Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantrys small arms. Early artillery development focused on the ability to breach fortifications, and led to heavy, as technology improved, more mobile field artillery developed for battlefield use. This development continues today, modern self-propelled artillery vehicles are highly mobile weapons of great versatility providing the largest share of an armys total firepower, in its earliest sense, the word artillery referred to any group of soldiers primarily armed with some form of manufactured weapon or armour. In common speech, the artillery is often used to refer to individual devices, along with their accessories and fittings. However, there is no generally recognised generic term for a gun, mortar, and so forth, the United States uses artillery piece, the projectiles fired are typically either shot or shell. Shell is a widely used term for a projectile, which is a component of munitions.
By association, artillery may refer to the arm of service that customarily operates such engines, in the 20th Century technology based target acquisition devices, such as radar, and systems, such as sound ranging and flash spotting, emerged to acquire targets, primarily for artillery. These are usually operated by one or more of the artillery arms, Artillery originated for use against ground targets—against infantry and other artillery. An early specialist development was coastal artillery for use against enemy ships, the early 20th Century saw the development of a new class of artillery for use against aircraft, anti-aircraft guns. Artillery is arguably the most lethal form of land-based armament currently employed, the majority of combat deaths in the Napoleonic Wars, World War I, and World War II were caused by artillery. In 1944, Joseph Stalin said in a speech that artillery was the God of War, although not called as such, machines performing the role recognizable as artillery have been employed in warfare since antiquity.
The first references in the historical tradition begin at Syracuse in 399 BC. From the Middle Ages through most of the era, artillery pieces on land were moved by horse-drawn gun carriages. In the contemporary era, the artillery and crew rely on wheeled or tracked vehicles as transportation, Artillery used by naval forces has changed significantly also, with missiles replacing guns in surface warfare. The engineering designs of the means of delivery have likewise changed significantly over time, in some armies, the weapon of artillery is the projectile, not the equipment that fires it. The process of delivering fire onto the target is called gunnery, the actions involved in operating the piece are collectively called serving the gun by the detachment or gun crew, constituting either direct or indirect artillery fire. The term gunner is used in armed forces for the soldiers and sailors with the primary function of using artillery. The gunners and their guns are usually grouped in teams called either crews or detachments, several such crews and teams with other functions are combined into a unit of artillery, usually called a battery, although sometimes called a company
Battle of Medina de Rioseco
A fresh campaign, conducted by Napoleon himself with the bulk of the Grande Armée, would be needed to redress the situation. Recent French operations in the region had come far short of Napoleons expectations, stung by these and other reverses, Napoleon committed more troops and formulated a new strategy. In July he ordered Bessières to renew his western offensive, of particular concern to Blake was the dilapidated Spanish cavalry, with which a descent into the plains of Castile seemed a sorry prospect. The Galician commander advocated holding and fortifying the rugged terrain of Léon and Galicia, between them the two Spanish generals raised about 25,000 men, many of them dispirited and in poor condition. Cuesta, citing his seniority, claimed supreme command and set his columns marching July 12, for lack of cavalry, advanced blind to French movements, expecting to find Bessières concentrating near Valladolid. Their meagre cavalry detachment stood by the road between the two corps, the French army contained elements of three divisions, decidedly mixed in quality, a reserve division, a division of veterans expedited from France, and Imperial Guard units dispatched from Madrid.
Blake, separated from Cuesta by a gap, faced off against the French with his flanks uncovered. The Imperial artillery, with twenty pieces arrayed on the Monclin Mound opposite Blake, major-General Merle led the attack against Blake on the left, reaching west toward the Spanish flank, while Mouton, on the right, put up a noisy demonstration against Cuesta. Blake reacted promptly to the menace to his position, stretching his line right to ward off encirclement and replying to the devastating French cannonades with his own batteries. Bessières cavalry reserves charged into the gap kept open by Mouton and tore into Blakes right flank, cracking his fragile force, the Imperial Guard horse managed temporarily to blunt the advance, flattening the weaker Spanish cavalry against its own supporting infantry columns. The Spanish foot, continued to gain ground, capturing two guns from the Artillery of the Guard and threatening the entire French position on the ridge. Moutons chasseurs appeared on the Spanish left, and under the pressure the Spanish line and plunged into disorder.
As with Blakes retreat, a rearguard of regular battalions held off the French while the other formations flew north to Medina. While Cuesta and Blake both escaped the battlefield, in all respects the rout was complete, the Army of Galicia, while numerically intact, all. Blake suffered most, losing 13 guns and as many as 3,000 casualties, many veteran Spanish battalions were badly mauled in the fight for the ridge, the Colorados, for instance, were destroyed as a unit. Fearing pursuit, Cuesta channeled his infantry north to Asturias and rode off with a cavalry corps to Salamanca. Following Medina de Rioseco Bessières seized Benavente, León and Zamora, Bessières victory marked a great improvement to the strategic position of the French army in northern Spain, formerly the cause of much anxiety. A delighted Napoleon asserted, if Marshal Bessières has been able to beat the Army of Galicia with few casualties and small effort, a few days later, Duponts entire corps was broken in battle at Bailén and captured by General Castaños
Sir Charles William Chadwick Oman KBE was a British military historian. His reconstructions of medieval battles from the fragmentary and distorted accounts left by chroniclers were pioneering, occasionally his interpretations have been challenged, especially his widely copied thesis that British troops defeated their Napoleonic opponents by firepower alone. Paddy Griffith, among historians, claims that the British infantrys discipline. Oman was born in Muzaffarpur district, the son of a British planter, and was educated at Winchester College and at Oxford University, in 1881 he was elected to a Prize Fellowship at All Souls College, where he remained for the rest of his academic career. He was elected the Chichele Professor of Modern History at Oxford in 1905 and he was elected to the FBA that year, and served as President of the Royal Historical Society, the Numismatic Society and the Royal Archaeological Institute. Omans academic career was interrupted by the First World War, during which he was employed by the governments Press Bureau, Oman was the Conservative Member of Parliament for the University of Oxford constituency from 1919 to 1935, and was knighted in 1920.
He became a fellow of New College in 1936, and received the honorary degrees of DCL. He died at Oxford aged 86 and he was awarded the Medal of the Royal Numismatic Society in 1928. Children Two of Omans children became authors and his daughter Carola was notable for her biographies, especially that of Nelson. I, A. D. 378–1278 A History of the Art of War in the Middle Ages, Vol. II, A. D. 1278–1485 England and the Hundred Years War, 1327–1485 A. D. III of The Oxford Manuals of English History, Charles Oman, ed. Alfred as a Warrior, in Alfred The Great, Alfred Bowker, ed. Reign of George VI, Vol. IV of The Political History of England, William Hunt & Reginald Poole, ed. History of the Peninsular War, Vol. III, Sep.1809 – Dec.1810 A History of England Before the Norman Conquest, I of A History of England in Seven Volumes, Charles Oman, ed. Studies in the Napoleonic Wars History of the Peninsular War, Vol. VII, Oman at Project Gutenberg Works by Charles William Chadwick Oman at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Charles Oman at Internet Archive Works by Charles Oman at LibriVox
First French Empire
The First French Empire, Note 1 was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century. Its name was a misnomer, as France already had colonies overseas and was short lived compared to the Colonial Empire, a series of wars, known collectively as the Napoleonic Wars, extended French influence over much of Western Europe and into Poland. The plot included Bonapartes brother Lucien, serving as speaker of the Council of Five Hundred, Roger Ducos, another Director, on 9 November 1799 and the following day, troops led by Bonaparte seized control. They dispersed the legislative councils, leaving a rump legislature to name Bonaparte, Sieyès, although Sieyès expected to dominate the new regime, the Consulate, he was outmaneuvered by Bonaparte, who drafted the Constitution of the Year VIII and secured his own election as First Consul. He thus became the most powerful person in France, a power that was increased by the Constitution of the Year X, the Battle of Marengo inaugurated the political idea that was to continue its development until Napoleons Moscow campaign.
Napoleon planned only to keep the Duchy of Milan for France, setting aside Austria, the Peace of Amiens, which cost him control of Egypt, was a temporary truce. He gradually extended his authority in Italy by annexing the Piedmont and by acquiring Genoa, Parma and Naples, he laid siege to the Roman state and initiated the Concordat of 1801 to control the material claims of the pope. Napoleon would have ruling elites from a fusion of the new bourgeoisie, on 12 May 1802, the French Tribunat voted unanimously, with exception of Carnot, in favour of the Life Consulship for the leader of France. This action was confirmed by the Corps Législatif, a general plebiscite followed thereafter resulting in 3,653,600 votes aye and 8,272 votes nay. On 2 August 1802, Napoleon Bonaparte was proclaimed Consul for life, pro-revolutionary sentiment swept through Germany aided by the Recess of 1803, which brought Bavaria, Württemberg and Baden to Frances side. The memories of imperial Rome were for a time, after Julius Caesar and Charlemagne.
The Treaty of Pressburg, signed on 26 December 1805, did little other than create a more unified Germany to threaten France. On the other hand, Napoleons creation of the Kingdom of Italy, the occupation of Ancona, to create satellite states, Napoleon installed his relatives as rulers of many European states. The Bonapartes began to marry into old European monarchies, gaining sovereignty over many nations, in addition to the vassal titles, Napoleons closest relatives were granted the title of French Prince and formed the Imperial House of France. Met with opposition, Napoleon would not tolerate any neutral power, Prussia had been offered the territory of Hanover to stay out of the Third Coalition. With the diplomatic situation changing, Napoleon offered Great Britain the province as part of a peace proposal and this, combined with growing tensions in Germany over French hegemony, Prussia responded by forming an alliance with Russia and sending troops into Bavaria on 1 October 1806. In this War of the Fourth Coalition, Napoleon destroyed the armies of Frederick William at Jena-Auerstedt, the Eylau and the Friedland against the Russians finally ruined Frederick the Greats formerly mighty kingdom, obliging Russia and Prussia to make peace with France at Tilsit.
The Treaties of Tilsit ended the war between Russia and the French Empire and began an alliance between the two empires that held power of much of the rest of Europe, the two empires secretly agreed to aid each other in disputes
French Imperial Eagle
The French Imperial Eagle refers to the figure of an eagle on a staff carried into battle as a standard by the Grande Armée of Napoleon I during the Napoleonic Wars. Although they were presented with colours, the regiments of Napoleon I tended to carry at their head the imperial eagle. On 5 December 1804, three days after his coronation, Napoleon distributed aigles based on the Roman aquila of the legions of Rome. Napoleon gave a speech in which he insisted that troops should defend the standards with their lives. This event was depicted in The Distribution of the Eagle Standards, the original design was sculpted by Antoine-Denis Chaudet and copies were cast in the workshop of Pierre-Philippe Thomire, with the first eagles presented on 5 December 1804. It was a sculpture of an eagle on a plinth, with one claw resting on Jupiters spindle. Weighing 1.85 kg, mounted on top of the blue regimental flagpole and they were made from six separately cast pieces designed along Roman lines and, when assembled, measured 310 mm in height and 255 mm in width.
On the base would be the number or, in the case of the guard. Upon Napoleons fall, the monarchy of Louis XVIII of France ordered all eagles to be destroyed. When the former returned to power in 1815 he immediately had more eagles produced. The workmanship was of a quality and the main distinguishing changes had the new models with closed beaks. Although Napoleon won the battle, the Russians were able to retreat in good order, in 1807 at Heilsberg the 55th Line was overthrown by Prussian cavalry and Russian infantry. An eagle was lost and several officers including a colonel were killed, the eagle was captured by NCO Anton Antonov of the Pernov Musketeers. Prussian historians dispute this, claiming that the Prittwitz Hussars captured the eagle, the names of the Prussian soldiers who captured the eagle are unknown and there is little evidence to back up this claim. German artist Knotel painted a picture showing this moment, in 1807, near Eylau, the 18th Line lost its flag and eagle to the Russian St.
Petersburg Dragoons. In 1812 at Krasne, the 18th Line again lost its eagle and was “virtually destroyed” by the Russian Lifeguard Uhlans, as part of the capitulation terms, the French gave up their flags and banners, including three eagles. These eagles were kept in the Cathedral of Seville until they were recovered by the French in 1810, the first French eagle to be captured by the British was taken by the 87th Regiment of Foot from the French 8th Line at the Battle of Barrosa on 5 March 1811. The first British soldier to touch the battle standard was an officer, Ensign Edward Keogh, although as his hand grasped it, he was immediately shot through the heart
El Bruc is a municipality in the comarca of the Anoia in Catalonia, Spain. It is situated on the side of Montserrat, of which the third is within the municipality. A local road connects the village with the main N-II road from Barcelona to Lleida and it was the site of the Battles of the Bruch between France and Spain in 1808. Panareda Clopés, Josep Maria, Rios Calvet, Rabella Vives, guia de Catalunya, Caixa de Catalunya
Second Siege of Gerona
The Second Siege of Gerona was the second unsuccessful French attempt to capture the city of Girona during the Peninsular War, part of the Napoleonic Wars. Girona is located near the present-day Autovía A-7, about halfway between the Franco-Spanish border and Barcelona, Spanish occupation of Girona threatened the French forces lines of communication between Barcelona and Perpignan. An Imperial French corps led by Guillaume Philibert Duhesme attempted to capture the city of Girona and its Spanish garrison, commanded by Richard II ODonovan, a Colonel. The French began regular operations, but withdrew when another Spanish force led by the Conde de Caldagues attacked their lines from the rear. After the Spanish people rebelled against occupation by the First French Empire, the Franco-Italian corps was surrounded by swarms of Catalan miquelets supported by a few Spanish regulars. When the French general received news that a French division under Honoré Charles Reille was coming to his assistance, having failed to storm Girona in June, Duhesme mounted a formal siege operation.
Duhesmes formal siege operations were interrupted by Caldagues attack in mid-August, though the Franco-Italian forces suffered few casualties and his soldiers became discouraged and they ended the siege. While Reille retreated to Figueres without much trouble, Duhesmes men were harassed during their return to Barcelona by the Spanish army, by the time the French forces arrived in Barcelona, they were without artillery and badly demoralized. Meanwhile, Emperor Napoleon I assembled a new corps under Laurent Gouvion Saint-Cyr to relieve Duhesme from his predicament, the next action of the Peninsular War would be the Siege of Roses, from 7 November to 5 December 1808. The Spanish Ulcer, A History of the Peninsular War, Second siege of Gerona,24 July-16 August 1808. Rickard, J. Siege of Barcelona,1 August-17 December 1808
Founded as a Roman city, in the Middle Ages Barcelona became the capital of the County of Barcelona. Barcelona has a cultural heritage and is today an important cultural centre. Particularly renowned are the works of Antoni Gaudí and Lluís Domènech i Montaner. The headquarters of the Union for the Mediterranean is located in Barcelona, the city is known for hosting the 1992 Summer Olympics as well as world-class conferences and expositions and many international sport tournaments. It is a cultural and economic centre in southwestern Europe, 24th in the world. In 2008 it was the fourth most economically powerful city by GDP in the European Union, in 2012 Barcelona had a GDP of $170 billion, it is leading Spain in both employment rate and GDP per capita change. In 2009 the city was ranked Europes third and one of the worlds most successful as a city brand, since 2011 Barcelona has been a leading smart city in Europe. During the Middle Ages, the city was known as Barchinona, Barçalona, Barchelonaa.
Internationally, Barcelonas name is abbreviated to Barça. However, this refers only to FC Barcelona, the football club. The common abbreviated form used by locals is Barna, another common abbreviation is BCN, which is the IATA airport code of the Barcelona-El Prat Airport. The city is referred to as the Ciutat Comtal in Catalan. The origin of the earliest settlement at the site of present-day Barcelona is unclear, the ruins of an early settlement have been excavated in the El Raval neighbourhood, including different tombs and dwellings dating to earlier than 5000 BC. The founding of Barcelona is the subject of two different legends, the first attributes the founding of the city to the mythological Hercules. In about 15 BC, the Romans redrew the town as a castrum centred on the Mons Taber, under the Romans, it was a colony with the surname of Faventia, or, in full, Colonia Faventia Julia Augusta Pia Barcino or Colonia Julia Augusta Faventia Paterna Barcino. It enjoyed immunity from imperial burdens, the city minted its own coins, some from the era of Galba survive.
Some remaining fragments of the Roman walls have incorporated into the cathedral. The cathedral, known as the Basilica La Seu, is said to have founded in 343
War of the Third Coalition
The War of the Third Coalition was a European conflict spanning the years 1803 to 1806. During the war and its client states under Napoleon I, defeated an alliance, from 1803–05, Britain stood under constant threat of a French invasion. The Royal Navy, secured mastery of the seas, the Third Coalition itself came to full fruition in 1804–05 as Napoleons actions in Italy and Germany spurred Austria and Russia into joining Britain against France. Victory at Austerlitz permitted the creation of the Confederation of the Rhine, a collection of German states intended as a buffer zone between France and central Europe. As a direct consequence of events, the Holy Roman Empire ceased to exist when, in 1806, Holy Roman Emperor Francis II abdicated the Imperial throne, emerging as Francis I. These achievements, did not establish a peace on the continent. Austerlitz had driven neither Russia nor Britain, whose armies protected Sicily from a French invasion, Prussian worries about growing French influence in Central Europe sparked the War of the Fourth Coalition in 1806.
Europe had been embroiled in the French Revolutionary Wars since 1792, after five years of war, the French Republic subdued the armies of the First Coalition in 1797. A Second Coalition was formed in 1798, but this too was defeated by 1801, in March 1802, France and Britain agreed to end hostilities under the Treaty of Amiens. For the first time in ten years all of Europe was at peace, many problems persisted between the two sides making implementation of the treaty increasingly difficult. Bonaparte was angry that British troops had not evacuated the island of Malta, the tension only worsened when Bonaparte sent an expeditionary force to re-establish control over Haiti. Prolonged intransigence on these issues led Britain to declare war on France on 18 May 1803, Bonaparte had already revived plans for an invasion of England in March 1803. Bonapartes expeditionary army was destroyed by disease in Haiti, and subsequently swayed the First Consul to abandon his plans to rebuild Frances New World empire, without sufficient revenues from sugar colonies in the Caribbean, the vast territory of Louisiana in North America had little value to him.
Though Spain had not yet completed the transfer of Louisiana to France per the Third Treaty of San Ildefonso, the Louisiana Purchase Treaty was signed on 30 April 1803. Despite issuing orders that the over 60 million francs were to be spent on the construction of five new canals in France, Bonaparte spent the whole amount on his planned invasion of England. The execution of Enghien shocked the aristocrats of Europe, who remembered the bloodletting of the Revolution. The statement is sometimes attributed to French diplomat Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord. Sometimes the quote is given as, It was worse than a crime, pitt scored a significant coup by securing a burgeoning rival as an ally
The wars resulted from the unresolved disputes associated with the French Revolution and the Revolutionary Wars, which had raged on for years before concluding with the Treaty of Amiens in 1802. Napoleon became the First Consul of France in 1799, Emperor five years later, inheriting the political and military struggles of the Revolution, he created a state with stable finances, a strong central bureaucracy, and a well-trained army. The British frequently financed the European coalitions intended to thwart French ambitions, by 1805, they had managed to convince the Austrians and the Russians to wage another war against France. At sea, the Royal Navy destroyed a combined Franco-Spanish fleet at Trafalgar in October 1805, Prussian worries about increasing French power led to the formation of the Fourth Coalition in 1806. France forced the defeated nations of the Fourth Coalition to sign the Treaties of Tilsit in July, although Tilsit signified the high watermark of the French Empire, it did not bring a lasting peace for Europe.
Hoping to extend the Continental System and choke off British trade with the European mainland, Napoleon invaded Iberia, the Spanish and the Portuguese revolted with British support. The Peninsular War lasted six years, featured extensive guerrilla warfare, the Continental System caused recurring diplomatic conflicts between France and its client states, especially Russia. Unwilling to bear the consequences of reduced trade, the Russians routinely violated the Continental System. The French launched an invasion of Russia in the summer of 1812. The resulting campaign witnessed the collapse and retreat of the Grand Army along with the destruction of Russian lands. In 1813, Prussia and Austria joined Russian forces in a Sixth Coalition against France, a lengthy military campaign culminated in a large Allied army defeating Napoleon at the Battle of Leipzig in October 1813. The Allies invaded France and captured Paris in the spring of 1814 and he was exiled to the island of Elba near Rome and the Bourbons were restored to power.
However, Napoleon escaped from Elba in February 1815 and took control of France once again, the Allies responded by forming a Seventh Coalition, which defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in June. The Congress of Vienna, which started in 1814 and concluded in 1815, established the new borders of Europe and laid out the terms, Napoleon seized power in 1799, creating a de facto military dictatorship. The Napoleonic Wars began with the War of the Third Coalition, Kagan argues that Britain was irritated in particular by Napoleons assertion of control over Switzerland. Furthermore, Britons felt insulted when Napoleon stated that their country deserved no voice in European affairs, for its part, Russia decided that the intervention in Switzerland indicated that Napoleon was not looking toward a peaceful resolution of his differences with the other European powers. The British quickly enforced a blockade of France to starve it of resources. Napoleon responded with economic embargoes against Britain, and sought to eliminate Britains Continental allies to break the coalitions arrayed against him, the so-called Continental System formed a league of armed neutrality to disrupt the blockade and enforce free trade with France
Dos de Mayo Uprising
The city had been under the occupation of Napoleons army since 23 March of the same year. King Charles IV had been forced to abdicate in favour of his son Ferdinand VII, the uprising in Madrid, together with the subsequent proclamation as king of Napoleons brother Joseph, provoked resistance across Spain to French rule. Murat was the brother-in-law of Napoleon, and would become king of Naples. Initially the governing council of the city refused the request from Murat, on 2 May a crowd began to gather in front of the Royal Palace in Madrid. Those gathered entered the grounds in an attempt to prevent the removal of Francisco de Paula. Marshal Murat sent a battalion of grenadiers from the Imperial Guard to the palace along with artillery detachments, the latter opened fire on the assembled crowd, and the rebellion began to spread to other parts of the city. What followed was street fighting in different areas of Madrid as the poorly armed population confronted the French troops, Murat had quickly moved the majority of his troops into the city and there was heavy fighting around the Puerta del Sol and the Puerta de Toledo.
Marshal Murat imposed martial law in the city and assumed control of the administration. Little by little the French regained control of the city, the painting by the Spanish artist Goya, The Charge of the Mamelukes, portrays the street fighting that took place. There were Spanish troops stationed in the city, but they remained confined to barracks, the only Spanish troops to disobey orders were from the artillery units at the barracks of Monteleón, who joined the uprising. Two officers of these troops, Luis Daoíz de Torres and Pedro Velarde y Santillán are still commemorated as heroes of the rebellion, both died during the French assault of the barracks, as the rebels were reduced by vastly superior numbers. The repression following the crushing of the rebellion was harsh. Murat created a commission on the evening of 2 May to be presided over by General Grouchy. This commission issued death sentences to all of those captured who were bearing weapons of any kind, in a statement issued that day Murat said, The population of Madrid, led astray, has given itself to revolt and murder.
All those arrested in the uprising, arms in hand, will be shot, all public meetings were prohibited and an order was issued requiring all weapons to be handed in to the authorities. Hundreds of prisoners were executed the following day, a captured in a famous painting by Goya. The name of this declaration was Bando de los alcaldes de Móstoles or bando de la Independencia which translates to Declaration of Independence. While the French occupiers hoped that their rapid suppression of the uprising would demonstrate their control of Spain, in the weeks that followed there were further rebellions in different parts of the country