The Baul or Bauls are a group of mystic minstrels of mixed elements of Tantra, Sufism and Buddhism, from the Bengal region of the Indian subcontinent, comprising Bangladesh and the Indian states of West Bengal and Assam's Barak Valley. Bauls constitute both a musical tradition. Bauls are a heterogeneous group, with many sects, but their membership consists of Vaishnava Hindus and Sufi Muslims, they can be identified by their distinctive clothes and musical instruments. Lalon Shah is regarded as the most celebrated Baul saint in history. Although Bauls comprise only a small fraction of the Bengali population, their influence on the culture of Bengal is considerable. In 2005, the Baul tradition of Bangladesh was included in the list of Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO; the origin of the word Baul is debated. Some modern scholars, like Shashibhusan Dasgupta have suggested that it may be derived either from Sanskrit word vātula, which means "enlightened, lashed by the wind to the point of losing one's sanity, god's madcap, detached from the world, seeker of truth", or from vyākula, which means "restless, agitated" and both of these derivations are consistent with the modern sense of the word, which denotes the inspired people with an ecstatic eagerness for a spiritual life, where a person can realise his union with the eternal beloved – the Moner Manush.
The origin of Bauls is not known but the word "Baul" has appeared in Bengali texts as old as the 15th century. The word is found in the Chaitanya Bhagavata of Vrindavana Dasa Thakura as well as in the Chaitanya Charitamrita of Krishnadasa Kaviraja; some scholars maintain that it is not clear when the word took its sectarian significance, as opposed to being a synonym for the word madcap, agitated. Bauls are a part of the culture of rural Bengal. Many attempts have been made to ascertain the origin of Bauls but there is wide disagreement among scholars, but they agree that no founders have been acknowledged either by others. Whatever their origin, Baul thought has mixed elements of Tantra, Sufi Islam and Buddhism, they are thought to have been influenced by the Hindu tantric sect of the Kartabhajas, as well as Tantric Vaishnava schools like the Vaishnava-Sahajiya. Some scholars find traces of these thoughts in the ancient practices of yoga as well as the Charyapada, a collection of Buddhist hymns that are the first known example of written Bengali.
The Bauls themselves attribute their lack of historical records to their reluctance to leave traces behind. Dr. Jeanne Openshaw writes that the music of the Bauls appears to have been passed down in oral form until the end of the 19th century, when it was first transcribed by outside observers. There are two classes of Bauls: ascetic Bauls who reject family life and Bauls who live with their families. Ascetic Bauls survive on alms, they move from one akhda to another. Men wear long, white tunics, they carry shoulder bags for alms. They do not rear children, they are treated as jyante mara or dalits. Women dedicated to the service of ascetics, are known as sevadasis "service slaves". A male Baul can have one or more sevadasis; until 1976 the district of Kushtia had 252 ascetic Bauls. In 1982-83 the number rose to 905; those who choose family life live with their spouse and relations in a secluded part of a village. They do not mix with other members of the community. Unlike ascetic Bauls, their rituals are less strict.
In order to become Bauls, they observe certain rituals. Baul music celebrates celestial love, but does this in earthy terms, as in declarations of love by the Baul for his bosh-tomi or lifemate. With such a liberal interpretation of love, it is only natural that Baul devotional music transcends religion and some of the most famous baul composers, such as Lalon, criticised the superficiality of religious divisions: Everyone asks: "Lalan, what's your religion in this world?"Lalan answers: "How does religion look?" I've never laid eyes on it. Some wear malas around their necks, some tasbis, so people say they've got different religions, but do you bear the sign of your religion when you come or when you go? The famous Bengali poet Rabindranath Tagore was influenced and inspired by Bauls. Here is a famous Rabindra Sangeet influenced by Baul theme: amar praner manush achhe pranetai here taye shokol khaneAchhe she noyōn-taray, alōk-dharay, tai na haraye--ogo tai dekhi taye Jethay shethaytaka-i ami je dik-pane The man of my heart dwells inside me.
Everywhere I look, it is he. In my every sight, in the sparkle of light Oh, I can never lose him-- Here and everywhere, Wherever I turn, he is right there! Their religion is based on an expression of the body, an expression of the mind; some of their rituals are kept hidden from outsiders, as they might be thought to be repulsive or hedonistic. Bauls concentrate much of their mystic energies on the four body fluids, on the nine-doors, on prakṛti as "nature" or "primal motive force", on breath sādhana; the music of the Bauls, Baul Sangeet, is a particular type of folk song. Its lyrics carry influences of the Hindu bhakti movements and the suphi, a form of Sufi song exemplified by the songs of Kabir, their music represents a long heritage of preaching mysticism through songs in Bengal, as in the Shahebdhoni or Bolahadi sects. Bauls pour out their feelings in their so
The 2012–13 Hellenic Football League season is the 60th in the history of Hellenic Football League a football competition in England. Premier Division features 17 teams which competed in the division last season, along with three new teams: Highmoor Ibis, promoted from the Hellenic Football League Division One East. Newbury, promoted from the Hellenic Football League Division One East. Marlow, relegated from Southern Football League Division One. From this league, only Binfield, Cheltenham Saracens, Slimbridge, Thame United and Wantage Town have applied for promotion. Division One West features 12 teams which competed in the division last season, along with four new teams: Lambourn Sports, transferred from the Hellenic Football League Division One East. Letcombe, transferred from the Hellenic Football League Division One East. North Leigh Reserves, promoted. Fairford Town, relegated from Hellenic League Premier Division. Division One East features 10 teams which competed in the division last season, along with five new teams: Easington Sports, transferred from the Hellenic Football League Division One West.
Headington Amateurs, transferred from the Hellenic Football League Division One West. AFC Hinksey, promoted from the Oxfordshire Senior Football League Premier Division Bracknell Town, relegated from Hellenic League Premier Division. Henley Town, demoted from Hellenic League Premier Division. Hellenic Football League
The genus Hydrochoerus contains two living and two extinct species of capybaras from South America, the Caribbean island of Grenada, Panama. Capybaras are the largest living rodents in the world; the genus name is derived from the Greek ὕδωρ plus χοίρος. Capybaras are semiaquatic, found in and near lakes, rivers and flooded savanna, their diets are dominated by grasses. Adults weigh up to 65 kg; the gestation period is 130–150 days, with two to eight young born to females. Capybaras are social, living in groups of up to 100 and communicating through a variety of vocalizations. Breeding is polygynous, with males forming harems. Molecular results have suggested Hydrochoerus is most related to Kerodon, the two evolved from within the Caviidae; this led Woods and Kilpatrick to unite the two into the subfamily Hydrochoerinae within the Caviidae. Based on use of a molecular clock approach, Hydrochoerus appears to have diverged from Kerodon in the late Middle Miocene; the extinct North American species recognized as Hydrochoerus holmesi is now assigned to Neochoerus.
Genus Hydrochoerus † Hydrochoerus ballesterensis – Pliocene capybara endemic to Argentina † Hydrochoerus gaylordi – Plio-Pleistocene capybara endemic to the Caribbean island of Grenada Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris – capybara Hydrochoerus isthmius – lesser capybara Presently, capybaras live in northern South America and adjacent southern Central America and in the tropical to subtropical regions of South America. The fossil species inhabited the Caribbean island of Grenada. Fossils of unspecified Hydrochoerus have been found in Late Pleistocene to Holocene sediments of Curití, Santander, at an altitude of 1,500 m in the Eastern Ranges of the Colombian Andes. Fauna found at the same site included the South American tapir, Cryptotis sp. collared peccary, white-lipped peccary, Mazama sp. Hoffstetter, Robert. "Los vertebrados cenozóicos de Colombia: yacimientos, problemas planteados". Universidad Nacional de Colombia: 37–62. Retrieved 2017-04-05. Rowe, D. L.. L.. "Phylogenetic relationships, ecological correlates, molecular evolution within the Cavioidea".
Molecular Biology and Evolution. 19: 263–277. Doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a004080. ISSN 0737-4038. PMID 11861886. Retrieved 2017-04-05. Nowak, Ronald M.. Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th edition. Johns Hopkins University Press. Pp. 1–1936. ISBN 978-0-8018-5789-8