Batumi is the capital of the Autonomous Republic of Adjara and the second largest city of Georgia, located on the coast of the Black Sea in the country's southwest. It is situated in a Subtropical Zone at the foot of Caucasus. Much of Batumi's economy revolves around tourism and gambling, but the city is an important sea port and includes industries like shipbuilding, food processing and light manufacturing. Since 2010, Batumi has been transformed by the construction of modern high-rise buildings, as well as the restoration of classical 19th-century edifices lining its historic Old Town. Batumi is located on the site of the ancient Greek colony in Colchis called "Bathus" or "Bathys" – derived from. Under Hadrian, it was converted into a fortified Roman port and deserted for the fortress of Petra founded in the time of Justinian I. Garrisoned by the Roman-Byzantine forces, it was formally a possession of the kingdom of Lazica until being occupied by the Arabs, who did not hold it. From 1010, it was governed by the eristavi of the king of Georgia.
In the late 15th century, after the disintegration of the Georgian kingdom, Batumi passed to the princes of Guria, a western Georgian principality under the sovereignty of the kings of Imereti. A curious incident occurred in 1444 when a Burgundian flotilla, after a failed crusade against the Ottoman Empire, penetrated the Black Sea and engaged in piracy along its eastern coastline until the Burgundians under the knight Geoffroy de Thoisy were ambushed while landing to raid Vaty, as Europeans knew Batumi. De Thoisy was released through the mediation of the emperor John IV of Trebizond. In the 15th century in the reign of the prince Kakhaber Gurieli, the Ottoman Turks conquered the town and its district but did not hold them, they returned to it in force a century and inflicted a decisive defeat on the Georgian armies at Sokhoista. Batumi was recaptured by the Georgians several times, first in 1564 by prince Rostom Gurieli, who lost it soon afterwards, again in 1609 by Mamia II Gurieli. In 1614, Batumi again became part of the Ottoman Empire.
In the two-and-a-half centuries of Ottoman rule it grew into a provincial port serving the Empire's hinterlands on the eastern fringes of the Black Sea. After the Turkish conquest Islamisation of the hitherto Christian region began but this was terminated and to a great degree reversed, after the area was re-annexed to Russian Imperial Georgia after the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78, it was the last Black Sea port annexed by Russia during the Russian conquest of that area of the Caucasus. In 1878, Batumi was annexed by the Russian Empire in accordance with the Treaty of San Stefano between Russia and the Ottoman Empire. Occupied by the Russians on August 28, 1878, the town was declared a free port until 1886, it functioned as the center of a special military district until being incorporated in the Government of Kutaisi on June 12, 1883. On June 1, 1903, with the Okrug of Artvin, it was established as the region of Batumi and placed under the direct control of the General Government of Georgia.
The expansion of Batumi began in 1883 with the construction of the Batumi–Tiflis–Baku railway and the finishing of the Baku–Batumi pipeline. Henceforth, Batumi became the chief Russian oil port in the Black Sea; the town population increased doubling within 20 years: from 8,671 inhabitants in 1882 to 12,000 in 1889. By 1902 the population had reached 16,000, with 1,000 working in the refinery for Baron Rothschild's Caspian and Black Sea oil company. In the late 1880s and after, more than 7,400 Doukhobor emigrants sailed for Canada from Batumi, after the government agreed to let them emigrate. Quakers and Tolstoyans aided in collecting funds for the relocation of the religious minority, which had come into conflict with the Imperial government over its refusal to serve in the military and other positions. Canada settled them in Saskatchewan. During 1901, sixteen years prior to the October Revolution, Joseph Stalin, the future leader of the Soviet Union, lived in the city organizing strikes. On March 3, 1918, the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk gave the city back to the Ottoman Empire.
Kemal Atatürk ceded the area to the Bolsheviks of the Soviet Union on the condition that it be granted autonomy, for the sake of the Muslims among Batumi's mixed population. When Georgia gained its independence from the Soviet Union in 1989, Aslan Abashidze was appointed head of Adjara's governing council and subsequently held onto power throughout the unrest of the 1990s. Whilst other regions, such as Abkhazia, attempted to break away from the Georgian state, Adjara remained as an integral part of the Republic's territory. In May 2004, he fled to Russia because of mass protests in Tbilisi sparked by the Rose Revolution. Batumi today is one of the main port cities of Georgia, it has the capacity for 80,000-ton tankers to take materials such as oil that are shipped through Georgia from Central Asia. Additionally, the city exports regional agricultural products. Since 1995 the freight conversion of the port has risen, with an approximate 8 million tons in 2001; the annual revenue from the port is estimated at between $200 million and $300 million.
Since the change of power in
Jal Bin Machhli Nritya Bin Bijli is a 1971 Bollywood romance film directed by V. Shantaram, with Sandhya and Abhijeet as leads, along with Vatsala Deshmukh and Dina Pathak; this was the first Indian film. The film, had mono soundtrack. All songs were mixed by Mangesh Desai at V. Shantaram's Rajkamal Kalamandir studios. Alaknanda lives a wealthy lifestyle with Dr. Verma, she is fond of dancing and singing to such an extent that she refuses to marry the groom her dad has chosen for, runs away to Laitpur, enlists in the song and dance troupe that Rajkumar Kailash runs in his palatial house called "Lalit Mahal". Both Kailash and Alaknanda meet and fall in love, but Kailash's mom wants him to get married to Rajkumari Rupmati; when Alaknanda is performing, she meets with an accident and is hospitalized with a fractured leg that may never heal. Afraid to show her face to Kailash, who still insists on marrying her, she uses her crutches to escape from the hospital, ends up with a gang of bandits, is rescued by Kailash and brought home - where circumstances will again put her on the stage to perform a dance.
The question remains how can a cripple perform a dance? Abhijeet as Rajkumar Kailash Sandhya as Alaknanda'Alka' Verma Vatsala Deshmukh as Bhairavi Iftekhar as Dr. Verma Raja Paranjpe as Chamay'Royal' Roy Birbal as Masseur Vasant Parekh Ravindra Dina Pathak as Rajmata Sushant Ray as Bandit child The music of this movie was composed by Laxmikant–Pyarelal. Jal Bin Machhli Nritya Bin Bijli on IMDb
Septoria lycopersici is a fungal pathogen, most found infecting tomatoes. It causes one of the most destructive diseases of tomatoes and attacks tomatoes during any stage of development. Septoria lycopersici infects the tomato leaves via the stomata and by direct penetration of epidermal cells. Symptoms include circular or angular lesions most found on the older, lower leaves of the plant; the lesions are 2-5mm in diameter and have a greyish center with brown margins. The lesions are distinct characteristics of S. lycopersici and contain pycnidia in the center which aid when trying to identify the pathogen. Pycnidia can be found in the center of the said lesions. Pycnidia are fruiting bodies of the fungus; when the lesions become numerous the leaves turn yellow brown, shriveling up and dropping off the plant altogether. Septoria lycopersici prefers warm and humid conditions. Disease development occurs within a wide range of temperatures however, the optimal temperatures lie between 20 and 25 degrees Celsius.
High humidity and leaf wetness are ideal for disease development. The initial source of inoculum for S. lycopersici results from overwintered resting structures such as mycelium and conidia within pycnidia which can be found on and in infected seed and within infected tomato debris left in the field. Spores spread to healthy tomato leaves by windblown water, splashing rain, mechanical transmission, through the activities of insects such as beetles, tomato worms, aphids. Provided the environment is conducive for disease development, lesions develop within 5 days of infection; the effects of Septoria lycopersici can be reduced through the implementation of a variety of management techniques. First and foremost, each season should begin as pathogen-free as possible; this can be accomplished by burning or destroying all infected plant tissues to prevent the spread of the primary innoculum. Crop rotation is encouraged to avoid the re-infection of new foliage from overwintered inoculum. Improving air circulation around the plants through separation of rows and use of cages can promote faster drying and reduction of splashing, thus reducing the spread of fungal spores.
Drip irrigation and mulching help with the reduction of splashing thus decreasing further inoculum dispersal. Fungicidal sprays should be considered, though they do not cure infected leaves, they protect uninfected leaves from becoming infected. Index Fungorum USDA ARS Fungal Database