Sky Kris Drever – Mark the Hard Earth Ballad of the Broken Seas – Mark Lanegan & Isobel Campbell Ballads of the Book – Idlewild's "The Weight of Years" This Is What Makes Us – Foxface 22 Dreams – Paul Weller Kill to Get Crimson – Mark Knopfler In Love and Light – Heidi Talbot Hold Your Horses – Ella Edmondson Love is the Way – Eddi Reader Post Electric Blues – Idlewild Get Lucky – Mark Knopfler Bretonne - Nolwenn Leroy Transatlantic Sessions 5 – Merrymouth – Simon Fowler Live – Vertical Records Privateering – Mark Knopfler Suitcase – Jennifer Byrne Wenlock Hill – Merrymouth Tracker – Mark Knopfler The Art of Forgetting – Kyle Carey BBC Radio 2 Folk Awards 2016 - Good Tradition Award Spirit of Scotland Award for Music 2009 BBC Radio 2 Folk Music Awards 2003 – Musician of the Year Spirit of Scotland Award for Music 2000 BBC Radio 2 Folk Music Awards – Musician of the Year 2010 Best Instrumentalist Irelands Music Awards 2009 BBC Radio 2 Folk Music Awards – Musician of the Year 2009 Composer of the Year Scots Trad Music Awards 2007 BBC Radio 2 Folk Music Awards – Musician of the Year 2008 BBC Radio 2 Folk Music Awards – Musician of the Year 2007 official website
Brian McNeill is a Scottish folk multi-instrumentalist, record producer and musical director. He was a founding member of Battlefield Band which combined traditional Celtic melodies and new material. McNeill learnt music on the violin before taking up electric guitar. McNeill now sings and plays a range of instruments including guitar, viola, bouzouki, cittern and hurdy-gurdy, he played fiddle with Battlefield Band from its formation in 1969 until 1990. In the 1990s he toured extensively with the Scottish ensemble Clan Alba and did joint tours with guitarist Tony McManus and with Iain MacKintosh. More he has collaborated and toured with fellow member of Clan Alba, Dick Gaughan; as a novelist he has published The Busker and To Answer the Peacock. He has produced an acclaimed audio-visual show about Scottish emigration to America, The Back o' the North Wind. Apart from his visible contributions, McNeill is influential in Scotland and abroad as a producer, he has many production credits in the UK and North America including "Emigrant and Exile" for Eric Bogle with John Munro and two CDs for fiddler John Taylor.
He is a prolific songwriter. McNeill's accomplished songs feature lyrics based on Scottish historical themes, he continually has celebrated the culture of his fellow Scots, including those who have emigrated to North America, his album"The Back o' the North Wind" features songs about industrialist Andrew Carnegie and the man who initiated the conservation movement in the United States, John Muir. In recent years Brian McNeill has hosted the Saturday Session at the Cambridge Folk Festival, pulling together many interesting ad hoc groupings from bands playing the festival that year. In doing so he has established a festival record for the most consecutive appearances in the program by an artist. Abroad, he is a fixture at the Texas Scottish Festival. 2008 saw Brian McNeill receive the first Fatea Magazine Lifetime Achievement Award, not only, Brian's work as a musician and producer, but his work in education passing on his passion for music to rising stars of the next generation. The Busker, Macdonald, 1989, ISBN 0-356-17943-5 To Answer The Peacock, Black Ace Books, 1999, ISBN 1-872988-32-6 1976 Farewell to Nova Scotia debut studio album 1977 Battlefield Band studio album #02 1978 Wae's me for Prince Charlie studio album #03 1978 At the Front studio album #04 1979 Stand Easy studio album #05 1980 Home Is Where the Van Is studio album #06 1982 The Story So Far 1977-1980 compilation album #1 of the 3 first studios albums released on Topic label 1982 There's a Buzz studio album #07 1984 Anthem for the Common Man studio album #08 1986 Music in Trust Vol 1 Soundtrack album #01 1986 On the Rise studio album #09 1987 After Hours: Forward to Scotland's Past compilation album #2 of the five last previous albums 1987 Celtic Hotel studio album #10 1988 Music in Trust Vol 2 Soundtrack album #02 1989 Home Ground - Live From Scotland live album #1 1998 Live Celtic Folk Music 1978 Monksgate 1985 Unstrung Hero 1985 The Busker and the Devil's Only daughter 1991 The Back O' The North Wind 1994 Horses for Courses 1995 No Gods 1995 Stage By Stage 1999 To Answer the Peacock 2000 Live and Kicking 2009 The Baltic tae Byzantium 2010 The Crew o' the Copenhagen 2015 The Falkirk Music Pot Official websiteTemple Records profile
The bodhrán is an Irish frame drum ranging from 25 to 65 cm in diameter, with most drums measuring 35–45 cm. The sides of the drum are 9–20 cm deep. A goatskin head is tacked to one side; the other side is open-ended for one hand to be placed against the inside of the drum head to control the pitch and timbre. One or two crossbars, sometimes removable, may be inside the frame, but this is rare on modern instruments; some professional modern bodhráns integrate mechanical tuning systems similar to those used on drums found in drum kits. It is with a hex key that the bodhrán skins are tightened or loosened depending on the atmospheric conditions. According to musician Ronan Nolan, former editor of Irish Music magazine, the bodhrán evolved in the mid-19th century from the tambourine, which can be heard on some Irish music recordings dating back to the 1920s and viewed in a pre-Famine painting. However, in remote parts of the south-west, the "poor man's tambourine" – made from farm implements and without the cymbals – was in popular use among mummers, or wren boys.
A large oil painting on canvas by Daniel Maclise depicts a large Halloween house party in which a bodhrán features clearly. That painting, produced c. 1842, shows a flautist accompanied by a tambourine player who, in an Arabic style in contrast to standard bodhrán technique, used his fingers rather than a tipper. It is known that by the early 20th century, home-made frame drums were constructed using willow branches as frames, leather as drumheads, pennies as jingles. In photographs from the 1940s and videos from the 1950s, jingles remained part of the bodhrán construction like a tambourine, yet were played with cipín known in English as "tipper". Seán Ó Riada declared the bodhrán to be the native drum of the Celts as did Paraic McNeela used for winnowing or the dying of wool, with a musical history that predated Christianity, native to southwest Ireland; the Irish word bodhrán, indicating a drum, is first mentioned in a translated English document in the 17th century. It appears in Jacob Pool's list of words from the Baronies of Forth and Bargy in county Wexford, meaning "A drum, tambourine...also a sieve used in winnowing corn".
Third-generation bodhrán maker Caramel Tobin suggests that the name bodhrán means "skin tray". He suggests a link with the Irish word bodhar, among other things, a drum or a dull sound. A new introduction to Irish music, the bodhrán has replaced the role of the tambourine; the bodhrán is one of the most basic of drums and as such it is similar to the frame drums distributed across northern Africa from the Middle East, has cognates in instruments used for Arabic music and the musical traditions of the Mediterranean region. A larger form is found in the Iranian daf, played with the fingers in an upright position, without a stick. Traditional skin drums made by some Native Americans are close in design to the bodhrán as well, it has been suggested that the origin of the instrument may be the skin trays used in Ireland for carrying peat. The Cornish frame drum crowdy-crawn, used for harvesting grain, was known as early as 1880. Peter Kennedy observed a similar instrument in Dorset and Wiltshire in the 1950s, where it was known as a "riddle drum", a riddle being a large sieve for separating soil particles from stones etc.
Dorothea Hast has stated that until the mid-twentieth century the bodhrán was used as a tray for separating chaff, in baking, as a food server, for storing food or tools. She argues, she claims that while the earliest evidence of its use beyond ritual occurs in 1842, its use as a general instrument did not become widespread until the 1960s, when Seán Ó Riada used it. There are no known references to this particular name for a drum prior to the 17th century. Although various drums have been used in Ireland since ancient times, the bodhrán itself did not gain wide recognition as a legitimate musical instrument until the Irish traditional music resurgence in the 1960s in which it became known through the music of Seán Ó Riada and others; the second wave roots revival of Irish Traditional music in the 1960s and 1970s brought virtuoso bodhrán playing to the forefront, when it was further popularized by bands such as Ceoltóirí Chualann and The Chieftains. Growing interest led to internationally available LP recordings, at which time the bodhrán became a globally recognized instrument.
In the 1970s, virtuoso players such as The Boys of the Lough's Robin Morton, The Chieftains' Peadar Mercier, Planxty's Christy Moore, De Dannan's Johnny "Ringo" McDonagh further developed playing techniques. Although most common in Ireland, the bodhrán has gained popularity throughout the Celtic music world in Scotland, Cape Breton, North mainland Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. In Southern England tambourines were a popular accompaniment to traditional dance music. In the South West of England a similar instrument made from the frame of a garden sieve was once popular and known as a Riddle Drum. In Cornish traditional music they are called a crowdy-crawn; the bodhran has a
The term Irish Flute refers to a conical-bore, simple-system wooden flute of the type favoured by classical flautists of the early 19th century, or to a flute of modern manufacture derived from this design. The vast majority of traditional Irish flute players use a simple-system flute. Although it was, is, played in every county in Ireland, the flute has a strong heartland in the mid-western counties of Roscommon and Sligo, with South Fermanagh, East Galway and West Limerick having a reputation, it thrives in the river Shannon delta of Ireland, that is, in the counties adjacent or near to the river, or its lakes. The Irish flute is a simple system, transverse flute which plays a diatonic scale as the tone holes are successively uncovered. Most flutes from the Classical era, some of modern manufacture include metal keys and additional tone holes to achieve partial or complete chromatic tonality. Due to its wooden construction, characteristic embouchure and direct fingering, the simple system flute has a distinctly different timbre from the Western concert flute.
Most Irish flute players tend to strive for a dark and reedy tone in comparison to classical flautists. Though most pitched in the key of D, simple system flutes are available pitched in other keys, are heard in Irish music pitched in E flat, B flat and C. Although referred to as a D flute, this is a non-transposing instrument, so if you finger C, a concert-pitch C is sounded; the name D-flute comes from the fact that the simplest 6-hole wooden flute has D as its lowest note and plays the scale of D without any cross-fingering. The E-flat, B flat and C versions are transposing instruments; the flute has six main finger-holes. For a D flute, with X symbolizing a covered finger-hole and O symbolizing an uncovered finger-hole, all holes covered, can be represented as XXX-XXX = D; as the scale progresses, XXX-XXO = E, XXX-XOO = F#, XXX-OOO = G, XXO-OOO = A, XOO-OOO = B, OOO-OOO = C#, with XXX-XXX or OXX-XXX being the higher octave D for the full D major scale. Wooden flutes have a cylindrical bore in the head and a conical bore in the body.
This bore. This has the effect of shortening the flute for a given pitch. There is some confusion with modern players in that a modern Boehm keyed system flute is pitched in C; this is due to the added keys that allow one to reach low C, yet when one covers just the six main finger-holes on a modern metal Boehm system flute, the note achieved is D. For many technical reasons, a simple system D wooden flute more mirrors a concert C modern Boehm system flute in the pitches achieved in its fingering positions as opposed to a simple system flute pitched in C. Theobald Boehm redesigned the flute to more access the chromatic scale; the Boehm flute has a cylindrical bore and uses keys to enable the tone holes to be in the ideal place and to be of the ideal size. Despite the implication of this used name, the Irish flute is not an instrument indigenous to Ireland; the simple system, conical-bore flute is what people played before the advent of the modern, Boehm system, Western concert flute in the mid-19th century.
Simple-system flutes are made of wood. There were several manufacturers of this type of flute, among whom was English inventor and flautist Charles Nicholson Jr, who developed a radically improved version of the transverse wooden flute. From the latter part of the 19th century, there were two main styles of large-holed flutes made by two London-based companies: Rudall & Rose and Boosey & Co. which produced the Pratten flute devised by Robert Sidney Pratten, a prominent flautist of the 1840s and 1850s. George Rudall was an amateur player of some importance who studied for a time under the junior Nicholson before teaching on his own, he was introduced to John Mitchell Rose in c.1820 and their long association began. The Pratten provides a bigger sound; the Rudall & Rose flutes had a reputation for having a darker, pure tone and thinner than the Pratten style flute, but the firm made flutes of many styles in cocus wood and boxwood. Many of these original flutes had a foot joint that allowed the playing of both C# and C with the use of keys pewter plugs that fit into silver plates.
Some modern makers forgo the addition of these keys, but maintain the longer footjoint with two holes where the keys would be, as it is thought to better emulate the pitching and tone of the 19th century originals. Simple system flutes were not made with traditional folk musicians in mind, but were adapted by amateur flautists as the simple wooden flutes were discarded by concert musicians. Belfast-born flute-maker Samuel Colin Hamilton is of the opinion that military flute and fife bands, which were widespread in Ireland in the 19th century, played a role in familiarising Irish society with the flute as an instrument that could be used in dance music. An upturn in the economic conditions in Ireland from the middle of the 19th century meant that more people were able to acquire instruments. Today, transverse "simple system Irish" flutes are being made for the playing of a variety of traditional musical styles. In the Irish tradition, the material used is most wood, but Delrin, PVC, bamboo is used - though wood is still by far the most popular material.
These modern Irish flutes can vary in the number of added metal keys, or have no keys at all